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Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology: Crash Course A&P #1
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology: Crash Course A&P #1
Published: 2015/01/06
Channel: CrashCourse
Intro to Human Physiology by Professor Fink
Intro to Human Physiology by Professor Fink
Published: 2013/01/08
Channel: professorfink
Nephrology - Kidney Physiology Overview
Nephrology - Kidney Physiology Overview
Published: 2013/03/11
Channel: Armando Hasudungan
Anatomy and Physiology of Nervous System Part Brain
Anatomy and Physiology of Nervous System Part Brain
Published: 2015/11/24
Channel: New Anatomy and Physiology Video
How to Study Physiology in Medical School
How to Study Physiology in Medical School
Published: 2012/11/28
Channel: DocOssareh
How To Study Anatomy and Physiology (3 Steps to Straight As)
How To Study Anatomy and Physiology (3 Steps to Straight As)
Published: 2016/01/03
Channel: Nurse Bass
Anatomy and Physiology of Blood
Anatomy and Physiology of Blood
Published: 2015/11/22
Channel: New Anatomy and Physiology Video
Lecture16 Cardiac Physiology
Lecture16 Cardiac Physiology
Published: 2016/07/13
Channel: Physiology for Students
The Science of Stress: From Psychology to Physiology
The Science of Stress: From Psychology to Physiology
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: The Royal Institution
Physiology Basics: the Digestive System, Animation
Physiology Basics: the Digestive System, Animation
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: Alila Medical Media
Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology Preview
Crash Course Anatomy & Physiology Preview
Published: 2014/12/15
Channel: CrashCourse
Anatomy and Physiology of Metabolism Nutrition
Anatomy and Physiology of Metabolism Nutrition
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: New Anatomy and Physiology Video
Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy and Physiology
Published: 2012/03/15
Channel: Bozeman Science
Cardiology - Heart Physiology I (Cardiac Myocyte and Membrane Potential)
Cardiology - Heart Physiology I (Cardiac Myocyte and Membrane Potential)
Published: 2013/03/04
Channel: Armando Hasudungan
Human Physiology - Innate Immune System
Human Physiology - Innate Immune System
Published: 2015/01/11
Channel: Janux
Anatomy and Physiology of Human Body
Anatomy and Physiology of Human Body
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: New Anatomy and Physiology Video
Homeostasis 1, Physiological Principles
Homeostasis 1, Physiological Principles
Published: 2013/01/31
Channel: Dr. John Campbell
Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System
Anatomy and Physiology of Respiratory System
Published: 2015/11/24
Channel: New Anatomy and Physiology Video
EMT 1-4:  Overview of the Human Body and Physiology
EMT 1-4: Overview of the Human Body and Physiology
Published: 2012/07/20
Channel: WCTCEMS
BASIC CONCEPTS OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
BASIC CONCEPTS OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
Published: 2013/11/27
Channel: iimtnew
Pregnancy - physiology
Pregnancy - physiology
Published: 2017/05/10
Channel: Osmosis
Anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system
Anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: Osmosis
Anatomy and Physiology of Muscular System
Anatomy and Physiology of Muscular System
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: New Anatomy and Physiology Video
Physiology of Vomiting
Physiology of Vomiting
Published: 2013/08/19
Channel: Armando Hasudungan
How to study Physiology in Medical School?
How to study Physiology in Medical School?
Published: 2015/12/18
Channel: SurvivingMedicalSchool 101
How to Study for Anatomy and Physiology!
How to Study for Anatomy and Physiology!
Published: 2013/06/17
Channel: EmpoweRN
Anatomy and Physiology of Lymphatic System
Anatomy and Physiology of Lymphatic System
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: New Anatomy and Physiology Video
