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1
How to  Make a Print in Photography : Sepia Toning in Photography Prints
How to Make a Print in Photography : Sepia Toning in Photography Prints
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Sepia Toning a Photograph Printed on Fiber-Based Paper
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Sepia Toning a Photograph Printed on Fiber-Based Paper
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Sepia Toning a Photograph Printed on RC Paper
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Sepia Toning a Photograph Printed on RC Paper
::2008/07/12::
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : How Toned Prints Change When Drying
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : How Toned Prints Change When Drying
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : How Sepia Tone Prints Vary With Strength of Solution
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : How Sepia Tone Prints Vary With Strength of Solution
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Analyzing a Bleached Print of a Photograph
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Analyzing a Bleached Print of a Photograph
::2008/07/12::
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Analyzing a Sepia Print  of a Photograph
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Analyzing a Sepia Print of a Photograph
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Drying Coffee-Toned Cyanotype Prints
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Drying Coffee-Toned Cyanotype Prints
::2008/07/12::
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Toning Fiber Prints With Coffee
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Toning Fiber Prints With Coffee
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : How Different Papers React to Print Toning
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : How Different Papers React to Print Toning
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How to Make Cyanotype Prints : Tea Toning Cyanotype Prints
How to Make Cyanotype Prints : Tea Toning Cyanotype Prints
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : How to Beach Select Areas of Photographs
Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : How to Beach Select Areas of Photographs
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Vandyke brown printing (with pigment toning)
Vandyke brown printing (with pigment toning)
::2009/06/19::
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Photoshop CS6 - Photographic Toning and Tints
Photoshop CS6 - Photographic Toning and Tints
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Ep 133 :: Print Toning with Tea and Coffee
Ep 133 :: Print Toning with Tea and Coffee
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FULL COLOR SILKSCREEN PRINTING (CMYK)
FULL COLOR SILKSCREEN PRINTING (CMYK)
::2013/04/19::
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::2010/11/12::
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Split Toning Ep 102: Exploring Photography with Mark Wallace: Adorama Photography TV
Split Toning Ep 102: Exploring Photography with Mark Wallace: Adorama Photography TV
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Hidden Photographic Toning Gradients - Photoshop CS6
Hidden Photographic Toning Gradients - Photoshop CS6
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B&W Darkroom: Selenium Toning
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How to Make Cyanotype Prints : Checking Tea Toned Cyanotype Prints
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Don
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How to Make Cyanotype Prints : Removing Cyanotype Prints from Tea
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Toning Cyanotypes With Coffee
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Chemicals for Sepia Toning Photographs
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Toning Photographs with Sepia Tone & Coffee : Mixing Chemicals for Sepia Toning Photographs
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Darkroom topshit tricks - split toning with sulphide and selenium toner
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Tea toning
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St Pauls Photography - Albumen Printing
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Digital Silver Imaging- REAL Black and White Photographic Printing
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Lesson 38: Making Salt Prints With Digital Negatives
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37. Selenium Toning for Maximum Black -1
37. Selenium Toning for Maximum Black -1
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Learn Lightroom 5 - Part 8: Split Toning (Training Tutorial)
Learn Lightroom 5 - Part 8: Split Toning (Training Tutorial)
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Cyanotype Printing: A 19th Century Process for Today
Cyanotype Printing: A 19th Century Process for Today's Photographer
::2012/08/21::
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Symposium on Print Media, Photography and Art
Symposium on Print Media, Photography and Art
::2013/04/25::
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How to  Make a Print in Photography : Using a Press in Photography Print Making
How to Make a Print in Photography : Using a Press in Photography Print Making
::2008/09/11::
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Aperture Speaks; Split Toning Color Images In Lightroom
Aperture Speaks; Split Toning Color Images In Lightroom
::2013/11/27::
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Foma Sepia Toner
Foma Sepia Toner
::2013/11/24::
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How to  Make a Print in Photography : Making a Test Strip in a Darkroom
How to Make a Print in Photography : Making a Test Strip in a Darkroom
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A sepia-toned photograph taken in England in 1895
Aerial view of downtown Houston circa 1970
A digitally sepia-toned image taken in 2007
A digitally sepia-toned image taken in 2011 of the Reina Sofia Museum in Madrid.

In photography, toning is a method of changing the color of black-and-white photographs. In analog photography, toning is a chemical process carried out on silver-based photographic prints. This darkroom process can not be done with a color photograph. There is debate as to whether a toned black-and-white photograph should be considered to still be black-and-white, as simply being monochromatic is not a sufficient condition for an image to count as black-and-white. The effects of these processes can be emulated with software in digital photography.

History[edit]

Beginning in the 1880s, sepia was produced by adding a pigment, called sepia, made from the Sepia officinalis cuttlefish found in the English channel,[1] to the positive print of a photograph.

