1
Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology
Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology
DATE: 2013/06/26::
2
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 1
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 1
DATE: 2011/08/28::
3
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) | English Pronunciation
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) | English Pronunciation
DATE: 2014/08/25::
4
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Vowels I)
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Vowels I)
DATE: 2012/06/12::
5
Phonics Song 2
Phonics Song 2
DATE: 2009/09/22::
6
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Consonants)
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Consonants)
DATE: 2015/01/28::
7
41 English phonetics - The sounds of English - ESL Spoken English lessons - English conversation
41 English phonetics - The sounds of English - ESL Spoken English lessons - English conversation
DATE: 2013/04/27::
8
‪phonetics دورة شاملة فى علم الصوتيات‬‏   YouTube
‪phonetics دورة شاملة فى علم الصوتيات‬‏ YouTube
DATE: 2011/12/26::
9
Why are Phonetics Important? | Learn English | Vocabulary.
Why are Phonetics Important? | Learn English | Vocabulary.
DATE: 2009/08/09::
10
Phonics Songs | Learn Alphabet, ABC and Phonics Sounds in 20 Min | Phonics for children & Toddlers
Phonics Songs | Learn Alphabet, ABC and Phonics Sounds in 20 Min | Phonics for children & Toddlers
DATE: 2014/06/23::
11
American English Consonants - IPA - Pronunciation - International Phonetic Alphabet
American English Consonants - IPA - Pronunciation - International Phonetic Alphabet
DATE: 2011/07/25::
12
Introduction to Phonetics
Introduction to Phonetics
DATE: 2014/07/18::
13
English  Pronunciation in British accent/ received pronounciation
English Pronunciation in British accent/ received pronounciation
DATE: 2013/11/11::
14
Pronunciation Tutorial 1: English Pronunciation and IPA: Voicing and Place
Pronunciation Tutorial 1: English Pronunciation and IPA: Voicing and Place
DATE: 2012/03/10::
15
v3, pt.1 - What Is Phonetics? :: Vowels
v3, pt.1 - What Is Phonetics? :: Vowels
DATE: 2013/09/10::
16
Interactive Phonetic chart for English Pronunciation
Interactive Phonetic chart for English Pronunciation
DATE: 2011/03/01::
17
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Vowels)
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Vowels)
DATE: 2015/02/04::
18
How to teach reading with phonics - 1/12 - The Alphabet & Letter Sounds - Learn English Phonics!
How to teach reading with phonics - 1/12 - The Alphabet & Letter Sounds - Learn English Phonics!
DATE: 2011/03/20::
19
Phonetics - Overview
Phonetics - Overview
DATE: 2012/05/25::
20
Arabic lesson phonetics
Arabic lesson phonetics
DATE: 2011/08/16::
21
Phonetics vs Phonology
Phonetics vs Phonology
DATE: 2014/09/11::
22
Phonetics are VERY Important | British English Pronunciation | Learn English
Phonetics are VERY Important | British English Pronunciation | Learn English
DATE: 2015/02/19::
23
Part II of Lecture 2: Phonetics
Part II of Lecture 2: Phonetics
DATE: 2013/11/29::
24
Phonetics and Phonology
Phonetics and Phonology
