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Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology
Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology
Published: 2013/06/26
Channel: paeselb
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Consonants)
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Consonants)
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: Ubc VISIBLE SPEECH
Introduction to Phonetics
Introduction to Phonetics
Published: 2014/07/18
Channel: English Language Club
[Introduction to Linguistics] Phonetics and Basics of Transcription
[Introduction to Linguistics] Phonetics and Basics of Transcription
Published: 2015/03/29
Channel: TheTrevTutor
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 1
The Phonetics Symbols Course - Lesson 1
Published: 2011/08/28
Channel: VirtuAule English Language System
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) | English Pronunciation
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) | English Pronunciation
Published: 2014/08/26
Channel: Crown Academy of English
English phonetics the sounds of English
English phonetics the sounds of English
Published: 2013/04/27
Channel: O caminho da fluência em inglês
Phonics Song 2
Phonics Song 2
Published: 2009/09/22
Channel: KidsTV123
Phonics Songs | Learn Alphabet, ABC and Phonics Sounds in 20 Min by Hooplakidz
Phonics Songs | Learn Alphabet, ABC and Phonics Sounds in 20 Min by Hooplakidz
Published: 2014/06/23
Channel: HooplaKidz - Official Nursery Rhymes Channel
Interactive Phonetic chart for English Pronunciation
Interactive Phonetic chart for English Pronunciation
Published: 2011/03/01
Channel: English Language Club
Reading English - Best Phonics practice for Kids
Reading English - Best Phonics practice for Kids
Published: 2014/03/19
Channel: How Tuts
English Pronunciation | Vowel Sounds | Improve Your Accent & Speak Clearly
English Pronunciation | Vowel Sounds | Improve Your Accent & Speak Clearly
Published: 2016/06/14
Channel: mmmEnglish
Phonetics & Phonology: Linguistics
Phonetics & Phonology: Linguistics
Published: 2014/07/18
Channel: 4Educ8ion
What is Phonetics
What is Phonetics
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: English Pronunciation Roadmap
learning alphabets for kids | Phonetics for kids
learning alphabets for kids | Phonetics for kids
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: Rainbow Super Kids
English (General American) Pronunciation, Video 1: English (GA) Phonetics and Spelling
English (General American) Pronunciation, Video 1: English (GA) Phonetics and Spelling
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: Fluent Forever – Learn Any Language
Learn Phonetics - International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
Learn Phonetics - International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
Published: 2017/09/26
Channel: English Like A Native
English Phonetics (Symbols and Pronunciation)
English Phonetics (Symbols and Pronunciation)
Published: 2015/06/10
Channel: KelshyTube
American English Consonants - IPA - Pronunciation - International Phonetic Alphabet
American English Consonants - IPA - Pronunciation - International Phonetic Alphabet
Published: 2011/07/25
Channel: Rachel's English
Phonetics (pt. 1)
Phonetics (pt. 1)
Published: 2014/09/11
Channel: Evan Ashworth
كورس شامل يشرح الصوتيات فى اللغة اﻻنجليزية phonetics for english
كورس شامل يشرح الصوتيات فى اللغة اﻻنجليزية phonetics for english
Published: 2016/09/07
Channel: موقع المدرس التعليمى
Intro to Accents 2: Phonetics
Intro to Accents 2: Phonetics
Published: 2014/09/28
Channel: Accent Help
Phonetics two letter words
Phonetics two letter words
Published: 2013/10/25
Channel: TeachNext
Phonetics: how to Speak correctly
Phonetics: how to Speak correctly
Published: 2016/11/25
Channel: nikita rathi
Phonetic Chart Explained
Phonetic Chart Explained
Published: 2014/07/13
Channel: English Language Club
Pronunciation Tutorial 1: English Pronunciation and IPA: Voicing and Place
Pronunciation Tutorial 1: English Pronunciation and IPA: Voicing and Place
Published: 2012/03/10
Channel: Fluent Forever – Learn Any Language
