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61-KEY FLEXIBLE ROLL-UP SOFTKEY MIDI KEYBOARD PIANO (Heart and Soul)
61-KEY FLEXIBLE ROLL-UP SOFTKEY MIDI KEYBOARD PIANO (Heart and Soul)
Published: 2012/03/13
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"Dixie" player piano roll
Published: 2010/06/07
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Unboxing: Roll-Up Piano!!!
Unboxing: Roll-Up Piano!!!
Published: 2016/12/25
Channel: MichaelAngelo Vlogs
Player Piano Rolls - How its Made
Player Piano Rolls - How its Made
Published: 2009/10/11
Channel: Jon M
FL Studio 12 Beginner
FL Studio 12 Beginner's Strategy Guide Pt.7-The Piano Roll
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Busy Works Beats .TV
12th St Rag  ORIGINAL 1914 PLAYER PIANO ROLL  2012 06 02 22 37 09
12th St Rag ORIGINAL 1914 PLAYER PIANO ROLL 2012 06 02 22 37 09
Published: 2012/06/03
Channel: Aeolian Hall
Finger Breaker - Jelly Roll Morton Piano Roll
Finger Breaker - Jelly Roll Morton Piano Roll
Published: 2011/12/04
Channel: clariona
Jessie J - Flashlight (Cover on Piano)(Easy)
Jessie J - Flashlight (Cover on Piano)(Easy)
Published: 2015/06/21
Channel: Joysyxp
Piano Roll -The Maple Leaf Rag -1899  Scott Joplin
Piano Roll -The Maple Leaf Rag -1899 Scott Joplin
Published: 2010/01/12
Channel: Pianosyncrazy
Swanee US Piano Roll Original 1919 Version Player Piano Roll
Swanee US Piano Roll Original 1919 Version Player Piano Roll
Published: 2010/03/04
Channel: Aeolian Hall
Liberace Piano Roll Blues
Liberace Piano Roll Blues
Published: 2013/03/26
Channel: showmanlee
Charleston - Piano roll QRS #8691
Charleston - Piano roll QRS #8691
Published: 2011/01/16
Channel: Pianola & Jazzy Stuff
Piano roll production at QRS Music
Piano roll production at QRS Music
Published: 2007/03/18
Channel: cc213t
Dickbutt butt it
Dickbutt butt it's a drawing via midi Piano Roll
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Variance Within
Boogie Woogie - Piano roll QRS #7882
Boogie Woogie - Piano roll QRS #7882
Published: 2010/10/28
Channel: Pianola & Jazzy Stuff
Theme to Animaniacs player piano roll
Theme to Animaniacs player piano roll
Published: 2011/07/23
Channel: Keeper1st
piano roll -Whispering
piano roll -Whispering
Published: 2011/09/04
Channel: mechanicmusic45
Vladimir Horowitz, age 25, plays Carmen Variations on Duo-Art Piano Roll
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Published: 2009/12/11
Channel: bartolomochristofari
Universal Piano Roll - Tuneful Broadway - Ragtime Overtures
Universal Piano Roll - Tuneful Broadway - Ragtime Overtures
Published: 2010/12/28
Channel: Pianosyncrazy
Popular Songs of Other Days player piano roll
Popular Songs of Other Days player piano roll
Published: 2012/11/09
Channel: Keeper1st
Beatles Hits on piano roll
Beatles Hits on piano roll
Published: 2012/10/19
Channel: mechanicmusic45
PIANO ROLL Fl Studio 12: Secrets et Astuces!
PIANO ROLL Fl Studio 12: Secrets et Astuces!
Published: 2016/03/28
Channel: Alex Beat Genius
WHO ? - Player Piano Roll - Jerome Kern
WHO ? - Player Piano Roll - Jerome Kern
Published: 2012/03/06
Channel: Pianosyncrazy
FL Studio Tutorial: Piano Roll (Como usarlo para hacer melodias)
FL Studio Tutorial: Piano Roll (Como usarlo para hacer melodias)
Published: 2013/01/17
Channel: Olbaid Music
Johnny Maddox Presents "The Worlds Greatest Piano Rolls"
Johnny Maddox Presents "The Worlds Greatest Piano Rolls"
Published: 2015/08/10
Channel: Arvind Mallya
