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The Sheik of Araby - Zez Confrey Piano Roll
The Sheik of Araby - Zez Confrey Piano Roll
::2012/03/07::
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2
Singin
Singin' In The Rain Original 1929 version Player Piano Roll 2012 01 19 21 25 09
::2012/01/19::
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Player piano roll "Yes We Have No Bananas"
Player piano roll "Yes We Have No Bananas"
::2010/06/09::
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Piano roll production at QRS Music
Piano roll production at QRS Music
::2007/03/18::
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Dj ibrahim çelik piano roll 2013
Dj ibrahim çelik piano roll 2013
::2013/03/24::
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FL Studio Basics 5: The Piano Roll
FL Studio Basics 5: The Piano Roll
::2013/08/31::
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"Dixie"  player piano roll
"Dixie" player piano roll
::2010/06/07::
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Alexanders Ragtime Band -player piano roll
Alexanders Ragtime Band -player piano roll
::2010/09/16::
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Видеоурок #5 "Создаем партию инструмента в Piano Roll"
Видеоурок #5 "Создаем партию инструмента в Piano Roll"
::2011/04/15::
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Logic Pro X - Video Tutorial 27 - MIDI Piano Roll Editor, part 1
Logic Pro X - Video Tutorial 27 - MIDI Piano Roll Editor, part 1
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Player Piano Rolls - How its Made
Player Piano Rolls - How its Made
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El cristal del Piano Roll y atajos de teclado
El cristal del Piano Roll y atajos de teclado
::2012/07/01::
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Boogie Woogie - Piano roll QRS #7882
Boogie Woogie - Piano roll QRS #7882
::2010/10/28::
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61-KEY FLEXIBLE ROLL-UP SOFTKEY MIDI KEYBOARD PIANO (Heart and Soul)
61-KEY FLEXIBLE ROLL-UP SOFTKEY MIDI KEYBOARD PIANO (Heart and Soul)
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Swanee US Piano Roll Original 1919 Version Player Piano Roll
Swanee US Piano Roll Original 1919 Version Player Piano Roll
::2010/03/04::
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16
Ableton Live 9 Piano Roll Tutorial
Ableton Live 9 Piano Roll Tutorial
::2014/05/11::
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Logic Pro tutorials (4) Piano-Roll (1/16)
Logic Pro tutorials (4) Piano-Roll (1/16)
::2011/08/19::
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Ravel "Pavane pour une infante défunte" 1922 piano roll
Ravel "Pavane pour une infante défunte" 1922 piano roll
::2013/10/07::
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Top 5 tips to master Logics Piano Roll
Top 5 tips to master Logics Piano Roll
::2014/11/27::
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Floyd Cramer - The Old Piano Roll Blues
Floyd Cramer - The Old Piano Roll Blues
::2007/06/25::
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21
SONAR X2: Get Started - Piano Roll
SONAR X2: Get Started - Piano Roll
::2013/01/17::
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FL Studio 10 How To Copy Paste Notes In The Piano Roll
FL Studio 10 How To Copy Paste Notes In The Piano Roll
::2012/05/08::
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Charleston - Piano roll QRS #8691
Charleston - Piano roll QRS #8691
::2011/01/15::
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Universal Piano Roll - Tuneful Broadway - Ragtime Overtures
Universal Piano Roll - Tuneful Broadway - Ragtime Overtures
::2010/12/28::
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FL Studio 11 Tutorials For Beginners #3 | Tools in Piano Roll
FL Studio 11 Tutorials For Beginners #3 | Tools in Piano Roll
::2013/06/05::
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fl studio shortcuts to quickly copy patterns in the piano roll
fl studio shortcuts to quickly copy patterns in the piano roll
::2012/11/12::
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27
Tutorials For Reaper | Basic MIDI | Midi Items | Piano Roll | Loop and Copy | Time Selection Loop
Tutorials For Reaper | Basic MIDI | Midi Items | Piano Roll | Loop and Copy | Time Selection Loop
::2011/07/05::
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Ableton Live 9 - The MIDI Files [+ Piano Roll Tutorial]
Ableton Live 9 - The MIDI Files [+ Piano Roll Tutorial]
::2013/05/28::
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29
Making electronic music using piano roll in garageband
Making electronic music using piano roll in garageband
::2013/08/13::
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30
FL STUDIO: 15 Trików w Piano Roll
FL STUDIO: 15 Trików w Piano Roll
::2013/10/02::
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FL Studio 10 Piano Roll Tutorial
FL Studio 10 Piano Roll Tutorial
::2011/06/08::
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32
Composing with Presonus Studio One 2 using the piano roll
Composing with Presonus Studio One 2 using the piano roll
::2011/11/08::
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Converting loops to Piano roll notes in FL Studio
Converting loops to Piano roll notes in FL Studio
::2012/09/05::
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FL Studio Tutorials - Pitching Samples In The Piano Roll
FL Studio Tutorials - Pitching Samples In The Piano Roll
::2011/10/30::
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Reaper для начинающих. Piano roll (часть 5)
Reaper для начинающих. Piano roll (часть 5)
::2011/09/14::
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"The old piano roll blues"  on player piano
"The old piano roll blues" on player piano
::2010/06/28::
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PIANO ROLL PART 1 - FL Studio Tutorial [german / english subtitle]
PIANO ROLL PART 1 - FL Studio Tutorial [german / english subtitle]
::2011/08/05::
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Garageband Drums Lesson / Midi and piano roll editor.
Garageband Drums Lesson / Midi and piano roll editor.
::2014/03/11::
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Capitol Player Piano Roll Nola - Felix Arndt
Capitol Player Piano Roll Nola - Felix Arndt
::2010/02/26::
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Logic Pro X Piano Roll Draw Instruments
Logic Pro X Piano Roll Draw Instruments
::2013/08/08::
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Tutorial 12 - Fl Studio. Importar melodias completas al Piano Roll
Tutorial 12 - Fl Studio. Importar melodias completas al Piano Roll
::2011/09/09::
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42
American Patrol - Piano roll QRS #1354
American Patrol - Piano roll QRS #1354
::2010/09/29::
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43
Piano Roll in Ableton Live [How To]
Piano Roll in Ableton Live [How To]
::2014/01/15::
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44
FL Studio - Edison WAV data to Piano Roll Notes
FL Studio - Edison WAV data to Piano Roll Notes
::2009/09/18::
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45
Tutorial 13 - Fl Studio. Piano Roll, Funciones principales
Tutorial 13 - Fl Studio. Piano Roll, Funciones principales
::2011/09/10::
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46
FL Studio Tutorial - 9 - Piano Roll
FL Studio Tutorial - 9 - Piano Roll
::2013/07/31::
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47
FL Studio Piano Roll Tutorial [HD]
FL Studio Piano Roll Tutorial [HD]
::2009/03/22::
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48
How to use FL studio 11 : "The Piano roll"  | makemusicfree
How to use FL studio 11 : "The Piano roll" | makemusicfree
::2013/04/14::
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49
Liberace Piano Roll Blues
Liberace Piano Roll Blues
::2013/03/26::
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50
FL STUDIO AWESOME TRICKS -  Piano Roll
FL STUDIO AWESOME TRICKS - Piano Roll
::2014/01/07::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A stack of piano rolls, some in boxes, some not.
First part of a piano roll for Welte-Mignon with lines for a pianolist

