1
Piano roll production at QRS Music
Piano roll production at QRS Music
DATE: 2007/03/18::
2
Singin
Singin' In The Rain Original 1929 version Player Piano Roll 2012 01 19 21 25 09
DATE: 2012/01/19::
3
"Dixie"  player piano roll
"Dixie" player piano roll
DATE: 2010/06/07::
4
Player piano roll "Yes We Have No Bananas"
Player piano roll "Yes We Have No Bananas"
DATE: 2010/06/09::
5
Dj ibrahim çelik piano roll 2013
Dj ibrahim çelik piano roll 2013
DATE: 2013/03/24::
6
FL Studio Basics 5: The Piano Roll
FL Studio Basics 5: The Piano Roll
DATE: 2013/08/31::
7
It Had To Be You -  Player Piano roll
It Had To Be You - Player Piano roll
DATE: 2013/09/27::
8
FL Studio 12 Basics 3: The Piano Roll
FL Studio 12 Basics 3: The Piano Roll
DATE: 2015/05/05::
9
Theme to Animaniacs player piano roll
Theme to Animaniacs player piano roll
DATE: 2011/07/23::
10
Tutorial 13 - Fl Studio. Piano Roll, Funciones principales
Tutorial 13 - Fl Studio. Piano Roll, Funciones principales
DATE: 2011/09/10::
11
61-KEY FLEXIBLE ROLL-UP SOFTKEY MIDI KEYBOARD PIANO (Heart and Soul)
61-KEY FLEXIBLE ROLL-UP SOFTKEY MIDI KEYBOARD PIANO (Heart and Soul)
DATE: 2012/03/12::
12
Swanee US Piano Roll Original 1919 Version Player Piano Roll
Swanee US Piano Roll Original 1919 Version Player Piano Roll
DATE: 2010/03/04::
13
Alexanders Ragtime Band -player piano roll
Alexanders Ragtime Band -player piano roll
DATE: 2010/09/16::
14
"Sidewalks Of New York" Player piano roll w/ words
"Sidewalks Of New York" Player piano roll w/ words
DATE: 2010/06/16::
15
FL STUDIO TUTORIAL: Amazing Secrets Piano roll in Fruity Loops
FL STUDIO TUTORIAL: Amazing Secrets Piano roll in Fruity Loops
DATE: 2015/01/11::
16
Beer Barrel Polka (Roll out the Barrel) Piano roll
Beer Barrel Polka (Roll out the Barrel) Piano roll
DATE: 2010/11/17::
17
Player Piano Rolls - How its Made
Player Piano Rolls - How its Made
DATE: 2009/10/11::
18
LMMS Tutorial 1: Piano Roll, Beat/Bass Line Editor
LMMS Tutorial 1: Piano Roll, Beat/Bass Line Editor
DATE: 2014/05/10::
19
Converting loops to Piano roll notes in FL Studio
Converting loops to Piano roll notes in FL Studio
DATE: 2012/09/06::
20
FL STUDIO: 15 Trików w Piano Roll
FL STUDIO: 15 Trików w Piano Roll
DATE: 2013/10/02::
21
Garageband Drums Lesson / Midi and piano roll editor.
Garageband Drums Lesson / Midi and piano roll editor.
DATE: 2014/03/11::
22
FL Studio - Edison WAV data to Piano Roll Notes
FL Studio - Edison WAV data to Piano Roll Notes
DATE: 2009/09/19::
23
Beatles Hits on piano roll
Beatles Hits on piano roll
DATE: 2012/10/19::
24
Tutorials For Reaper | Basic MIDI | Midi Items | Piano Roll | Loop and Copy | Time Selection Loop
Tutorials For Reaper | Basic MIDI | Midi Items | Piano Roll | Loop and Copy | Time Selection Loop
DATE: 2011/07/05::
25
Guide d
Guide d'apprentissage à FL Studio #2 Les effets du Piano Roll |Tuto FR|
DATE: 2012/10/03::
26
Making electronic music using piano roll in garageband
Making electronic music using piano roll in garageband
DATE: 2013/08/13::
27
The Old Piano Roll Blues
The Old Piano Roll Blues
DATE: 2008/09/25::
28
Liberace Piano Roll Blues 1