Explained: The relationship between phonetics and phonology
Explained: The relationship between phonetics and phonology
Published: 2012/10/31
Channel: Phloneme
أساسيات الصوتيات في اللغة الانجليزية phonetics
أساسيات الصوتيات في اللغة الانجليزية phonetics
Published: 2016/06/18
Channel: تعلم الإنجليزية مع مستر هابي
REET English - Phonetics Transcription (Hindi) language-2.
REET English - Phonetics Transcription (Hindi) language-2.
Published: 2017/11/09
Channel: wah! kya baat hai educational channel.
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Vowels)
Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Vowels)
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: Ubc VISIBLE SPEECH
The sounds of English - Phonetic Alphabet - English Pronunciation
The sounds of English - Phonetic Alphabet - English Pronunciation
Published: 2014/10/27
Channel: Dr. Can Hoca
Phonetics: Short and Long Vowels
Phonetics: Short and Long Vowels
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: Lott English Academy
An Introduction to Phonetics: The Consonants of the IPA, Part I
An Introduction to Phonetics: The Consonants of the IPA, Part I
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: The Linguistics Channel
IPA VOWELS
IPA VOWELS
Published: 2007/02/11
Channel: ezbreezy
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Saifurs Phonetics with YEASIR SIR 01
Published: 2016/01/19
Channel: Yeasir Ahmed Milan
Phonetics
Phonetics
Published: 2014/06/25
Channel: LAQSHYA Group of Colleges
إعلان كورس النطق - الجزء الاول (1) -  THE PHONETICS COURSE
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Published: 2016/08/12
Channel: Learn English with Ehab
Short Vowel Sounds: IPA / Phonetics - English Pronunciation Class
Short Vowel Sounds: IPA / Phonetics - English Pronunciation Class
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: Learn English with Julia
Phonetics vs Phonology
Phonetics vs Phonology
Published: 2014/09/11
Channel: DS Bigham
Phonetics Exercises: Connected Speech
Phonetics Exercises: Connected Speech
Published: 2014/06/09
Channel: VirtuAule English Language System
Sounds of English Vowels and Consonants (phonetic symbols)
Sounds of English Vowels and Consonants (phonetic symbols)
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: yawhtoi lahtem
British English Pronunciation and the Importance of Phonetics
British English Pronunciation and the Importance of Phonetics
Published: 2015/02/19
Channel: Britlish - Learn British English
REET ENGLISH PHONETICS || REET LEVEL -2 ENGLISH UNIT -4 || PHONETICS  CHAPTER -2  ||
REET ENGLISH PHONETICS || REET LEVEL -2 ENGLISH UNIT -4 || PHONETICS CHAPTER -2 ||
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Knowledge Planet India
Phonetics Through Tamil - Part 1
Phonetics Through Tamil - Part 1
Published: 2014/10/29
Channel: edwinkalvi
British pronunciation, BBC learning English, Standard Southern British English Pronunciation
British pronunciation, BBC learning English, Standard Southern British English Pronunciation
Published: 2016/04/17
Channel: elvis javier mattos villegas
Diphthong Sounds
Diphthong Sounds
Published: 2014/07/26
Channel: English Language Club
Pronunciation Tutorial 3: English Vowels and the International Phonetic Alphabet
Pronunciation Tutorial 3: English Vowels and the International Phonetic Alphabet
Published: 2012/05/06
Channel: Fluent Forever – Learn Any Language
Phonetics Tutorial
Phonetics Tutorial
Published: 2011/01/13
Channel: LaughLikeLilach
The Vowel Sounds in Received Pronunciation - Phonetics - ESL British English Pronunciation
The Vowel Sounds in Received Pronunciation - Phonetics - ESL British English Pronunciation
Published: 2011/10/07
Channel: iswearenglish
Japanese Phonetics #1: Introduction to Japanese Phonetics (Pitch-accent and Pronunciation)
Japanese Phonetics #1: Introduction to Japanese Phonetics (Pitch-accent and Pronunciation)
Published: 2016/09/19
Channel: Dogen
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Phonetics (pronounced /fəˈnɛtɪks/) is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.[1] It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status. Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.

