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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Pilot (aeronautics))
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U.S. Army test pilot Lt. F.W. "Mike" Hunter wearing a flight suit in October 1942

An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls. While other aircrew members such as navigators or flight engineers are also considered aviators, because they are involved in operating the aircraft's navigation and engine systems. Other aircrew members such as flight attendants, mechanics and ground crew, are not classified as aviators.

In recognition of the pilots' qualifications and responsibilities, most militaries and many airlines worldwide award aviator badges to their pilots, and this includes naval aviators.

History[edit]

Hot air balloon pilot and passenger in basket

The first recorded use of the term aviator (aviateur in French) was in 1887, as a variation of "aviation", from the Latin avis (meaning bird), coined in 1863 by G. de la Landelle in Aviation Ou Navigation Aérienne ("Aviation or Air Navigation"). The term aviatrix (aviatrice in French), now archaic, was formerly used for a female aviator. These terms were used more in the early days of aviation, when airplanes were extremely rare, and connoted bravery and adventure. For example, a 1905 reference work described the Wright brothers' first airplane: "The weight, including the body of the aviator, is a little more than 700 pounds".[1]

To ensure the safety of people in the air and on the ground, early aviation soon required that aircraft be under the operational control of a properly trained, certified pilot at all times, who is responsible for the safe and legal completion of the flight. The Aéro-Club de France delivered the first certificate to Louis Blériot in 1908—followed by Glenn Curtiss, Léon Delagrange, and Robert Esnault-Pelterie. The absolute authority given to the "pilot in command" derives from that of a ship's captain.[citation needed]

Types[edit]

Pilots landing a Boeing 777

Civilian pilots fly aircraft of all types privately for pleasure, charity, or in pursuance of a business, and/or commercially for non-scheduled (charter) and scheduled passenger and cargo air carriers (airlines), corporate aviation, agriculture (crop dusting, etc.), forest fire control, law enforcement, etc. When flying for an airline, pilots are usually referred to as airline pilots, with the pilot in command often referred to as the captain.

Airline[edit]

There are 290,000 airline pilots in the world in 2017 and aircraft simulator manufacturer CAE Inc. forecasts a need for 255,000 new ones for a population of 440,000 by 2027, 150,000 for growth and 105,000 to offset retirement and attrition : 90,000 in Asia-Pacific (average pilot age in 2016: 45.8 years), 85,000 in Americas (48 years), 50,000 in Europe (43.7 years) and 30,000 in Middle East & Africa (45.7 years).[2]

As there will be 41,030 new airliners by 2036, aircraft manufacturer Boeing expects 637,000 new airline pilots between 2017 and then: 40% in Asia Pacific (248,000), 18% in North America (112,000) and 17% in Europe (104,000).[3]

By November 2017, due a shortage of qualified pilots, some pilots are leaving corporate aviation to return to airlines. In one example a Global 6000 pilot, making $250,000 a year for 10 to 15 flight hours a month, returned to American Airlines with full seniority. A Gulfstream G650 or Global 6000 pilot might earn between $245,000 and $265,000, and recruiting one may require up to $300,000. At the other end of the spectrum, constrained by the available pilots, some small carriers hire new pilots who need 300 hours to jump to airlines in a year. They may also recruit non-career pilots who have other jobs or airline retirees who want to continue to fly.[4]

Automation[edit]

The number of airline pilots could decrease as automation replaces copilots and eventually pilots as well. In January 2017 Rhett Ross, CEO of Continental Motors said "my concern is that in the next two decades—if not sooner—automated and autonomous flight will have developed sufficiently to put downward pressure on both wages and the number and kind of flying jobs available. So if a kid asks the question now and he or she is 18, 20 years from now will be 2037 and our would-be careerist will be 38—not even mid-career. Who among us thinks aviation and especially for-hire flying will look like it does now?" Christian Dries, owner of Diamond Aircraft Austria said "Behind the curtain, aircraft manufacturers are working on a single-pilot cockpit where the airplane can be controlled from the ground and only in case of malfunction does the pilot of the plane interfere. Basically the flight will be autonomous and I expect this to happen in the next five to six years for freighters."[5]

In August 2017 financial company UBS predicted pilotless airliners are technically feasible and could appear around 2025, offering around $35bn of savings, mainly in pilot costs: $26bn for airlines, $3bn for business jets and $2.1bn for civil helicopters; $3bn/year from lower pilot training and aviation insurance costs due to safer flights; $1bn from flight optimisation (1% of global airlines' $133bn jet fuel bill in 2016); not counting revenue opportunity from increased capacity utilization. Regulation have to adapt with air cargo likely at the forefront, but pilotless flights could be limited by consumer behaviour: 54% of 8,000 people surveyed are defiant while 17% are supportive, with acceptation progressively forecast.[6]

AVweb reporter Geoff Rapoport stated, "pilotless aircraft are an appealing prospect for airlines bracing for the need to hire several hundred thousand new pilots in the next decade. Wages and training costs have been rapidly rising at regional U.S. airlines over the last several years as the major airlines have hired pilots from the regionals at unprecedented rates to cover increased air travel demand from economic expansion and a wave of retirements".[7]

Going to pilotless airliners could be done in one bold step or in gradual improvements like by reducing the cockpit crew for long haul missions or allowing single pilot cargo aircraft. The industry has not decided how to proceed yet. Present automated systems are not autonomous and must be monitored, their replacement could require artificial intelligence with machine learning while present certified software is deterministic.[8]

Africa and Asia[edit]

In some countries, such as Pakistan, Thailand and several African nations, there is a strong relationship between the military and the principal national airlines, and many airline pilots come from the military; however, that is no longer the case in the United States and Western Europe.[citation needed] While the flight decks of U.S. and European airliners do have ex-military pilots, many pilots are civilians. Military training and flying, while rigorous, is fundamentally different in many ways from civilian piloting.