Understanding Blood Pressure | Human Anatomy and Physiology video 3D animation | elearnin
Understanding Blood Pressure | Human Anatomy and Physiology video 3D animation | elearnin
Published: 2012/11/01
Channel: Elearnin
Breastfeeding - physiology
Breastfeeding - physiology
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: Osmosis
PAIN PHYSIOLOGY by Professor Fink
PAIN PHYSIOLOGY by Professor Fink
Published: 2012/04/03
Channel: professorfink
5 Min Physiology: The Physiology of Fat Loss
5 Min Physiology: The Physiology of Fat Loss
Published: 2016/05/30
Channel: Andy Galpin
Human Physiology - Functional Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
Human Physiology - Functional Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
Published: 2015/01/11
Channel: Janux
Stages of labor - physiology
Stages of labor - physiology
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Osmosis
Digestive System Physiology I
Digestive System Physiology I
Published: 2014/03/15
Channel: rnhoski
CDIS 4037 Inner Ear Physiology
CDIS 4037 Inner Ear Physiology
Published: 2015/10/19
Channel: East Tennessee State University
Human Physiology - Functional Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
Human Physiology - Functional Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
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Channel: Janux
Anatomy and Physiology of Endocrine System
Anatomy and Physiology of Endocrine System
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: New Anatomy and Physiology Video
USMLE Cardiovascular System 5 - Physiology (Function curve, Cardiac Cycle, Heart Sounds, Etc.)
USMLE Cardiovascular System 5 - Physiology (Function curve, Cardiac Cycle, Heart Sounds, Etc.)
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Liver Physiology
Liver Physiology
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Channel: Armando Hasudungan
Anatomy and Physiology Study Tips | How to ACE Anatomy & Physiology
Anatomy and Physiology Study Tips | How to ACE Anatomy & Physiology
Published: 2015/07/17
Channel: RegisteredNurseRN
Physiology of Hemostasis & the Coagulation Cascade
Physiology of Hemostasis & the Coagulation Cascade
Published: 2012/07/09
Channel: Andrew Wolf
RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY by Professor Fink
RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY by Professor Fink
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Channel: professorfink
The Physiology of Tai Chi and QiGong
The Physiology of Tai Chi and QiGong
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: The Tai Chi And Qigong Way
Maternal changes in pregnancy | Reproductive system physiology | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
Maternal changes in pregnancy | Reproductive system physiology | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
Published: 2014/11/25
Channel: khanacademymedicine
Physiology of Insulin and Glucagon
Physiology of Insulin and Glucagon
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Strong Medicine
Sheri Greenawald: "The Physiology of Opera Singers" | Authors at Google
Sheri Greenawald: "The Physiology of Opera Singers" | Authors at Google
Published: 2015/06/09
Channel: Talks at Google
Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System
Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: New Anatomy and Physiology Video
Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology: Anatomy of the Muscle
Level 3 Anatomy and Physiology: Anatomy of the Muscle
Published: 2015/05/29
Channel: Parallel Coaching - Personal Trainer Courses
Human Anatomy & Physiology I Review of Chapters 1,3,4 & 5
Human Anatomy & Physiology I Review of Chapters 1,3,4 & 5
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Anatomy and Physiology Help: Chapter 9 Articulations
Anatomy and Physiology Help: Chapter 9 Articulations
Published: 2011/11/15
Channel: AnatomyGMC
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Oil painting depicting Claude Bernard, the father of modern physiology, with his pupils