Soundtrap Tutorials | Piano roll
Soundtrap Tutorials | Piano roll
Published: 2017/10/02
Channel: Soundtrap
Roll up piano and beautiful artist.
Roll up piano and beautiful artist.
Published: 2012/04/13
Channel: David Diep
Pineapple Rag on piano roll
Pineapple Rag on piano roll
Published: 2013/10/27
Channel: mechanicmusic45
Play Directly To Piano Roll - FL Studio Tutorial - Virtual Recording
Play Directly To Piano Roll - FL Studio Tutorial - Virtual Recording
Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: Brandon Hilde
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The Entertainer, Scott Joplin (1902) - Piano Roll (Scott Joplin House, rec. 2012)
Published: 2012/06/24
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Logic Pro X - Video Tutorial 27 - MIDI Piano Roll Editor, part 1
Logic Pro X - Video Tutorial 27 - MIDI Piano Roll Editor, part 1
Published: 2014/02/02
Channel: MusicTechHelpGuy
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Channel: Plasti Cine
Shaking The Blues Away - A Piano Roll By Armand Muth (reprise)
Shaking The Blues Away - A Piano Roll By Armand Muth (reprise)
Published: 2014/10/07
Channel: Pianosyncrazy
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FL Studio 12 - Aprende a Manejarlo - Capítulo 5 - "Piano Roll" - Tutorial
Published: 2015/09/28
Channel: Eric Kauffmann
Scott Joplin - Solace Piano Roll
Scott Joplin - Solace Piano Roll
Published: 2009/03/01
Channel: Jer TheJambon
Tips y Trucos 16 - "Lazo Mágico" Piano Roll - Tutorial -  FL Studio 12
Tips y Trucos 16 - "Lazo Mágico" Piano Roll - Tutorial - FL Studio 12
Published: 2016/02/01
Channel: Eric Kauffmann
Mouse Modifiers - Midi Piano Roll
Mouse Modifiers - Midi Piano Roll
Published: 2015/07/01
Channel: REAPER Mania
Ableton Crash Course #3 - Piano Roll
Ableton Crash Course #3 - Piano Roll
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: TechMischief
12th Street Rag - Piano roll QRS #1188 reupload
12th Street Rag - Piano roll QRS #1188 reupload
Published: 2011/01/23
Channel: Pianola & Jazzy Stuff
FL STUDIO: 15 Trików w Piano Roll
FL STUDIO: 15 Trików w Piano Roll
Published: 2013/10/02
Channel: Live Act
Rollup Flexible Piano Review
Rollup Flexible Piano Review
Published: 2015/02/09
Channel: The Hunter Report
Trucos en el piano roll - FL Studio 12
Trucos en el piano roll - FL Studio 12
Published: 2016/01/07
Channel: Adavia Producer
5 Piano Roll Tricks in Logic Pro X Tutorial
5 Piano Roll Tricks in Logic Pro X Tutorial
Published: 2016/08/31
Channel: music with a K
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Published: 2010/03/31
Channel: Aeolian Hall
"The old piano roll blues"  on player piano
"The old piano roll blues" on player piano
Published: 2010/06/28
Channel: mechanicmusic45
Studio One Advanced Melody and Piano Roll Tutorial  studio one 3.5
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Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: Craftmaster Productions
How to Use Ableton: Piano Roll Folding
How to Use Ableton: Piano Roll Folding
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: Multiplier
Resident Evil: Code Veronica - Piano Roll (Experimental Loop)
Resident Evil: Code Veronica - Piano Roll (Experimental Loop)
Published: 2014/07/31
Channel: WhoamIbutwhoareyou
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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First part of a piano roll for Welte-Mignon with lines for a pianolist

