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Toltec Indian Mounds State Park - Platform Mound (Scott, AR)
Toltec Indian Mounds State Park - Platform Mound (Scott, AR)
Published: 2009/09/28
Channel: marshw13
Hohokam platform mound.
Hohokam platform mound.
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: Mscatbalu
Marietta, Ohio Platform Mound
Marietta, Ohio Platform Mound
Published: 2013/12/13
Channel: Nathan L Jarrett
Hopewellian platform mound-Marietta,Ohio
Hopewellian platform mound-Marietta,Ohio
Published: 2012/09/30
Channel: johndugbryan
Marietta, Ohio Capitolium Platform Mound
Marietta, Ohio Capitolium Platform Mound
Published: 2013/12/13
Channel: Nathan L Jarrett
Download book  Expanding the View of Hohokam Platform Mounds: An Ethnographic Perspective
Download book Expanding the View of Hohokam Platform Mounds: An Ethnographic Perspective
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: Virginia Long
Our Visit to Town Creek Indian Mound
Our Visit to Town Creek Indian Mound
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Muurish Awakening
The Excavation of the Moundsville, Alabama - Mississippian Culture Archaeological Site
The Excavation of the Moundsville, Alabama - Mississippian Culture Archaeological Site
Published: 2016/02/20
Channel: Nephilim Giants
Mound 72
Mound 72
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: WikiWikiup
How To Build a Pitching Mound | ERIKTV365
How To Build a Pitching Mound | ERIKTV365
Published: 2016/04/15
Channel: ErikTV365
Seip Mound(Hopewell Culture) overview with large platform pipes.
Seip Mound(Hopewell Culture) overview with large platform pipes.
Published: 2013/01/29
Channel: johndugbryan
The Nikwasi Mound
The Nikwasi Mound
Published: 2012/11/08
Channel: Maria Papakonstantinou
crowcaws.com Emerald Mound 8.20.17 3
crowcaws.com Emerald Mound 8.20.17 3
Published: 2017/08/26
Channel: Crow Caws
Mount Zion, City of David, Temple Mound  May 26, 2016
Mount Zion, City of David, Temple Mound May 26, 2016
Published: 2016/05/26
Channel: Israel Bible Prophecy News Analysis & Ezekiel Temple Watch
Emerald Mound
Emerald Mound
Published: 2014/06/17
Channel: Firetipped
Monks Mound
Monks Mound
Published: 2017/10/19
Channel: Billyboardwalk
Dickson Mounds
Dickson Mounds
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: WikiWikiup
Natchez Grand Village and Emerald Mound
Natchez Grand Village and Emerald Mound
Published: 2014/06/15
Channel: vloguum
Mound Bottom 3-18-12
Mound Bottom 3-18-12
Published: 2012/03/19
Channel: ROFJR1
Hopewell culture -Tremper mound part 3
Hopewell culture -Tremper mound part 3
Published: 2011/12/16
Channel: johndugbryan
Towns and Temples of the Mississippian Culture-5 Sites
Towns and Temples of the Mississippian Culture-5 Sites
Published: 2009/02/22
Channel: LeroyMorte
Meteor shower 2012 emerald mound
Meteor shower 2012 emerald mound
Published: 2013/08/12
Channel: rowe39425
What appear to be stairs at the bottom of mound.
What appear to be stairs at the bottom of mound.
Published: 2015/10/11
Channel: The Mound
From the Top of the Town Creek Temple Mound
From the Top of the Town Creek Temple Mound
Published: 2013/07/19
Channel: James Smith, The Quiet Hiker
Sugarloaf Mound
Sugarloaf Mound
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: WikiWikiup
Feild Trip Town Creek Indian Mound 09.wmv
Feild Trip Town Creek Indian Mound 09.wmv
Published: 2009/12/23
Channel: TheSkyBreeze2000
The Indian Mounds
The Indian Mounds
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: mario carta