Chemical toning[edit]

Most toners work by replacing the metallic silver in the emulsion with a silver compound, such as silver sulfide (Ag2S) in the case of sepia toning. The compound may be more stable than metallic silver and may also have a different color or tone. Different toning processes give different colors to the final print. In some cases, the printer may choose to tone some parts of a print more than others.[2]

Toner also can increase the range of visible shades visible in a print without reducing the contrast. Selenium toning is especially effective in this regard. Some toning processes can improve the chemical stability of the print, increasing its potential longevity. Other toning processes, such as iron and copper toners, can make the print less stable. Many chemical toners are highly toxic. It is extremely important that the chemicals be used in a well ventilated area. Rubber gloves and face protection should be worn when handling them. Some toners contain chemicals that are carcinogenic.

Selenium toning[edit]

Selenium toning is a popular archival toning process, converting metallic silver to silver selenide. In a diluted toning solution, selenium toning gives a red-brown tone, while a strong solution gives a purple-brown tone. The change in color depends upon the chemical make-up of the photographic emulsion being toned. Chloro-bromide papers change dramatically, whilst pure bromide papers change little. Fibre-based papers are more responsive to selenium toning.[3]

Selenium toning may not produce prints quite as stable as sepia or gold toning. Recently, doubts have surfaced as to the effectiveness of selenium toner in ensuring print longevity.[4]

  1. In most applications, selenium toning was not used for its sepia or red tone by fine art photographers. In fact it was used for the opposite of those effects
  2. Agfa Portriga Rapid and Agfa Record Rapid (the highest silver content black and white photographic paper made for the mass market) had a brownish green tone. Depending on strength of selenium tone mixed to water, a three to four minutes tray bath, with continuous circulation, removed the brownish green tone and provided a deep rich black.
  3. Higher concentrations of selenium toning and longer tray baths produced the red to desired effect. 99% of vintage prints in museums, sold at galleries and auction that are selenium toned, are toned, to remove the brownish green tone and provided a deep rich black,
  4. Most reported tests over the years in tech photography publications had selenium toned prints at twice the longevity of untoned prints.

Sepia toning[edit]

See also: Sepia (color)

Sepia toning is a specialized treatment to give a black-and-white photographic print a warmer tone and to enhance its archival qualities. Chemicals are used to convert the metallic silver in the print to a sulfide compound, which is much more resistant to the effects of environmental pollutants such as atmospheric sulfur compounds. Silver sulfide is at least 50% more stable than silver.[5]

There are three types of sepia toner in modern use;

  1. Sodium sulfide toners - the traditional 'rotten egg' toner;
  2. Thiourea (or 'thiocarbamide') toners - these are odorless and the tone can be varied according to the chemical mixture;
  3. Polysulfide or 'direct' toners - these do not require a bleaching stage.

Except for polysulfide toners, sepia toning is done in three stages. First the print is soaked in a potassium ferricyanide bleach to re-convert the metallic silver to silver halide. The print is washed to remove excess potassium ferricyanide then immersed into a bath of toner, which converts the silver halides to silver sulfide.

Incomplete bleaching creates a multi-toned image with sepia highlights and gray mid-tones and shadows. This is called split toning. The untoned silver in the print can be treated with a different toner, such as gold or selenium.[6]

Fred Judge FRPS made extensive use of sepia toning for postcards produced by the British picture postcards manufacturer Judges Postcards.

Metal replacement toning[edit]

Metal replacement toners replace the metallic silver, through a series of chemical reactions, with a ferrocyanide salt of a transition metal. Some metals, such as platinum or gold can protect the image. Others, such as iron (blue toner) or copper (red toner) may reduce the lifetime of the image.[citation needed]

Metal replacement toning with gold alone results in a blue-black tone. It is often combined with a sepia toner to produce a more attractive orange-red tone. The archival Gold Protective Solution (GP-1) formula uses a 1% gold chloride stock solution with sodium or potassium thiocyanate.[7] It is sometimes used to split tone photographs previously toned in selenium for artistic purposes.[8]

Dye toning[edit]

Dye toners replace the metallic silver with a dye. The image will have a reduced lifetime compared with an ordinary silver print.[citation needed]

Digital toning[edit]

Toning can be simulated digitally, either in-camera or in post-processing. The in-camera effect, as well as beginner tutorials given for software like Photoshop or GIMP, use a simple tint. More sophisticated software tends to implement sepia tones using the duotone feature. Simpler photo-editing software usually has an option to sepia-tone an image in one step.

Examples[edit]

The examples below show a digital color photograph, a black-and-white version and a sepia-toned version.

The following are examples of the three types using film:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sepia officinalis, the Common Cuttlefish, thecephalopodpage.org
  2. ^ Peres, Michael R. Focal encyclopedia of photography: digital imaging, theory and applications .... p. Page 686. 
  3. ^ "Selenium Toning". Ilford Photo. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  4. ^ "Silverprint News May 07 - Not Fade Away...". Silverprint Ltd. May 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2010. 
  5. ^ graphic-design.com
  6. ^ "Photographers' Resources: Toning". Xero magazine. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  7. ^ Adams, Ansel: The Print, page 94. Little, Brown, and Company, 1995.
  8. ^ Bailey, Jonathan: "Split-Toning: Processes and Procedures," Camera Arts, February/March 2001.

External links[edit]

Chemical toning (formulas and technique):

Digital "toning":

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