Physiology (/ˌfɪziˈɒləi/; from Ancient Greek φύσις (physis), meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία (-logia), meaning 'study of'[1]) is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which works within a living system.[2] A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.[3] Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans), plant physiology, cellular physiology, microbial physiology (microbial metabolism), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology.[3]

Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is its integrated nature with other disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and continuous communication between cells.[4]

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In medicine, a physiologic state is one occurring from normal body function, rather than pathologically, which is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans.[5]

History[edit]

Physiological studies date back to the ancient civilizations of India[6][7] and Egypt alongside anatomical studies, but did not utilize dissection or vivisection.[8]

The study of human physiology as a medical field dates back to at least 420 BC to the time of Hippocrates, also known as the "father of medicine."[9] Hippocrates incorporated his belief system called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance: earth, water, air and fire. Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour: black bile, phlegm, blood and yellow bile, respectively. Hippocrates also noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudis Galenus would later expand on. The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the humoral theory of disease, which also consisted of four primary qualities in life: hot, cold, wet and dry.[10] Claudius Galenus (c. ~130–200 AD), known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body. Unlike Hippocrates though, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body.[11] His modification of this theory better equipped doctors to make more precise diagnoses. Galen also played off of Hippocrates idea that emotions were also tied to the humours, and added the notion of temperaments: sanguine corresponds with blood; phlegmatic is tied to phlegm; yellow bile is connected to choleric; and black bile corresponds with melancholy. Galen also saw the human body consisting of three connected systems: the brain and nerves, which are responsible for thoughts and sensations; the heart and arteries, which give life; and the liver and veins, which can be attributed to nutrition and growth.[11] Galen was also the founder of experimental physiology.[12] And for the next 1,400 years, Galenic physiology was a powerful and influential tool in medicine.[11]

Jean Fernel (1497–1558), a French physician, introduced the term "physiology".[13]

In the 1820s, the French physiologist Henri Milne-Edwards introduced the notion of physiological division of labor, which allowed to "compare and study living things as if they were machines created by the industry of man." Inspired in the work of Adam Smith, Milne-Edwards wrote that the "body of all living beings, whether animal or plant, resembles a factory ... where the organs, comparable to workers, work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual." In more differentiated organisms, the functional labor could be apportioned between different instruments or systems (called by him as appareils).[14]

In 1858, Joseph Lister studied the cause of blood coagulation and inflammation that resulted after previous injuries and surgical wounds. He later discovered and implemented antiseptics in the operating room, and as a result decreases death rate from surgery by a substantial amount.[5][15]

The Physiological Society was founded in London in 1876 as a dining club.[16] The American Physiological Society (APS) is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1887. The Society is, "devoted to fostering education, scientific research, and dissemination of information in the physiological sciences."[17]

In 1891, Ivan Pavlov performed research on "conditional reflexes" that involved dogs' saliva production in response to a plethora of sounds and visual stimuli.[15]

In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. It radically stated that organisms are made up of units called cells. Claude Bernard's (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as "homeostasis" by American physiologist Walter B. Cannon in 1929. By homeostasis, Cannon meant "the maintenance of steady states in the body and the physiological processes through which they are regulated."[18] In other words, the body's ability to regulate its internal environment. It should be noted that, William Beaumont was the first American to utilize the practical application of physiology.

Nineteenth century physiologists such as Michael Foster, Max Verworn, and Alfred Binet, based on Haeckel's ideas, elaborated what came to be called "general physiology", a unified science of life based on the cell actions,[14] later renamed in the twentieth century as cell biology.[19]

In the 20th century, biologists became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology.[20] Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew. Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.[21]

In 1920, August Krogh won the Nobel Prize for discovering how, in capillaries, blood flow is regulated.[15]

In 1954, Andrew Huxley and Hugh Huxley, alongside their research team, discovered the sliding filaments in skeletal muscle, known today as the sliding filament theory.[15]

Women in physiology[edit]

Initially, women were largely excluded from official involvement in any physiological society. The American Physiological Society, for example, was founded in 1887 and included only men in its ranks.[22] In 1902, the American Physiological Society elected Ida Hyde as the first female member of the society.[23] Hyde, a representative of the American Association of University Women and a global advocate for gender equality in education,[24] attempted to promote gender equality in every aspect of science and medicine.