A piano roll is a music storage medium used to operate a player piano, piano player or reproducing piano. A piano roll is a continuous roll of paper with perforations (holes) punched into it. The perforations represent note control data. The roll moves over a reading system known as a 'tracker bar' and the playing cycle for each musical note is triggered when a perforation crosses the bar and is read.

The majority of piano rolls play on three distinct musical scales. The 65-note (with a playing range of A-1 to C#7) format was introduced in 1896 in the USA specifically for piano music. In 1900 a USA format playing all 88-notes of the standard piano scale was introduced. In 1902 a German 72-note scale (F-1, G-1 to E7) was introduced. All of these scales were subject to being operated by piano rolls of varying dimensions. The 1909 Buffalo Convention of US manufacturers standardized the US industry to the 88-note scale and fixed the physical dimensions for that scale.

Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from around 1896 to 2008,[1][2] and are still available today, with QRS Music claiming to have 45,000 titles available with "new titles being added on a regular basis".[3] Largely replacing piano rolls, which are no longer mass-produced today, MIDI files represent a modern way in which musical performance data can be stored. MIDI files accomplish digitally and electronically what piano rolls do mechanically. Software for editing a performance stored as MIDI data often has a feature to show the music in a piano roll representation.

The first paper rolls were used commercially by Welte & Sons in their Orchestrions beginning in 1883.[4]

A rollography is a listing of piano rolls, especially made by a single performer, analogous to a discography.[5]

Metronomic, hand played, and reproducing rolls[edit]

Metronomic or arranged rolls are rolls produced by positioning the music slots without real-time input. The music, when played back, is typically purely metronomical. Metronomically arranged music rolls are deliberately left metronomic so as to enable a player-pianist to create their own musical performance via the hand controls that are a feature of all player pianos.

Hand played rolls are created by capturing in real-time the hand-played performance of one or more pianists upon a piano connected to a recording machine. The production roll reproduced the real-time performance of the original recording whilst played back at a constant speed. It is industry convention for recordings of music intended to be used for dancing to be regularized into strict tempo despite the original performance having the slight tempo fluctuations of all human performances.

Reproducing rolls are the same as hand-played rolls but have additional control codes to operate the dynamic modifying systems specific to whichever brand of reproducing piano it is designed to be played back on. The roll plays back at a fixed constant speed to preserve the inter-relationship of these control codes and the time it takes for the pianos dynamic mechanisms to operate between sequential control codes.