DATE: 2014/05/01::
25
UM5A Phonetics- Consonants
UM5A Phonetics- Consonants
DATE: 2014/05/14::
26
Phonetics - Speech Anatomy
Phonetics - Speech Anatomy
DATE: 2013/08/21::
27
Phonetics - The Auditory System
Phonetics - The Auditory System
DATE: 2013/08/28::
28
phonetics- place of articulation
phonetics- place of articulation
DATE: 2014/09/15::
29
UM5A Phonetics  Vocal organs
UM5A Phonetics Vocal organs
DATE: 2014/04/22::
30
The Vowel Sounds in Received Pronunciation - Phonetics - ESL British English Pronunciation
The Vowel Sounds in Received Pronunciation - Phonetics - ESL British English Pronunciation
DATE: 2011/10/07::
31
Phonetics Exercises: Connected Speech - Glides
Phonetics Exercises: Connected Speech - Glides
DATE: 2014/06/13::
32
Basics of Japanese Phonetics
Basics of Japanese Phonetics
DATE: 2013/07/08::
33
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Consonants)
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Consonants)
DATE: 2012/06/06::
34
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 5
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 5
DATE: 2011/08/31::
35
Phonetics - Suprasegmental Features
Phonetics - Suprasegmental Features
DATE: 2012/06/25::
36
IPA VOWELS
IPA VOWELS
DATE: 2007/02/11::
37
Truth About English: Phonics, Phonetics, Etymology
Truth About English: Phonics, Phonetics, Etymology
DATE: 2014/12/07::
38
Japanese Language lesson( Understanding  Phonetics )
Japanese Language lesson( Understanding Phonetics )
DATE: 2008/07/11::
39
Phonetics (pt. 1)
Phonetics (pt. 1)
DATE: 2014/09/11::
40
Learning English - Lesson Thirty Six  ( Phonetics )
Learning English - Lesson Thirty Six ( Phonetics )
DATE: 2008/09/11::
41
Reading from Phonetics  Video 01
Reading from Phonetics Video 01
DATE: 2012/04/12::
42
American English Vowels - IPA - Pronunciation - International Phonetic Alphabet
American English Vowels - IPA - Pronunciation - International Phonetic Alphabet
DATE: 2011/07/06::
43
[Introduction to Linguistics] Phonetics and Basics of Transcription
[Introduction to Linguistics] Phonetics and Basics of Transcription
DATE: 2015/03/28::
44
Phonetics Tutorial
Phonetics Tutorial
DATE: 2011/01/12::
45
Problem Letters | Learn the Correct Pronunciation of English Alphabet | Phonetics | English Club BD
Problem Letters | Learn the Correct Pronunciation of English Alphabet | Phonetics | English Club BD
DATE: 2014/06/28::
46
Hebrew Vibrational Phonetics 01 - Consonantal Function of the Letters
Hebrew Vibrational Phonetics 01 - Consonantal Function of the Letters
DATE: 2014/07/08::
47
Why Phonetics?
Why Phonetics?
DATE: 2011/08/26::
48
Why are Phonetics important?
Why are Phonetics important?
DATE: 2013/03/30::
49
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 8 - Review 5 to 7
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 8 - Review 5 to 7
DATE: 2011/08/31::
50
Phonetics - Phonation
Phonetics - Phonation
DATE: 2013/08/26::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Phonetics (pronounced /fəˈnɛtɪks/, from the Greek: φωνή, phōnē, 'sound, voice') is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.[1] It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.