Portable pitcher
Portable pitcher's mound project
Published: 2012/10/29
Channel: Bob King
Town Creek Indian Mound-Part Three
Town Creek Indian Mound-Part Three
Published: 2011/07/13
Channel: NCHEADHUNTERS
Portable Mounds | Indoor Pitching Mounds | Portable Pitching Mound | Baseball Mounds
Portable Mounds | Indoor Pitching Mounds | Portable Pitching Mound | Baseball Mounds
Published: 2013/05/07
Channel: JustbaseballUS
Town Creek Indian Mound
Town Creek Indian Mound
Published: 2014/02/27
Channel: Kristin Barta
2014 Star Knowledge Mound Bottom Ceremony at dawn at Fall Equinox led by Chief Golden Light Eagle.
2014 Star Knowledge Mound Bottom Ceremony at dawn at Fall Equinox led by Chief Golden Light Eagle.
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: FrozenHill
AFD: Building the Pitchers Mound @ Frank Wade Field in Newport, Or.
AFD: Building the Pitchers Mound @ Frank Wade Field in Newport, Or.
Published: 2011/12/22
Channel: AFD911vids
Emerald Mound
Emerald Mound
Published: 2006/08/29
Channel: goodluckfox
Pro Power Drive Systems Pro PDS Batter Up Ind. Pitching Mound Instruction Video
Pro Power Drive Systems Pro PDS Batter Up Ind. Pitching Mound Instruction Video
Published: 2012/06/13
Channel: PowerDriveSystem
emerald mound
emerald mound
Published: 2016/02/11
Channel: triplet's skoolie adventures
Etowah Mounds Historic Site - Cartersville, Georgia
Etowah Mounds Historic Site - Cartersville, Georgia
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: Mike Does History
Emerald mound
Emerald mound
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: David Miller
Cahokia Monks Mound Bottom - August 21, 2016 - Travels with Phil
Cahokia Monks Mound Bottom - August 21, 2016 - Travels with Phil
Published: 2016/09/23
Channel: cherokeephil
Temple Mound at Crystal River State Archaeological Park
Temple Mound at Crystal River State Archaeological Park
Published: 2012/05/18
Channel: Florida Trailblazer
lunch @ town creek indian mound
lunch @ town creek indian mound
Published: 2008/11/29
Channel: Katie Culbreth
Parrot Bebop and Jeep Emerald Mound
Parrot Bebop and Jeep Emerald Mound
Published: 2016/02/21
Channel: Troy Idom
A Mississippian Indian culture town in Eastern Tennessee and some Dinosaur eggs!
A Mississippian Indian culture town in Eastern Tennessee and some Dinosaur eggs!
Published: 2013/07/22
Channel: johndugbryan
Town Creek Indian Mounds
Town Creek Indian Mounds
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Randall Guilford
Throwing an Atlatl at Town Creek Indian Mound State Historic Site
Throwing an Atlatl at Town Creek Indian Mound State Historic Site
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: TownCreek IndianMound
Edie & Lilah running across Emerald Mound 12/29/14
Edie & Lilah running across Emerald Mound 12/29/14
Published: 2015/01/03
Channel: Keith Davis
Town Creek Indian Mound 08052011
Town Creek Indian Mound 08052011
Published: 2011/08/16
Channel: Juan Stong
Archeaolympic Games 2015 at Town Creek Indian Mound
Archeaolympic Games 2015 at Town Creek Indian Mound
Published: 2015/06/06
Channel: Kevin Spradlin
Emerald Mound,  Natchez, Mississippi
Emerald Mound, Natchez, Mississippi
Published: 2014/01/27
Channel: Nathan L Jarrett
Walking around the Emerald Mound, Mississippi, summer 2011
Walking around the Emerald Mound, Mississippi, summer 2011
Published: 2015/03/06
Channel: David Hardy
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Kincaid Site in Massac Co., Illinois, showing platform mounds. Illustration by artist Herb Roe