Liberace Piano Roll Blues 1
DATE: 2013/08/31::
29
Ravel "Pavane pour une infante défunte" 1922 piano roll
Ravel "Pavane pour une infante défunte" 1922 piano roll
DATE: 2013/10/07::
30
Piano Roll in Ableton Live [How To]
Piano Roll in Ableton Live [How To]
DATE: 2014/01/15::
31
The Sheik of Araby - Zez Confrey Piano Roll
The Sheik of Araby - Zez Confrey Piano Roll
DATE: 2012/03/07::
32
Logic Pro X Piano Roll Draw Instruments
Logic Pro X Piano Roll Draw Instruments
DATE: 2013/08/08::
33
Gershwin Plays Gershwin - The Piano Rolls - That Certain Feeling
Gershwin Plays Gershwin - The Piano Rolls - That Certain Feeling
DATE: 2012/04/16::
34
Tutorial 12 - Fl Studio. Importar melodias completas al Piano Roll
Tutorial 12 - Fl Studio. Importar melodias completas al Piano Roll
DATE: 2011/09/09::
35
Ableton Live 9 - The MIDI Files [+ Piano Roll Tutorial]
Ableton Live 9 - The MIDI Files [+ Piano Roll Tutorial]
DATE: 2013/05/28::
36
PIANO ROLL PART 1 - FL Studio Tutorial [german / english subtitle]
PIANO ROLL PART 1 - FL Studio Tutorial [german / english subtitle]
DATE: 2011/08/05::
37
WHO ? - Player Piano Roll - Jerome Kern
WHO ? - Player Piano Roll - Jerome Kern
DATE: 2012/03/06::
38
Видеоурок #5 "Создаем партию инструмента в Piano Roll"
Видеоурок #5 "Создаем партию инструмента в Piano Roll"
DATE: 2011/04/15::
39
ORIGINAL RAGS Scott Joplin Connorized Player Piano Roll
ORIGINAL RAGS Scott Joplin Connorized Player Piano Roll
DATE: 2012/06/26::
40
piano roll -Whispering
piano roll -Whispering
DATE: 2011/09/04::
41
FL STUDIO AWESOME TRICKS -  Piano Roll
FL STUDIO AWESOME TRICKS - Piano Roll
DATE: 2014/01/07::
42
Popular Songs of Other Days player piano roll
Popular Songs of Other Days player piano roll
DATE: 2012/11/08::
43
Mixcraft 5 Tutorials - Virtual Instruments Part 2: Piano Roll MIDI Editing
Mixcraft 5 Tutorials - Virtual Instruments Part 2: Piano Roll MIDI Editing
DATE: 2010/05/31::
44
George Gershwin, 1925 Piano Roll: Rhapsody in Blue - Michael Tilson Thomas, Columbia Jazz Band
George Gershwin, 1925 Piano Roll: Rhapsody in Blue - Michael Tilson Thomas, Columbia Jazz Band
DATE: 2011/03/31::
45
Boogie Woogie - Piano roll QRS #7882
Boogie Woogie - Piano roll QRS #7882
DATE: 2010/10/28::
46
Logic Pro X - Video Tutorial 27 - MIDI Piano Roll Editor, part 1
Logic Pro X - Video Tutorial 27 - MIDI Piano Roll Editor, part 1
DATE: 2014/02/02::
47
COMO USAR PIANO ROLL DE FL STUDIO
COMO USAR PIANO ROLL DE FL STUDIO
DATE: 2011/10/12::
48
"Swanee" by George Gershwin  Ampico Piano Roll P/B Clair & Pollock
"Swanee" by George Gershwin Ampico Piano Roll P/B Clair & Pollock
DATE: 2009/11/25::
49
MDK: Production School S1E6.2 - Piano Roll - In Depth
MDK: Production School S1E6.2 - Piano Roll - In Depth
DATE: 2015/06/06::
50
Tutorial para saber que acordes deben acompañar a una melodia -  FL Studio - Piano Roll
Tutorial para saber que acordes deben acompañar a una melodia - FL Studio - Piano Roll
DATE: 2013/04/11::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A stack of piano rolls, some in boxes, some not.
First part of a piano roll for Welte-Mignon with lines for a pianolist

