Play Video
1
Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology
Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology
::2013/06/26::
Play Video
2
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 1
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 1
::2011/08/28::
Play Video
3
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) | English Pronunciation
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) | English Pronunciation
::2014/08/25::
Play Video
4
Why are Phonetics Important? | Learn English | Vocabulary.
Why are Phonetics Important? | Learn English | Vocabulary.
::2009/08/09::
Play Video
5
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Vowels I)
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Vowels I)
::2012/06/12::
Play Video
6
41 English phonetics - The sounds of English - ESL Spoken English lessons - English conversation
41 English phonetics - The sounds of English - ESL Spoken English lessons - English conversation
::2013/04/27::
Play Video
7
Phonics Song 2
Phonics Song 2
::2009/09/22::
Play Video
8
‪phonetics دورة شاملة فى علم الصوتيات‬‏   YouTube
‪phonetics دورة شاملة فى علم الصوتيات‬‏ YouTube
::2011/12/26::
Play Video
9
American English Consonants - IPA - Pronunciation - International Phonetic Alphabet
American English Consonants - IPA - Pronunciation - International Phonetic Alphabet
::2011/07/25::
Play Video
10
Interactive Phonetic chart for English Pronunciation
Interactive Phonetic chart for English Pronunciation
::2011/03/01::
Play Video
11
Introduction to Phonetics
Introduction to Phonetics
::2014/07/18::
Play Video
12
v3, pt.1 - What Is Phonetics? :: Vowels
v3, pt.1 - What Is Phonetics? :: Vowels
::2013/09/10::
Play Video
13
Phonics Songs | Learn Alphabet, ABC and Phonics Sounds in 20 Min | Phonics for children & Toddlers
Phonics Songs | Learn Alphabet, ABC and Phonics Sounds in 20 Min | Phonics for children & Toddlers
::2014/06/23::
Play Video
14
Pronunciation Tutorial 1: English Pronunciation and IPA: Voicing and Place
Pronunciation Tutorial 1: English Pronunciation and IPA: Voicing and Place
::2012/03/10::
Play Video
15
English  Pronunciation in British accent/ received pronounciation
English Pronunciation in British accent/ received pronounciation
::2013/11/11::
Play Video
16
Phonetics - Speech Anatomy
Phonetics - Speech Anatomy
::2013/08/21::
Play Video
17
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Consonants)
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Consonants)
::2015/01/28::
Play Video
18
Phonetics - Overview
Phonetics - Overview
::2012/05/25::
Play Video
19
The Vowel Sounds in Received Pronunciation - Phonetics - ESL British English Pronunciation
The Vowel Sounds in Received Pronunciation - Phonetics - ESL British English Pronunciation
::2011/10/07::
Play Video
20
How to teach reading with phonics - 1/12 - The Alphabet & Letter Sounds - Learn English Phonics!
How to teach reading with phonics - 1/12 - The Alphabet & Letter Sounds - Learn English Phonics!
::2011/03/20::
Play Video
21
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Consonants)
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Consonants)
::2012/06/06::
Play Video
22
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Vowels II)
Phonetics - Basic Segments of Speech (Vowels II)
::2012/06/13::
Play Video
23
German for Beginners: Lesson 1 - Alphabet and Phonetics
German for Beginners: Lesson 1 - Alphabet and Phonetics
::2014/04/30::
Play Video
24
phonetics- place of articulation
