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|State Owned Enterprise company|
|Founded||1808 – As Artillerie Constructie Winkel (ACW)|
|Products||Military and Industrial products|
PT Pindad (Persero) is an Indonesian state-owned enterprise specialising in military and commercial products. PT Pindad provides the main weapon systems (Alat Utama Sistem Senjata or Alutsista) required to support independence in defence and security of the Republic of Indonesia. Furthermore, PT Pindad (Persero) also produces several industrial products for other aspects such as transportation and commercial explosives.  Its activities cover design, development, engineering and fabrication as well as maintenance.
In 1808, Herman Willem Daendels, Governor-General of the Netherlands, who was in power at that time, set up a workshop for the procurement, maintenance and repair of equipment and utensils named Contructie Winkel (CW) in Surabaya. This was the beginning of PT. Pindad (Persero) as the only defence manufacturing industry in Indonesia. Besides a weapons workshop, Daendels also set up a large-caliber munitions workshop named Proyektiel Fabriek (PF) and a chemistry lab in Semarang. Later, the Dutch colonial government set up a workshop for the manufacturing and repair of munitions and explosives for their navy named Pyrotechnische Werkplaats (PW) in 1850 in Surabaya.
On 1 January 1851, CW was renamed Artilerie Constructie Winkel (ACW). Then in 1961, the two weapons workshop in Surabaya, PW and ACW, united under ACW. This merger gave ACW three installations of production; infantry weapons and their tools (Wapen Kamer), munitions and other items related to explosives (Pyrotechnische Werkplaats), research laboratory materials, and manufactured goods.
The First World War in 1914 involved many European countries, including the Netherlands. For the sake of strategic importance, the Dutch colonial government started to consider the relocation of important installations. Bandung was considered appropriate as a new location because, other than the contours of hills and mountains in the region which can be used as a natural defence against enemy attacks, Bandung was also a very strategic position due to an already available ground transportation system, which passes by the De Grote Postweg (Postal Road) and was along the Staats – Spoorwegen railway. Bandung was also near the capital of the Dutch East Indies, Batavia.
ACW was first moved to Bandung, in the period 1918–1920. In 1932, PW was transferred to Bandung, joined ACW with two other weapons installations, Proyektiel Fabriek (PF) and the chemical laboratory of Semarang, as well as the Institute of Education on Weapons Maintenance and Repairs of Djatinegara which relocated to Bandung with a new name, Geweemarkerschool. The fourth installation joined under the name Artilerie Inrichtingen (AI).
During the era of Japanese occupation, AI did not change, whether it was the addition of installation or the production process. The only changes were in terms of changes in the administration and organisation of the system according to Japanese military rule. Changes also occurred in naming of ACW to Daichi Ichi Kozo, Geweemarkerschool to Dai Ni Kozo, PF to Dai San Kozo, PW to Dai Shi Kozo, and Monrage Artilerie to Dai Go Kazo.
After the time Japan surrendered to the Allies and a power vacuum was eminent in Indonesia, Sukarno had proclaimed the independence of Indonesia. Various attempts to seize occurred defence installations in the city. In the end, during 9 October 1945, the Pejuang Pemuda (Youth Fighters) reclaimed the ACW from the Japanese and named it the Pabrik Senjata Kiaracondong (Kiaracondong Weapons Factory).
Youth occupation did not last long, because the Allies arrived Indonesia and took power. Pabrik Senjata Kiaracondong was divided into two factories. The first plant consisted of ACW, PF, and PW merged into Leger Produktie Bedrijven (LPB), the second named Central Reparatie Werkplaats, which was previously Geweemarkerschool. 
An agreement of the Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference, held in Den Hag, the Netherlands, stated that the Dutch recognised Indonesia's sovereignty to the Republic of Indonesia (RIS) on 27 December 1949. Along with it, the Dutch had to gradually surrender its assets to the government of Indonesia under President Sukarno, including LPB.
LPB was later renamed Pabrik Senjata dan Munisi (Weapons and Munitions Factory) which was managed by the Indonesian Army (TNI – AD). Since then, PSM began a series of experiments, managing to produce a 9mm calibre barrel, and in November 1950, PSM managed to create a barrel with a calibre of 7.7 mm.
PSM experienced a crisis as foreign workers must return to their home country based on the Governmental Regulation under President Suharto's rule. And then centralisation of organisation was made to streamline production lines from 13 to 6 lines, with a new line for Munisi Kaliber Kecil (Small Caliber Munitions) newly formed. PSM also modernised the factory with the purchase of new machinery for the manufacture of arms, ammunition, spare parts, materials, tools and other military equipment.