A piano roll is a music storage medium used to operate a player piano, piano player or reproducing piano. A piano roll is a continuous roll of paper with perforations (holes) punched into it. The perforations represent note control data. The roll moves over a reading system known as a 'tracker bar' and the playing cycle for each musical note is triggered when a perforation crosses the bar and is read.

The majority of piano rolls play on three distinct musical scales. The 65-note (with a playing range of A-1 to C#7) format was introduced in 1896 in the USA specifically for piano music. In 1900 a USA format playing all 88-notes of the standard piano scale was introduced. In 1902 a German 72-note scale (F-1, G-1 to E7) was introduced. All of these scales were subject to being operated by piano rolls of varying dimensions. The 1908 Buffalo Convention of US manufacturers standardized the US industry to the 88-note scale and fixed the physical dimensions for that scale.

Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from around 1896 to 2008,[1][2] and are still available today, with QRS Music claiming to have 45,000 titles available with "new titles being added on a regular basis".[3] Largely replacing piano rolls, which are no longer mass-produced today, MIDI files represent a modern way in which musical performance data can be stored. MIDI files accomplish digitally and electronically what piano rolls do mechanically. Software for editing a performance stored as MIDI data often has a feature to show the music in a piano roll representation.

The first paper rolls were used commercially by Welte & Sons in their Orchestrions beginning in 1883.[4]

A rollography is a listing of piano rolls, especially made by a single performer, analogous to a discography.[5]

Buffalo Convention[edit]

A piano-roll for Welte-Mignon, about 1919, according to the Buffalo Convention

The Buffalo Convention of December 10, 1908[6] established two future roll formats for the US-producers of piano rolls for self-playing pianos. The two formats had different punchings of 65 and 88 notes, but the same width (1114 inches or 285 mm); thus 65-note rolls would be perforated at 6 holes to the inch, and 88-note rolls at 9 holes to the inch, leaving margins at both ends for future developments. This made it possible to play the piano rolls on any self-playing instrument built according to the convention, albeit sometimes with a loss of special functionality. This format became a loose world standard.

Metronomic, hand played, and reproducing rolls[edit]

Metronomic or arranged rolls are rolls produced by positioning the music slots without real-time input. The music, when played back, is typically purely metronomical. Metronomically arranged music rolls are deliberately left metronomic so as to enable a player-pianist to create their own musical performance via the hand controls that are a feature of all player pianos.

Hand played rolls are created by capturing in real-time the hand-played performance of one or more pianists upon a piano connected to a recording machine. The production roll reproduced the real-time performance of the original recording whilst played back at a constant speed. It is industry convention for recordings of music intended to be used for dancing to be regularized into strict tempo despite the original performance having the slight tempo fluctuations of all human performances.

Reproducing rolls are the same as hand-played rolls but have additional control codes to operate the dynamic modifying systems specific to whichever brand of reproducing piano it is designed to be played back on. The roll plays back at a fixed constant speed to preserve the inter-relationship of these control codes and the time it takes for the pianos dynamic mechanisms to operate between sequential control codes.

Compositions for pianola and reproducing piano[edit]

The player piano gives the opportunity to create music that is impossible for humans to play, or, more correctly, music that was not conceived in terms of performance by hand. Over one hundred composers wrote music specially for the player piano during the course of the 20th century. Many mainstream composers experimented with its possibilities, including Igor Stravinsky, Alfredo Casella, and Paul Hindemith; others, including Conlon Nancarrow, made it their primary milieu.

The Duo-Art, Ampico, and Welte-Mignon brands were known as "reproducing" piano rolls, as they could accurately reproduce the touch and dynamics of the artist as well as the notes struck, when played back on capable pianos.

Reproducing pianos[edit]

Tracker bar of a Welte-Mignon

Rolls for the reproducing piano were generally made from the recorded performances of famous musicians. Typically, a pianist would sit at a specially designed recording piano, and the pitch and duration of any notes played would be either marked or perforated on a blank roll, together with the duration of the sustaining and soft pedal.

Reproducing pianos can also re-create the dynamics of a pianist's performance by means of specially encoded control perforations placed towards the edges of a music roll, but this coding was never recorded automatically. Different companies had different ways of notating dynamics, some technically advanced (though not necessarily more effective), some secret, and some dependent entirely on a recording producer's handwritten notes, but in all cases these dynamic hieroglyphics had to be skillfully converted into the specialized perforated codes needed by the different types of instrument.

Recorded rolls play at a specific, marked speed, where for example, 70 signifies 7 feet of paper travel in one minute, at the start of the roll. On all pneumatic player pianos, the paper is pulled on to a take-up spool, and as more paper winds on, so the effective diameter of the spool increases, and with it the paper speed. Player piano engineers were well aware of this, as can be seen from many patents of the time, but since reproducing piano recordings were generally made with a similar take-up spool drive, the tempo of the recorded performance is faithfully reproduced, despite the gradually increasing paper speed.