Soon thereafter, in 1913, J.S. Haldane proposed that women be allowed to formally join The Physiological Society, which had been founded in 1876.[citation needed] On 3 July 1915, six women were officially admitted: Florence Buchanan, Winifred Cullis, Ruth C. Skelton, Sarah C. M. Sowton, Constance Leetham Terry, and Enid M. Tribe.[25] The centenary of the election of women was celebrated in 2015 with the publication of a book "Women physiologists: centenary celebrations and beyond for The Physiological Society ISBN 978-0-9933410-0-7.

Prominent women physiologists include:

Subdisciplines[edit]

There are many ways to categorize the subdiscplines of physiology:[34]

Human physiology[edit]

Human physiology seeks to understand the mechanisms that work to keep the human body alive and functioning,[3] through scientific enquiry into the nature of mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. The endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function in animals. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to such interactions within plants as well as animals. The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of ways, both electrical and chemical.[citation needed]

Changes in physiology can impact the mental functions of individuals. Examples of this would be the effects of certain medications or toxic levels of substances.[35][36] Change in behavior as a result of these substances is often used to assess the health of individuals.[37][38]

Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "physiology". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  2. ^ Prosser, C. Ladd (1991). Comparative Animal Physiology, Environmental and Metabolic Animal Physiology (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Liss. pp. 1–12. ISBN 0-471-85767-X. 
  3. ^ a b c Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8. 
  4. ^ Widmaier, Eric P.; Raff, Hershel; Strang, Kevin T. (2016). Vander's Human Physiology The Mechanisms of Body Function. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-1-259-29409-9. 
  5. ^ a b "What is physiology?". Medical News Today. 
  6. ^ D. P. Burma; Maharani Chakravorty. From Physiology and Chemistry to Biochemistry. Pearson Education. p. 8. 
  7. ^ Francis Zimmermann. The Jungle and the Aroma of Meats: An Ecological Theme in Hindu Medicine. Motilal Banarsidass publications. p. 159. 
  8. ^ "Medicine Across Cultures". google.com. 
  9. ^ "Physiology". Science Clarified. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  10. ^ "Early Medicine and Physiology". ship.edu. 
  11. ^ a b c "Galen of Pergamum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  12. ^ Fell, C.; Pearson, F. (November 2007). "Historical Perspectives of Thoracic Anatomy". Thoracic Surgery Clinics. 17 (4): 443–8. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2006.12.001. 
  13. ^ Wilbur Applebaum. Encyclopedia of the Scientific Revolution: From Copernicus to Newton. Routledge. p. 344. 
  14. ^ a b R. M. Brain. The Pulse of Modernism: Physiological Aesthetics in Fin-de-Siècle Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2015. 384 pp., [1].
  15. ^ a b c d "Milestones in Physiology (1822-2013)" (PDF). 1 October 2013. Retrieved 2015-07-25. 
  16. ^ "The Society’s history | Physiological Society". www.physoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  17. ^ "American Physiological Society > About". www.the-aps.org. Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  18. ^ Brown Theodore M.; Fee Elizabeth (October 2002). "Walter Bradford Cannon: Pioneer Physiologist of Human Emotions". American Journal of Public Health. 92 (10): 1594–1595. PMC 1447286Freely accessible. doi:10.2105/ajph.92.10.1594. 
  19. ^ Heilbron, J. L. (2003). The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science, Oxford University Press, p. 649, link.
  20. ^ Feder, ME; Bennett, AF; WW, Burggren; Huey, RB (1987). New directions in ecological physiology. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-34938-3. 
  21. ^ Garland, Jr, Theodore; Carter, P. A. (1994). "Evolutionary physiology" (PDF). Annual Review of Physiology. 56 (1): 579–621. PMID 8010752. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.56.030194.003051. 
  22. ^ "American Physiological Society > Founders". www.the-aps.org. The American Physiological Society. 
  23. ^ Tucker, GS (December 1981). "Ida Henrietta Hyde: the first woman member of the society" (PDF). The Physiologist. 24 (6): 1–9. PMID 7043502. open access publication – free to read
  24. ^ "Ida Henrietta Hyde". jwa.org. 
  25. ^ "Women in Physiology". physoc.org. 
  26. ^ "Carl Cori and Gerty Cori". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  27. ^ "Cori cycle". TheFreeDictionary.com. 
  28. ^ "Facts on the Nobel Prizes in Physiology and Medicine". nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 2016-09-23. 
  29. ^ "Gertrude B. Elion". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  30. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". nobelprize.org. 
  31. ^ "Francoise Barre-Sinoussi - biography - French virologist". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  32. ^ "Elizabeth H. Blackburn". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  33. ^ "Carol W. Greider". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  34. ^ Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008.
  35. ^ van der Linden, S. (2013). "A Response to Dolan. In A. Oliver (Ed.)" (PDF). pp. 209–2015. Retrieved April 15, 2017. 
  36. ^ "Mental disorders". World Health Organization. WHO. Retrieved 15 April 2017. 
  37. ^ "Eszopiclone" (PDF). F.A. Davis. 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017. 
  38. ^ "Zolpidem" (PDF). F.A. Davis. Retrieved April 15, 2017. 
  39. ^ Bergman, Esther M; de Bruin, Anique BH; Herrler, Andreas; Verheijen, Inge WH; Scherpbier, Albert JJA; van der Vleuten, Cees PM (19 November 2013). "Students’ perceptions of anatomy across the undergraduate problem-based learning medical curriculum: a phenomenographical study". US National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health. PMC 4225514Freely accessible. doi:10.1186/1472-6920-13-152. Together with physiology and biochemistry, anatomy is one of the basic sciences that are to be taught in the medical curriculum. 