phonetics- place of articulation
::2014/09/15::
Play Video
25
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 6
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 6
::2011/08/31::
Play Video
26
Truth About English: Phonics, Phonetics, Etymology
Truth About English: Phonics, Phonetics, Etymology
::2014/12/07::
Play Video
27
Learn English - Introduction to phonetics
Learn English - Introduction to phonetics
::2008/02/07::
Play Video
28
Phonetics Through Tamil - Part 1
Phonetics Through Tamil - Part 1
::2014/10/29::
Play Video
29
Unit 1 - Phonetics - Cô Hoàng Anh
Unit 1 - Phonetics - Cô Hoàng Anh
::2015/03/09::
Play Video
30
Phonetics and Phonology
Phonetics and Phonology
::2014/05/01::
Play Video
31
Phonetics - Phonation
Phonetics - Phonation
::2013/08/26::
Play Video
32
Learning English - Lesson Thirty Six  ( Phonetics )
Learning English - Lesson Thirty Six ( Phonetics )
::2008/09/11::
Play Video
33
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 8 - Review 5 to 7
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 8 - Review 5 to 7
::2011/08/31::
Play Video
34
Phonetics Exercises: Connected Speech
Phonetics Exercises: Connected Speech
::2014/06/09::
Play Video
35
UM5A Phonetics- Consonants
UM5A Phonetics- Consonants
::2014/05/14::
Play Video
36
Explained: The relationship between phonetics and phonology
Explained: The relationship between phonetics and phonology
::2012/10/31::
Play Video
37
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 7
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 7
::2011/08/31::
Play Video
38
Engish Phonetics Pronunciation Consonants  Sounds.flv
Engish Phonetics Pronunciation Consonants Sounds.flv
::2012/04/26::
Play Video
39
الصوتيات والنظام الصوتي-1-Phonetics & Phonology
الصوتيات والنظام الصوتي-1-Phonetics & Phonology
::2012/09/23::
Play Video
40
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 10
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 10
::2011/09/12::
Play Video
41
Phonetics are VERY Important | British English Pronunciation | Learn English
Phonetics are VERY Important | British English Pronunciation | Learn English
::2015/02/19::
Play Video
42
IPA VOWELS
IPA VOWELS
::2007/02/11::
Play Video
43
Day 2  Spanish Video Journal: Spanish Phonetics - Part 1
Day 2 Spanish Video Journal: Spanish Phonetics - Part 1
::2010/01/04::
Play Video
44
American English Vowels - IPA - Pronunciation - Interntional Phonetic Alphabet
American English Vowels - IPA - Pronunciation - Interntional Phonetic Alphabet
::2011/07/06::
Play Video
45
Free Online Course - Phonetics, Phonology and Transcription
Free Online Course - Phonetics, Phonology and Transcription
::2013/03/21::
Play Video
46
Phonetics - Phonetics vs. Phonology
Phonetics - Phonetics vs. Phonology
::2013/08/29::
Play Video
47
Phonetics - Sound Waves
Phonetics - Sound Waves
::2013/08/27::
Play Video
48
IPA: International Phonetic Alphabet
IPA: International Phonetic Alphabet
::2010/04/06::
Play Video
49
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 4 : Review Lessons 1 to 3
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 4 : Review Lessons 1 to 3
::2011/08/29::
Play Video
50
Phonetics & Phonology: Linguistics
Phonetics & Phonology: Linguistics
::2014/07/17::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Phonetics (pronounced /fəˈnɛtɪks/, from the Greek: φωνή, phōnē, 'sound, voice') is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.[1] It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.