After eight years running, PSM was renamed to the Army Equipment Factory (Pabal AD) on 1 December 1958. Pabal AD did not just reproduce weapons and munitions, but also other military equipment, to reduce Indonesia's dependence on foreign countries. Many potential youth were sent abroad to study ballistic weapons.
During the Pabal AD era, there were several developments in weapons technology. Pabal AD cooperated with European arms companies for the purchase and construction of a weapons factory unit, and managed to build a small arms factory. This success turned Pabal AD into the main implementing agency among the army as an industrial installation. Many product ranges were successfully produced by Pabal AD. At the same time, the Dutch government handed Factory Cassava, a cassava flour factory located in Turen, Malang, East Java – which later became the location of PT Pindad's munitions division .
Around 1962, the name was changed to Pabrik Alat Industri Angkatan Darat (PINDAD). Development in the PINDAD era was focused on the goal of coaching its tailored workers the principles of integrated management, and the latest technological advances. The PINDAD production process was conducted to support the needs of the army, and a series of experiments and evaluation of new weapons was conducted, which gave birth to a rifle that the Indonesian National Armed Forces would use as their standard for some time.
In early 1972, the government of Indonesia arranged its departments, including the Kementerian Pertahanan (Ministry of Defense). Because of this, Pindad was renamed Komando Perindustrian TNI Angkatan Darat (Industrial Command of the Army) or Kopindad on 31 January 1972. Changes were only made in the executive department in leadership development and policy management techniques. This reorganisation had a positive impact on the performance of which was originally considered to be a slow, into a company that was agile, passionate and dynamic. The work of the centre was changed to PT Purna Shadana (Pursad) with the discretion to increase the production of workmanship to support self-sufficiency and reduce dependence on foreign countries.
At the time of Operation Lotus, tasked with the liberation of East Timor from the Portuguese, PINDAD's colonial weaponry experienced many obstacles in the field, which caused Kopindad to pull back as much as 69,000 weapons that had been turned over by the Army in 1975. Furthermore, Kopindad passed transformations and modifications of several weapons, among others the Madsen-Saetter machine gun turned into the SPM.1. They produced as many as 4,550 guns and obtained the rights for a .223 calibre rifle, the SS-77.
In a further development, after the Decree of the Minister of Defense and Security/Armed Forces No . Kep/18/IV/1976 dated 28 April 1976 on the Principles of Organization and Procedure of the Indonesian National Army was given, Kopindad's name was returned to PINDAD. Their major change in command was the main implementing agency within the Army. Through these changes, PINDAD expected to develop better technological capability and productivity to meet the logistical needs of the Army. In addition, it was also expected to develop non-military infrastructure that could support national development in agriculture, plantation, mining, industrial and transportation both for government agencies, private and public.
In the 1980s, the Indonesian government aggressively promoted the technology transfer program, and came the idea to change the PINDAD's status into a limited liability company. Based on Presidential Decree 47 of 1981, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (Agency for the Assessment & Application of Technology), which stood since 1978, should pay more attention towards the process of technological transformation that Indonesia authorises, including the procurement of machinery for industrial needs.
PINDAD's status change was motivated by the limitation of space as an industry due to PINDAD's bound regulations and economic dependence on the Defense budget, therefore unable to develop its production activities. In addition, the Department of Defense considered PINDAD to be burdensome because of the cost of research and development, which made a considerable investment. Therefore, Dephankam suggested a separation between war activities and support activities. The activity of PINDAD producing infrastructure and military equipment is part of the war support activities, which must be separated from the Department of Defense, and became a limited liability company wholly owned by the Indonesian government.
BPPT chairman Prof. DR . Ing. B.J. Habibie then formed Team Corporate Plan (Corporate Planning) PINDAD through Decree No. BPPT. SL/084/KA/BPPT/VI/1981. The team was directly led by Habibie and consisted of representatives from the Department of Defense and the BPPT.
As a company, PINDAD was expected to produce military equipment needed efficiently, as well as commercial and business oriented products. It had its own budget for research, development, and industrial investment, along with developing professionalism.
Based on the results of a study team, it was found that Corporate Plan PINDAD's production composition was 20% product and 80% commercial military or non-military.
Pindad has received many awards, recently being awarded to president Budi Santoso by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono for the creation of the Pindad SS1 & Pindad SS2 rifles that enabled the Indonesian Army to win at the recent ASEAN Army Rifle Meet XVI contest in 2006.
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