Canada[edit]

Operating an aircraft in Canada is regulated by the Aeronautics Act of 1985 and the Canadian Aviation Regulations provide rules for Pilot licensing in Canada.

Retirement age is provided by each airline with some set to age 60, but changes to the Canadian Human Rights Act have restricted retirement age set by the airlines.[9]

United States[edit]

In 1930, the Air Commerce Act established pilot licensing requirements for American civil aviation.

Commercial airline pilots in the United States have a mandatory retirement age of 65, having increased from age 60 in 2007.[10]

Military[edit]

F-16 pilot in flight

Military pilots fly with the armed forces of a government or nation-state. Their tasks involve combat and non-combat operations, including direct hostile engagements and support operations. Military pilots undergo specialized training, often with weapons. Examples of military pilots include fighter pilots, bomber pilots, transport pilots, test pilots and astronauts. Military pilots also serve as flight crews on aircraft for government personnel, such as Air Force One and Air Force Two in the United States.

The term "pilot" is not used in the U.S. Navy, the preferred term being "aviator".[citation needed]

Military pilots are trained with a different syllabus than civilian pilots, which is delivered by military instructors. This is due to the different aircraft, flight goals, flight situations and chains of responsibility. Many military pilots do transfer to civilian-pilot qualification after they leave the military, and typically their military experience provides the basis for a civilian pilot's license.

Unmanned aerial vehicles[edit]

Operators in a control room pilot and monitor video feeds from a remotely piloted UAV.

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also known as "drones") operate without a pilot on-board and are classed into two categories: autonomous aircraft that operate without active human control during flight and remotely piloted UAVs which are operated remotely by one or more persons. The person controlling a remotely piloted UAV may be referred to as its pilot or operator. Depending on the sophistication and use of the UAV, pilots/operators of UAVs may require certification or training, but are generally not subject to the licensing/certification requirements of pilots of manned aircraft.

Most jurisdictions have restrictions on the use of UAVs which have greatly limited their use in controlled airspace; UAVs have mostly been limited to military and hobbyist use. In the United States, use of UAVs is very limited in controlled airspace (generally, above 400 ft/122m and away from airports) and the FAA prohibits nearly all commercial use. Once regulations are made to allow expanded use of UAVs in controlled airspace, there is expected to be a large surge of UAVs in use and, consequently, high demand for pilots/operators of these aircraft.[11]

Space[edit]

The general concept of an airplane pilot can be applied to human spaceflight, as well. The spacecraft pilot is the astronaut who directly controls the operation of a spacecraft, while located within that same craft (not remotely). This term derives directly from the usage of the word "pilot" in aviation, where it is synonymous with "aviator". Note that on the N.A.S.A Space Shuttle, the term "pilot" is analogous to the term "co-pilot" in aviation, as the "commander" has ultimate responsibility for the shuttle.

Pilot certifications[edit]

Military aviation training in a Royal Air Force Nimrod aircraft

Pilots are required to go through many hours of flight training and theoretical study, that differ depending on the country. The first step is acquiring the Private Pilot License (PPL), or Private Pilot Certificate. This takes at least 40 hours of flight time with a Certified Flight Instructor (CFI).

In the United States, an LSA (Light Sport Aircraft) license can be obtained in at least 20 hours of flight time.

The next step in a pilot's progression is either Instrument Rating (IR), or Multi-Engine Rating (MEP) endorsements.

If a professional career or professional-level skills are desired, a Commercial Pilot License (CPL) endorsement would also be required. To captain an airliner, one must obtain an Airline Transport Pilot License (ATPL). After 1 August 2013, even when being a First Officer (FO), an ATPL is required.[12]

Some countries/carriers require/use a Multi Crew Coordination (MCC).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Aeronautics in 1904". Collier's Self-Indexing Annual. Collier's Self-Indexing Annual. New York: P. F. Collier & Son. 1905. p. 6. 
  2. ^ "Airline Pilot Demand Outlook" (PDF). CAE Inc. June 2017. 10-year view. 
  3. ^ "Pilot and Technician Outlook". Boeing. 2017. 
  4. ^ Kerry Lynch (November 21, 2017). "Bizav Leaders Seeing Shortages in Qualified Pilot Pool". AIN. 
  5. ^ "Will A Robot Steal Your Pilot Job?". AVweb. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 31 July 2017. 
  6. ^ Jarrod Castle, CFA; et al. (7 August 2017), "Flying solo – how far are we down the path towards pilotless planes?" (PDF), Global Research, UBS 
  7. ^ Rapoport, Geoff (7 August 2017). "Pilotless Transport Aircraft By 2025 Says UBS". AVweb. Retrieved 9 August 2017. 
  8. ^ Stephen Trimble (21 Aug 2017). "How Boeing is approaching the future of pilotless airliners". Flightglobal. 
  9. ^ Vanessa Lu (January 24, 2013). "Air Canada pilots can continue flying past age 60 under new rules". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  10. ^ Maxon, Terry (December 15, 2007). "Retirement age raised to 65 in nick of time for pilots turning 60". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved October 15, 2009. 
  11. ^ Rooney, Ben (November 25, 2014). "Drone pilot wanted: Starting salary $100,000". CNN. Retrieved March 24, 2015. 
  12. ^ Pope, Stephen (July 11, 2013). "FAA Finalizes ATP Rule for First Officers". Flying Magazine. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Aviators at Wikimedia Commons

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