The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that focuses on speech. In the case of oral languages there are three basic areas of study:

  • Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker.
  • Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener.
  • Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener.

These areas are inter-connected through the common mechanism of sound, such as wavelength (pitch), amplitude, and harmonics.

History[edit]

Phonetics was studied as early as the 3rd century BC in the Indian subcontinent, with Pāṇini's account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his treatise on Sanskrit. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to Pāṇini's classification.

Modern phonetics begins with attempts—such as those of Joshua Steele (in Prosodia Rationalis, 1779) and Alexander Melville Bell (in Visible Speech, 1867)—to introduce systems of precise notation for speech sounds.[2][3]

The study of phonetics grew quickly in the late 19th century partly due to the invention of phonograph, which allowed the speech signal to be recorded. Phoneticians were able to replay the speech signal several times and apply acoustic filters to the signal. In doing so, one was able to more carefully deduce the acoustic nature of the speech signal.

Using an Edison phonograph, Ludimar Hermann investigated the spectral properties of vowels and consonants. It was in these papers that the term formant was first introduced. Hermann also played vowel recordings made with the Edison phonograph at different speeds in order to test Willis', and Wheatstone's theories of vowel production.

Relation to phonology[edit]

In contrast to phonetics, phonology is the study of how sounds and gestures pattern in and across languages, relating such concerns with other levels and aspects of language. Phonetics deals with the articulatory and acoustic properties of speech sounds, how they are produced, and how they are perceived. As part of this investigation, phoneticians may concern themselves with the physical properties of meaningful sound contrasts or the social meaning encoded in the speech signal (socio-phonetics) (e.g. gender, sexuality, ethnicity, etc.). However, a substantial portion of research in phonetics is not concerned with the meaningful elements in the speech signal.

While it is widely agreed that phonology is grounded in phonetics, phonology is a distinct branch of linguistics, concerned with sounds and gestures as abstract units (e.g., distinctive features, phonemes, mora, syllables, etc.) and their conditioned variation (via, e.g., allophonic rules, constraints, or derivational rules).[4] Phonology relates to phonetics via the set of distinctive features, which map the abstract representations of speech units to articulatory gestures, acoustic signals, and/or perceptual representations.[5][6][7]

Subfields[edit]

Phonetics as a research discipline has three main branches:

Transcription[edit]

Phonetic transcription is a system for transcribing sounds that occur in a language, whether oral or sign. The most widely known system of phonetic transcription, the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), provides a standardized set of symbols for oral phones.[8][9] The standardized nature of the IPA enables its users to transcribe accurately and consistently the phones of different languages, dialects, and idiolects.[8][10][11] The IPA is a useful tool not only for the study of phonetics, but also for language teaching, professional acting, and speech pathology.[10]

Applications[edit]

Applications of phonetics include:

  • Forensic phonetics: the use of phonetics (the science of speech) for forensic (legal) purposes.
  • Speech recognition: the analysis and transcription of recorded speech by a computer system.

Practical phonetic training[edit]

Studying phonetics involves not only learning theoretical material but also undergoing training in the production and perception of speech sounds.[12] The latter is often known as ear-training. Students must learn control of articulatory variables and develop their ability to recognize fine differences between different vowels and consonants.[13][14] As part of the training, they must become expert in using phonetic symbols, usually those of the International Phonetic Alphabet.[15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ O'Grady (2005) p.15
  2. ^ T.V.F. Brogan: English Versification, 1570–1980. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. E394.
  3. ^ Alexander Melville Bell 1819-1905 . University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.
  4. ^ Kingston, John. 2007. The Phonetics-Phonology Interface, in The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology (ed. Paul DeLacy), Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Halle, Morris. 1983. On Distinctive Features and their articulatory implementation, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, p. 91 - 105
  6. ^ Jakobson, Roman, Gunnar Fant, and Morris Halle. 1976. Preliminaries to Speech Analysis: The Distinctive Features and their Correlates, MIT Press.
  7. ^ Hall, T. Allen. 2001. Phonological representations and phonetic implementation of distinctive features, Mouton de Gruyter.
  8. ^ a b O'Grady (2005) p.17
  9. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999) Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press.
  10. ^ a b Ladefoged, Peter (1975) A Course in Phonetics. Orlando: Harcourt Brace. 5th ed. Boston: Thomson/Wadsworth 2006.
  11. ^ Ladefoged, Peter & Ian Maddieson (1996) The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
  12. ^ Jones, Daniel (1948). "The London school of phonetics". Zeitschrift fur Phonetik 11 (3/4): 127-135. (reprinted in W.E.Jones and J. Laver Phonetics in Linguistics, Longman, 1973, pp. 180-6)
  13. ^ J.C.Catford A Practical Introduction to Phonetics (2001), Oxford University Press, 2nd Ed., p. 1, ISBN 978-0199246359
  14. ^ Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh. p. 155
  15. ^ Peter Roach http://www.peterroach.net/practical-phonetic-training.html

References[edit]

  • O'Grady, William et al. (2005). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction (5th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-41936-8. 
  • Stearns, Peter; Adas, Michael; Schwartz, Stuart; Gilbert, Marc Jason (2001). World Civilizations (3rd ed.). New York: Longman. ISBN 9780321044792. 

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2015