External links[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Human physiology

  • Widmaier, E.P., Raff, H., Strang, K.T. Vander's Human Physiology. 11th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2009.
  • Marieb, E.N. Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 10th Edition, Benjamin Cummings, 2012.

Animal physiology

  • Hill, R.W., Wyse, G.A., Anderson, M. Animal Physiology, 3rd ed. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, 2012.
  • Moyes, C.D., Schulte, P.M. Principles of Animal Physiology, second edition. Pearson/Benjamin Cummings. Boston, MA, 2008.
  • Randall, D., Burggren, W., and French, K. Eckert Animal Physiology: Mechanism and Adaptation, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, 2002.
  • Schmidt-Nielsen, K. Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Withers, P.C. Comparative animal physiology. Saunders College Publishing, New York, 1992.

Plant physiology

  • Larcher, W. Physiological plant ecology (4th ed.). Springer, 2001.
  • Salisbury, F.B, Ross, C.W. Plant physiology. Brooks/Cole Pub Co., 1992
  • Taiz, L., Zieger, E. Plant Physiology (5th ed.), Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer, 2010.

Fungal physiology

  • Griffin, D.H. Fungal Physiology, Second Edition. Wiley-Liss, New York, 1994.

Protistan physiology

  • Levandowsky, M. Physiological Adaptations of Protists. In: Cell physiology sourcebook: essentials of membrane biophysics. Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier/AP, 2012.
  • Levandowski, M., Hutner, S.H. (eds). Biochemistry and physiology of protozoa. Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Academic Press: New York, NY, 1979; 2nd ed.
  • Laybourn-Parry J. A Functional Biology of Free-Living Protozoa. Berkeley, California: University of California Press; 1984.

Algal physiology

  • Lobban, C.S., Harrison, P.J. Seaweed ecology and physiology. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  • Stewart, W. D. P. (ed.). Algal Physiology and Biochemistry. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1974.

Bacterial physiology

  • El-Sharoud, W. (ed.). Bacterial Physiology: A Molecular Approach. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2008.
  • Kim, B.H., Gadd, M.G. Bacterial Physiology and Metabolism. Cambridge, 2008.
  • Moat, A.G., Foster, J.W., Spector, M.P. Microbial Physiology, 4th ed. Wiley-Liss, Inc. New York, NY, 2002.

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