The playing of many pianists and composers is preserved on reproducing piano roll. Gustav Mahler, Edvard Grieg, Teresa Carreño, Claude Debussy, Scott Joplin, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Prokofiev, Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin, Jelly Roll Morton and George Gershwin are amongst the composers and pianists who have had their performances recorded in this way.

Duo-Art featured artists such as Ignace Jan Paderewski, George Gershwin, Maurice Ravel, Teresa Carreño, Percy Grainger, Leopold Godowsky and Ferruccio Busoni. The Ampico brand's featured artists included Sergei Rachmaninoff, Leo Ornstein, Mischa Levitzki, Winifred MacBride, and Marguerite Volavy. For Welte-Mignon, the first reproducing system, there played artists such as Gustav Mahler, Claude Debussy, Alexander Scriabin, Enrique Granados, Eugen d'Albert, Josef Lhévinne, Raoul Pugno, and Carl Reinecke (who was the earliest-born pianist to record in any media format).

There were hundreds of companies worldwide producing rolls during the peak period of their popularity (1900–1927). Some other non-reproducing rolls makers of live performances are listed below together with their most memorable recording artistes.

Legal protectability against copying[edit]

White-Smith Music Publishing Company v. Apollo Company, 209 U.S. 1 (1908), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States which ruled that manufacturers of music rolls for player pianos did not have to pay royalties to the composers. The ruling was based on a holding that the piano rolls were not copies of the plaintiffs' copyrighted sheet music, but were instead parts of the machine that reproduced the music.

This case was subsequently eclipsed by Congress's intervention in the form of an amendment to the Copyright Act of 1909, protecting them and introducing a compulsory license for the manufacture and distribution of such "mechanical" embodiments of musical works.

In digital audio workstations[edit]

In most of the modern digital audio workstation software, the term "piano roll" is used to refer to a graphical display of and means of editing MIDI note data, as well as entering the pitch, length and velocity of notes manually instead of recording the output of a keyboard or other device for entering note data. Usually a means of manually editing other aspects of the MIDI data, such as pitch bend or modulation, is also present, although not strictly part of the piano roll itself.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ www.pianola.org
  2. ^ The day the music died. Buffalo News, August 20, 2010. From Webarchive
  3. ^ "Music". QRS Music. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  4. ^ US-Patent 287.599, Emil Welte, New York, 30. October 1883
  5. ^ Macy, Laura (ed.). "Rollography". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press.  (subscription required)
  6. ^ Music Trade Review, New York, NY, Vol. 47, No. 24, p. 31 from December 12, 1908.

Sources[edit]

  • Elaine Obenchain: The complete catalog of Ampico Reproducing Piano rolls. New York: American Piano Co., ca.. 1977. ISBN 0-9601172-1-0; (out of print).
  • Charles Davis Smith: Duo-Art piano music: a complete classified catalog of music recorded for the Duo-Art reproducing piano compiled and annotated by Charles Davis Smith. Monrovia, California, ca. 1987; (out of print).
  • Charles David Smith and Richard James Howe: The Welte-Mignon, its music and musicians; complete catalogue of Welte-Mignon reproducing piano recordings 1905–1932, historical overview of companies and individuals, biographical essays on the recording artists and composers. Vestal, NY: Vestal Press, 1994. ISBN 1-879511-17-7; (out of print).
  • Gerhard Dangel und Hans-W. Schmitz: Welte-Mignon-Reproduktionen / Welte-Mignon Reproductions. Gesamtkatalog der Aufnahmen für das Welte-Mignon Reproduktions-Piano 1905-1932 / Complete Library Of Recordings For The Welte-Mignon Reproducing Piano 1905-1932. Stuttgart 2006. ISBN 3-00-017110-X
  • Barbara Bryner: The piano roll: a valuable recording medium of the twentieth century. Dept. of Music, University of Utah, 2002. OCLC 50482085
  • William Braid White: The player-piano up-to-date: a comprehensive treatise on the principles, construction, adjustment, regulation and use of pneumatic mechanisms for piano-playing: together with a description of the leading mechanisms now in use and some hints on the playing thereof. New York, Edward Lyman Bill, 1914 (The date of convention is given wrongly as 1909).

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2015