A piano roll is a music storage medium used to operate a player piano, piano player or reproducing piano. A piano roll is a continuous roll of paper with perforations (holes) punched into it. The perforations represent note control data. The roll moves over a reading system known as a 'tracker bar' and the playing cycle for each musical note is triggered when a perforation crosses the bar and is read.

A stack of piano rolls, some in boxes, some not.

The majority of piano rolls play on three distinct musical scales. The 65-note (with a playing range of A1 to C7) format was introduced in 1896 in the USA specifically for piano music. In 1900 an American format playing all 88 notes (A0 to C8) of the standard piano scale was introduced. In 1902 a German 72-note scale (F1, G1 to E7) was introduced. All of these scales were subject to being operated by piano rolls of varying dimensions. The 1908 Buffalo Convention of US manufacturers standardized the US industry to the 88-note scale and fixed the physical dimensions for that scale.

Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from around 1896 to 2008,[1][2] and are still available today, with QRS Music claiming to have 45,000 titles available with "new titles being added on a regular basis".[3] Largely replacing piano rolls, which are no longer mass-produced today, MIDI files represent a modern way in which musical performance data can be stored. MIDI files accomplish digitally and electronically what piano rolls do mechanically. Software for editing a performance stored as MIDI data often has a feature to show the music in a piano roll representation.

The first paper rolls were used commercially by Welte & Sons in their Orchestrions beginning in 1883.[4]

A rollography is a listing of piano rolls, especially made by a single performer, analogous to a discography.[5]

Buffalo Convention[edit]

A piano-roll for Welte-Mignon, about 1919, according to the Buffalo Convention

The Buffalo Convention of December 10, 1908[6] established two future roll formats for the US-producers of piano rolls for self-playing pianos. The two formats had different punchings of 65 and 88 notes, but the same width (11 14 inches or 286 millimetres); thus 65-note rolls would be perforated at 6 holes to the inch, and 88-note rolls at 9 holes to the inch, leaving margins at both ends for future developments. This made it possible to play the piano rolls on any self-playing instrument built according to the convention, albeit sometimes with a loss of special functionality. This format became a loose world standard.

Metronomic, hand played, and reproducing rolls[edit]

Metronomic or arranged rolls are rolls produced by positioning the music slots without real-time input. The music, when played back, is typically purely metronomical. Metronomically arranged music rolls are deliberately left metronomic so as to enable a player-pianist to create their own musical performance via the hand controls that are a feature of all player pianos.

Hand played rolls are created by capturing in real time the hand-played performance of one or more pianists upon a piano connected to a recording machine. The production roll reproduced the real-time performance of the original recording when played back at a constant speed. It is industry convention for recordings of music intended to be used for dancing to be regularized into strict tempo despite the original performance having the slight tempo fluctuations of all human performances.

Reproducing rolls are the same as hand-played rolls but have additional control codes to operate the dynamic modifying systems specific to whichever brand of reproducing piano it is designed to be played back on. The roll plays back at a fixed constant speed to preserve the inter-relationship of these control codes and the time it takes for the pianos dynamic mechanisms to operate between sequential control codes.

Compositions for pianola and reproducing piano[edit]

The player piano gives the opportunity to create music that is impossible for humans to play, or, more correctly, music that was not conceived in terms of performance by hand. Over one hundred composers wrote music specially for the player piano during the course of the 20th century. Many mainstream composers experimented with its possibilities, including Igor Stravinsky, Alfredo Casella, and Paul Hindemith; others, including Conlon Nancarrow, made it their primary milieu.

The Duo-Art, Ampico, and Welte-Mignon brands were known as "reproducing" piano rolls, as they could accurately reproduce the touch and dynamics of the artist as well as the notes struck, when played back on capable pianos.

Reproducing pianos[edit]

Tracker bar of a Welte-Mignon

Rolls for the reproducing piano were generally made from the recorded performances of famous musicians. Typically, a pianist would sit at a specially designed recording piano, and the pitch and duration of any notes played would be either marked or perforated on a blank roll, together with the duration of the sustaining and soft pedal.

Reproducing pianos can also re-create the dynamics of a pianist's performance by means of specially encoded control perforations placed towards the edges of a music roll, but this coding was never recorded automatically. Different companies had different ways of notating dynamics, some technically advanced (though not necessarily more effective), some secret, and some dependent entirely on a recording producer's handwritten notes, but in all cases these dynamic hieroglyphics had to be skillfully converted into the specialized perforated codes needed by the different types of instrument.

Recorded rolls play at a specific, marked speed, where for example, 70 signifies 7 feet (2.1 m) of paper travel in one minute, at the start of the roll. On all pneumatic player pianos, the paper is pulled on to a take-up spool, and as more paper winds on, so the effective diameter of the spool increases, and with it the paper speed. Player piano engineers were well aware of this, as can be seen from many patents of the time, but since reproducing piano recordings were generally made with a similar take-up spool drive, the tempo of the recorded performance is faithfully reproduced, despite the gradually increasing paper speed.