The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that focuses on speech. In the case of oral languages there are three basic areas of study:

  • Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker.
  • Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener.
  • Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener.

These areas are inter-connected through the common mechanism of sound, such as wavelength (pitch), amplitude, and harmonics.

History[edit]

Phonetics was studied as early as the 3rd century BC in the Indian subcontinent, with Pāṇini's account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his treatise on Sanskrit. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to Pāṇini's classification.

Modern phonetics begins with attempts—such as those of Joshua Steele (in Prosodia Rationalis, 1779) and Alexander Melville Bell (in Visible Speech, 1867)—to introduce systems of precise notation for speech sounds.[2][3]

The study of phonetics grew quickly in the late 19th century partly due to the invention of phonograph, which allowed the speech signal to be recorded. Phoneticians were able to replay the speech signal several times and apply acoustic filters to the signal. In doing so, one was able to more carefully deduce the acoustic nature of the speech signal.

Using an Edison phonograph, Ludimar Hermann investigated the spectral properties of vowels and consonants. It was in these papers that the term formant was first introduced. Hermann also played vowel recordings made with the Edison phonograph at different speeds in order to test Willis', and Wheatstone's theories of vowel production.

Relation to phonology[edit]

In contrast to phonetics, phonology is the study of how sounds and gestures pattern in and across languages, relating such concerns with other levels and aspects of language. Phonetics deals with the articulatory and acoustic properties of speech sounds, how they are produced, and how they are perceived. As part of this investigation, phoneticians may concern themselves with the physical properties of meaningful sound contrasts or the social meaning encoded in the speech signal (socio-phonetics) (e.g. gender, sexuality, ethnicity, etc.). However, a substantial portion of research in phonetics is not concerned with the meaningful elements in the speech signal.

While it is widely agreed that phonology is grounded in phonetics, phonology is a distinct branch of linguistics, concerned with sounds and gestures as abstract units (e.g., distinctive features, phonemes, mora, syllables, etc.) and their conditioned variation (via, e.g., allophonic rules, constraints, or derivational rules).[4] Phonology relates to phonetics via the set of distinctive features, which map the abstract representations of speech units to articulatory gestures, acoustic signals, and/or perceptual representations.[5][6][7]

Subfields[edit]

Phonetics as a research discipline has three main branches:

Transcription[edit]

Phonetic transcription is a system for transcribing sounds that occur in a language, whether oral or sign. The most widely known system of phonetic transcription, the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), provides a standardized set of symbols for oral phones.[8][9] The standardized nature of the IPA enables its users to transcribe accurately and consistently the phones of different languages, dialects, and idiolects.[8][10][11] The IPA is a useful tool not only for the study of phonetics, but also for language teaching, professional acting, and speech pathology.[10]

Applications[edit]

Applications of phonetics include:

  • Forensic phonetics: the use of phonetics (the science of speech) for forensic (legal) purposes.
  • Speech recognition: the analysis and transcription of recorded speech by a computer system.

Practical phonetic training[edit]

Studying phonetics involves not only learning theoretical material but also undergoing training in the production and perception of speech sounds.[12] The latter is often known as ear-training. Students must learn control of articulatory variables and develop their ability to recognize fine differences between different vowels and consonants.[13][14] As part of the training, they must become expert in using phonetic symbols, usually those of the International Phonetic Alphabet.[15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ O'Grady (2005) p.15
  2. ^ T.V.F. Brogan: English Versification, 1570–1980. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. E394.
  3. ^ Alexander Melville Bell 1819-1905 . University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.
  4. ^ Kingston, John. 2007. The Phonetics-Phonology Interface, in The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology (ed. Paul DeLacy), Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Halle, Morris. 1983. On Distinctive Features and their articulatory implementation, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, p. 91 - 105
  6. ^ Jakobson, Roman, Gunnar Fant, and Morris Halle. 1976. Preliminaries to Speech Analysis: The Distinctive Features and their Correlates, MIT Press.
  7. ^ Hall, T. Allen. 2001. Phonological representations and phonetic implementation of distinctive features, Mouton de Gruyter.
  8. ^ a b O'Grady (2005) p.17
  9. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999) Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press.
  10. ^ a b Ladefoged, Peter (1975) A Course in Phonetics. Orlando: Harcourt Brace. 5th ed. Boston: Thomson/Wadsworth 2006.
  11. ^ Ladefoged, Peter & Ian Maddieson (1996) The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
  12. ^ Jones, Daniel (1948). "The London school of phonetics". Zeitschrift fur Phonetik 11 (3/4): 127-135. (reprinted in W.E.Jones and J. Laver Phonetics in Linguistics, Longman, 1973, pp. 180-6)
  13. ^ J.C.Catford A Practical Introduction to Phonetics (2001), Oxford University Press, 2nd Ed., p. 1, ISBN 978-0199246359
  14. ^ Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh. p. 155
  15. ^ Peter Roach http://www.peterroach.net/practical-phonetic-training.html

References[edit]

  • O'Grady, William et al. (2005). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction (5th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-41936-8. 
  • Stearns, Peter; Adas, Michael; Schwartz, Stuart; Gilbert, Marc Jason (2001). World Civilizations (3rd ed.). New York: Longman. ISBN 9780321044792. 

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2015