The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that focuses on speech. In the case of oral languages there are three basic areas of study:

These areas are inter-connected through the common mechanism of sound, such as wavelength (pitch), amplitude, and harmonics.

History[edit]

Phonetics was studied by 4th century BCE, and possibly as early as the 6th century BCE, in the Indian subcontinent, with Pāṇini's account of the place and manner of articulation of consonants in his treatise on Sanskrit. The major Indic alphabets today order their consonants according to Pāṇini's classification.

Modern phonetics begins with attempts—such as those of Joshua Steele (in Prosodia Rationalis, 1779) and Alexander Melville Bell (in Visible Speech, 1867)—to introduce systems of precise notation for speech sounds.[3][4]

The study of phonetics grew quickly in the late 19th century partly due to the invention of the phonograph, which allowed the speech signal to be recorded. Phoneticians were able to replay the speech signal several times and apply acoustic filters to the signal. By doing so, they were able to more carefully deduce the acoustic nature of the speech signal.

Using an Edison phonograph, Ludimar Hermann investigated the spectral properties of vowels and consonants. It was in these papers that the term formant was first introduced. Hermann also played vowel recordings made with the Edison phonograph at different speeds in order to test Willis', and Wheatstone's theories of vowel production.

Relation to phonology[edit]

In contrast to phonetics, phonology is the study of how sounds and gestures pattern in and across languages, relating such concerns with other levels and aspects of language. Phonetics deals with the articulatory and acoustic properties of speech sounds, how they are produced, and how they are perceived. As part of this investigation, phoneticians may concern themselves with the physical properties of meaningful sound contrasts or the social meaning encoded in the speech signal (socio-phonetics) (e.g. gender, sexuality, ethnicity, etc.). However, a substantial portion of research in phonetics is not concerned with the meaningful elements in the speech signal.

While it is widely agreed that phonology is grounded in phonetics, phonology is a distinct branch of linguistics, concerned with sounds and gestures as abstract units (e.g., distinctive features, phonemes, morae, syllables, etc.) and their conditioned variation (via, e.g., allophonic rules, constraints, or derivational rules).[5] Phonology relates to phonetics via the set of distinctive features, which map the abstract representations of speech units to articulatory gestures, acoustic signals or perceptual representations.[6][7][8]

Subfields[edit]

Phonetics as a research discipline has three main branches:

Transcription[edit]

Phonetic transcription is a system for transcribing sounds that occur in a language, whether oral or sign. The most widely known system of phonetic transcription, the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), provides a standardized set of symbols for oral phones.[9][10] The standardized nature of the IPA enables its users to transcribe accurately and consistently the phones of different languages, dialects, and idiolects.[9][11][12] The IPA is a useful tool not only for the study of phonetics, but also for language teaching, professional acting, and speech pathology.[11]

Applications[edit]

Applications of phonetics include:

  • Forensic phonetics: the use of phonetics (the science of speech) for forensic (legal) purposes.
  • Speech recognition: the analysis and transcription of recorded speech by a computer system.
  • Speech synthesis: the production of human speech by a computer system.
  • Pronunciation: to learn actual pronunciation of words of various languages.

Practical phonetic training[edit]

Studying phonetics involves not only learning theoretical material but also undergoing training in the production and perception of speech sounds.[13] The latter is often known as ear-training. Students must learn control of articulatory variables and develop their ability to recognize fine differences between different vowels and consonants.[14][15] As part of the training, they must become expert in using phonetic symbols, usually those of the International Phonetic Alphabet.[16]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ O'Grady (2005) p.15
  2. ^ R. L. Trask (1996) A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 34.
  3. ^ T.V.F. Brogan: English Versification, 1570–1980. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981. E394.
  4. ^ Alexander Melville Bell 1819-1905 . University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.
  5. ^ Kingston, John. 2007. The Phonetics-Phonology Interface, in The Cambridge Handbook of Phonology (ed. Paul DeLacy), Cambridge University Press.
  6. ^ Halle, Morris. 1983. On Distinctive Features and their articulatory implementation, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, p. 91 - 105
  7. ^ Jakobson, Roman, Gunnar Fant, and Morris Halle. 1976. Preliminaries to Speech Analysis: The Distinctive Features and their Correlates, MIT Press.
  8. ^ Hall, T. Allen. 2001. Phonological representations and phonetic implementation of distinctive features, Mouton de Gruyter.
  9. ^ a b O'Grady (2005) p.17
  10. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999) Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press.
  11. ^ a b Ladefoged, Peter (1975) A Course in Phonetics. Orlando: Harcourt Brace. 5th ed. Boston: Thomson/Wadsworth 2006.
  12. ^ Ladefoged, Peter & Ian Maddieson (1996) The Sounds of the World’s Languages. Oxford: Blackwell.
  13. ^ Jones, Daniel (1948). "The London school of phonetics". Zeitschrift für Phonetik 11 (3/4): 127-135. (Reprinted in W. E. Jones and J. Laver, Phonetics in Linguistics, Longman, 1973, pp. 180–186.)
  14. ^ J. C. Catford: A Practical Introduction to Phonetics (2001). Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., p. 1. ISBN 0-19-924635-1
  15. ^ Abercrombie, D. (1967). Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh. p. 155
  16. ^ Peter Roach http://www.peterroach.net/practical-phonetic-training.html

References[edit]

  • O'Grady, William; et al. (2005). Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction (5th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's. ISBN 0-312-41936-8. 
  • Stearns, Peter; Adas, Michael; Schwartz, Stuart; Gilbert, Marc Jason (2001). World Civilizations (3rd ed.). New York: Longman. ISBN 0-321-04479-7. 

External links[edit]

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