The playing of many pianists and composers is preserved on reproducing piano roll. Gustav Mahler, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg, Teresa Carreño, Claude Debussy, Manuel de Falla, Scott Joplin, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Prokofiev, Alexander Scriabin, Jelly Roll Morton and George Gershwin are amongst the composers and pianists who have had their performances recorded in this way.

Duo-Art featured artists such as Ignace Jan Paderewski, George Gershwin, Maurice Ravel, Teresa Carreño, Percy Grainger, Leopold Godowsky and Ferruccio Busoni. The Ampico brand's featured artists included Sergei Rachmaninoff, Leo Ornstein, Mischa Levitzki, Winifred MacBride, and Marguerite Volavy. For Welte-Mignon, the first reproducing system, there played artists such as Gustav Mahler, Camille Saint-Saëns, Claude Debussy, Manuel de Falla, Alexander Scriabin, Enrique Granados, Eugen d'Albert, Josef Lhévinne, Raoul Pugno, and Carl Reinecke (who was the earliest-born pianist to record in any media format).

There were hundreds of companies worldwide producing rolls during the peak period of their popularity (1900–1927). Some other non-reproducing rolls makers of live performances are listed below together with their most memorable recording artistes.

Legal protectability against copying[edit]

White-Smith Music Publishing Company v. Apollo Company, 209 U.S. 1 (1908), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States which ruled that manufacturers of music rolls for player pianos did not have to pay royalties to the composers. The ruling was based on a holding that the piano rolls were not copies of the plaintiffs' copyrighted sheet music, but were instead parts of the machine that reproduced the music.

This case was subsequently eclipsed by Congress's intervention in the form of an amendment to the Copyright Act of 1909, protecting them and introducing a compulsory license for the manufacture and distribution of such "mechanical" embodiments of musical works.

In digital audio workstations[edit]

DAW Piano Roll

In most modern digital audio workstation software, the term "piano roll" is used to refer to a graphical display of, and means of, editing MIDI note data; as well as entering the pitch, length and velocity of notes manually, instead of recording the output of a keyboard or other device for entering note data. Usually a means of manually editing other aspects of the MIDI data, such as pitch bend or modulation, is also present, although not strictly part of the piano roll itself.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ www.pianola.org
  2. ^ The day the music died. Buffalo News, August 20, 2010. From Webarchive
  3. ^ "Music". QRS Music. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  4. ^ US Patent 287,599, Emil Welte, New York, 30 October 1883
  5. ^ "Rollography". In L. Root, Deane. Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press.  (subscription required)
  6. ^ Music Trade Review, New York, NY, Vol. 47, No. 24, p. 31 from December 12, 1908.

Sources[edit]

  • Elaine Obenchain: The complete catalog of Ampico Reproducing Piano rolls. New York: American Piano Co., ca.. 1977. ISBN 0-9601172-1-0; (out of print).
  • Charles Davis Smith: Duo-Art piano music: a complete classified catalog of music recorded for the Duo-Art reproducing piano compiled and annotated by Charles Davis Smith. Monrovia, California, ca. 1987; (out of print).
  • Charles David Smith and Richard James Howe: The Welte-Mignon, its music and musicians; complete catalogue of Welte-Mignon reproducing piano recordings 1905–1932, historical overview of companies and individuals, biographical essays on the recording artists and composers. Vestal, NY: Vestal Press, 1994. ISBN 1-879511-17-7; (out of print).
  • Gerhard Dangel und Hans-W. Schmitz: Welte-Mignon-Reproduktionen / Welte-Mignon Reproductions. Gesamtkatalog der Aufnahmen für das Welte-Mignon Reproduktions-Piano 1905-1932 / Complete Library Of Recordings For The Welte-Mignon Reproducing Piano 1905-1932. Stuttgart 2006. ISBN 3-00-017110-X
  • Barbara Bryner: The piano roll: a valuable recording medium of the twentieth century. Dept. of Music, University of Utah, 2002. OCLC 50482085
  • William Braid White: The player-piano up-to-date: a comprehensive treatise on the principles, construction, adjustment, regulation and use of pneumatic mechanisms for piano-playing: together with a description of the leading mechanisms now in use and some hints on the playing thereof. New York, Edward Lyman Bill, 1914 (The date of convention is given wrongly as 1909).

External links[edit]

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