A platform mound is any earthwork or mound intended to support a structure or activity.

Eastern North America[edit]

A diagram showing the various components of Eastern North American indigenous ceremonial substructure mounds

The indigenous peoples of North America built substructure mounds for well over a thousand years starting in the Archaic period and continuing through the Woodland period. Many different archaeological cultures (Poverty Point culture, Troyville culture, Coles Creek culture, Plaquemine culture and Mississippian culture) of North Americas Eastern Woodlands are specifically well known for using platform mounds as a central aspect of their overarching religious practices and beliefs. These platform mounds are usually four-sided truncated pyramids, steeply sided, with steps built of wooden logs ascending one side of the earthworks. When European first arrived in North America, the peoples of the Mississippian culture were still using and building platform mounds. Documented uses for Mississippian platform mounds include semi-public chief's house platforms, public temple platforms, mortuary platforms, charnel house platforms, earth lodge/town house platforms, residence platforms, square ground and rotunda platforms, and dance platforms.[1]

Many of the mounds underwent multiple episodes of mound construction, with the mound becoming larger with each event. The site of a mound was usually a site with special significance, either a pre-existing mortuary site or civic structure. This site was then covered with a layer of basket-transported soil and clay known as mound fill and a new structure constructed on its summit. At periodic intervals averaged about twenty years these structures would be removed, possibly ritually destroyed as part of renewal ceremonies,[2] and a new layer of fill added, along with a new structure on the now higher summit. Sometimes the surface of the mounds would get a several inches thick coat of brightly colored clay.[2][3] These layers also incorporated layers of different kinds of clay, soil and sod, an elaborate engineering technique to forestall slumping of the mounds and to ensure their steep sides did not collapse. This pattern could be repeated many times during the life of a site.[4] The large amounts of fill needed for the mounds left large holes in the landscape now known by archaeologists as "borrow pits". These pits were sometimes left to fill with water and stocked with fish.[5]

Some mounds were developed with separate levels (or terraces) and aprons, such as Emerald Mound, which is one large terrace with two smaller mounds on its summit; or Monks Mound, which has four separate levels and stands close to 100 feet (30 m) in height. Monks Mound had at least ten separate periods of mound construction over a 200-year period. Some of the terraces and aprons on the mound seem to have been added to stop slumping of the enormous mound.[6]

Although the mounds were primarily meant as substructure mounds for buildings or activities, sometimes burials did occur. Intrusive burials occurred when a grave was dug into a mound and the body or a bundle of defleshed, disarticulated bones was deposited into it. Mound C at Etowah has been found to have more than 100 intrusive burials into the final layer of the mound, with many grave goods such as Mississippian copper plates (Etowah plates), monolithic stone axes, ceremonial pottery and carved whelk shell gorgets. Also interred in this mound was a paired set of white marble Mississippian stone statues.[3]

Interpretations[edit]

A long-standing interpretation of Mississippian mounds comes from Vernon James Knight, who stated that the Mississippian platform mounds were one of the three "sacra", or objects of sacred display, of the Mississippian religion - also see Earth/fertility cult and Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. His logic is based on analogy to ethnographic and historic data on related Native American tribal groups in the Southeastern United States.

Knight suggests a microcosmic ritual organization based around a "native earth" autochthony, agriculture, fertility, and purification scheme, in which mounds and the site layout replicate cosmology. Mound rebuilding episodes are construed as rituals of burial and renewal, while the four-sided construction acts to replicate the flat earth and the four quarters of the earth.[7][8]

Platform mounds - other cultures[edit]

The use of platform mounds is documented elsewhere in the world, including:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Owen Lindauer; John H. Blitz (1997). "Higher Ground: The Archaeology of North American Platform Mounds" (PDF). Journal of Archaeological Research. 5 (2). Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  2. ^ a b Raymond Fogelson (September 20, 2004). Handbook of North American Indians : Southeast. Smithsonian Institution. p. 741. ISBN 978-0-16-072300-1. 
  3. ^ a b Henry van der Schalie; Paul W. Parmalee (September 1960). "The Etowah Site, Mound C :Barlow County, Georgia". Florida Anthropologist. 8: 37–39. 
  4. ^ Gregory Vogel. "Cavanaugh : A Late Prehistoric Platform Mound in Western Arkansas". Retrieved 2011-10-26. 
  5. ^ "Alabama Archaeology: Prehistoric Alabama". Retrieved 2011-10-26. 
  6. ^ Skele, Mike (1988). "The Great Knob". Studies in Illinois Archaeology. Springfield, Illinois: Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (4): 102–103. ISBN 0-942579-03-8. 
  7. ^ Knight, Vernon J., Jr. (1981). Mississippian Ritual (Ph.D. thesis). University of Florida. 
  8. ^ Knight, Vernon J., Jr. (1986). "The Institutional Organization of Mississippian Religion". American Antiquity. 51: 675–687. doi:10.2307/280859. 

External links[edit]

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