Compositions for pianola and reproducing piano[edit]

The player piano gives the opportunity to create music that is impossible for humans to play, or, more correctly, music that was not conceived in terms of performance by hand. Over one hundred composers wrote music specially for the player piano during the course of the 20th century. Many mainstream composers experimented with its possibilities, including Igor Stravinsky, Alfredo Casella, and Paul Hindemith; others, including Conlon Nancarrow, made it their primary milieu.

The Duo-Art, Ampico, and Welte-Mignon brands were known as "reproducing" piano rolls, as they could accurately reproduce the touch and dynamics of the artist as well as the notes struck, when played back on capable pianos.

Reproducing pianos[edit]

Tracker bar of a Welte-Mignon

Rolls for the reproducing piano were generally made from the recorded performances of famous musicians. Typically, a pianist would sit at a specially designed recording piano, and the pitch and duration of any notes played would be either marked or perforated on a blank roll, together with the duration of the sustaining and soft pedal.

Reproducing pianos can also re-create the dynamics of a pianist's performance by means of specially encoded control perforations placed towards the edges of a music roll, but this coding was never recorded automatically. Different companies had different ways of notating dynamics, some technically advanced (though not necessarily more effective), some secret, and some dependent entirely on a recording producer's handwritten notes, but in all cases these dynamic hieroglyphics had to be skillfully converted into the specialized perforated codes needed by the different types of instrument.

Recorded rolls play at a specific, marked speed, where for example, 70 signifies 7 feet of paper travel in one minute, at the start of the roll. On all pneumatic player pianos, the paper is pulled on to a take-up spool, and as more paper winds on, so the effective diameter of the spool increases, and with it the paper speed. Player piano engineers were well aware of this, as can be seen from many patents of the time, but since reproducing piano recordings were generally made with a similar take-up spool drive, the tempo of the recorded performance is faithfully reproduced, despite the gradually increasing paper speed.

The playing of many pianists and composers is preserved on reproducing piano roll. Gustav Mahler, Edvard Grieg, Teresa Carreño, Claude Debussy, Scott Joplin, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Prokofiev, Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin, Jelly Roll Morton and George Gershwin are amongst the composers and pianists who have had their performances recorded in this way.

Duo-Art featured artists such as Ignace Jan Paderewski, George Gershwin, Maurice Ravel, Teresa Carreño, Percy Grainger, Leopold Godowsky and Ferruccio Busoni. The Ampico brand's featured artists included Sergei Rachmaninoff, Leo Ornstein, Mischa Levitzki, Winifred MacBride, and Marguerite Volavy. For Welte-Mignon, the first reproducing system, there played artists such as Gustav Mahler, Claude Debussy, Alexander Scriabin, Enrique Granados, Eugen d'Albert, Josef Lhevinne, Raoul Pugno, and Carl Reinecke (who was the earliest-born pianist to record in any media format).

There were hundreds of companies worldwide producing rolls during the peak period of their popularity (1900–1927). Some other non-reproducing rolls makers of live performances are listed below together with their most memorable recording artistes.

In digital audio workstations[edit]

In most of the modern digital audio workstation software, the term "piano roll" is used to refer to a graphical display of and means of editing MIDI note data, as well as entering the pitch, length and velocity of notes manually instead of recording the output of a keyboard or other device for entering note data. Usually a means of manually editing other aspects of the MIDI data, such as pitch bend or modulation, is also present, although not strictly part of the piano roll itself.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Elaine Obenchain: The complete catalog of Ampico Reproducing Piano rolls. New York: American Piano Co., ca.. 1977. ISBN 0-9601172-1-0; (out of print).
  • Charles Davis Smith: Duo-Art piano music: a complete classified catalog of music recorded for the Duo-Art reproducing piano compiled and annotated by Charles Davis Smith. Monrovia, California, ca. 1987; (out of print).
  • Charles David Smith and Richard James Howe: The Welte-Mignon, its music and musicians; complete catalogue of Welte-Mignon reproducing piano recordings 1905–1932, historical overview of companies and individuals, biographical essays on the recording artists and composers. Vestal, NY: Vestal Press, 1994. ISBN 1-879511-17-7; (out of print).
  • Gerhard Dangel und Hans-W. Schmitz: Welte-Mignon-Reproduktionen / Welte-Mignon Reproductions. Gesamtkatalog der Aufnahmen für das Welte-Mignon Reproduktions-Piano 1905-1932 / Complete Library Of Recordings For The Welte-Mignon Reproducing Piano 1905-1932. Stuttgart 2006. ISBN 3-00-017110-X
  • Barbara Bryner: The piano roll: a valuable recording medium of the twentieth century. Dept. of Music, University of Utah, 2002. OCLC 50482085

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ www.pianola.org
  2. ^ The day the music died. Buffalo News, August 20, 2010. From Webarchive
  3. ^ "Music". QRS Music. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  4. ^ US-Patent 287.599, Emil Welte, New York, 30. October 1883
  5. ^ . "Rollography", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (accessed January 13 2014), grovemusic.com (subscription access).

External links[edit]

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