Play Video
1
Minecraft Xbox - Playground [241]
Minecraft Xbox - Playground [241]
::2014/10/25::
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2
Playground con Juanchi y Juli: Video Musical ¨En un animal¨
Playground con Juanchi y Juli: Video Musical ¨En un animal¨
::2013/11/01::
Play Video
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TuTiTu Specials | Playground Toys for Children
TuTiTu Specials | Playground Toys for Children
::2014/02/19::
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เรื่องสมมุติ - Playground
เรื่องสมมุติ - Playground
::2013/08/18::
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soulmate - playground
soulmate - playground
::2012/06/24::
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Indoor Playground Fun Cool |By TheChildhoodlife
Indoor Playground Fun Cool |By TheChildhoodlife
::2013/09/19::
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คนแปลกหน้าคนนี้ - Playground [Official MV HD]
คนแปลกหน้าคนนี้ - Playground [Official MV HD]
::2013/08/24::
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Playground con Juanchi y Juli: Congelados
Playground con Juanchi y Juli: Congelados
::2013/11/07::
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Indoor Playground Fun |By TheChildhoodLife
Indoor Playground Fun |By TheChildhoodLife
::2013/01/09::
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Indoor playground fun
Indoor playground fun
::2009/09/18::
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Abdur - Nina Bobo (SUCI Playground eps 03)
Abdur - Nina Bobo (SUCI Playground eps 03)
::2014/07/17::
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มุม - Playground
มุม - Playground
::2014/02/26::
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TuTiTu Playground
TuTiTu Playground
::2012/08/24::
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Orang Jawa Gemar Dongeng Eropa (SUCI Playground eps 06)
Orang Jawa Gemar Dongeng Eropa (SUCI Playground eps 06)
::2014/08/07::
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Vamos a Pintar - Playground
Vamos a Pintar - Playground
::2014/09/29::
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Frozen Elsa Kids Princess Castle & Barbie Park Playground ♥ Disney Princess Anna Dolls
Frozen Elsa Kids Princess Castle & Barbie Park Playground ♥ Disney Princess Anna Dolls
::2014/11/06::
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ปล่อยวาง-PLAYGROUND
ปล่อยวาง-PLAYGROUND
::2012/10/12::
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Dodit - Move On Setelah Close Mic (SUCI Playground)
Dodit - Move On Setelah Close Mic (SUCI Playground)
::2014/07/10::
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Indoor Playground Fun 2013 | By TheChildhoodlife
Indoor Playground Fun 2013 | By TheChildhoodlife
::2013/05/22::
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Стрим Dragon Age: Inquisition от PlayGround.ru и конкурс от AVerMedia!
Стрим Dragon Age: Inquisition от PlayGround.ru и конкурс от AVerMedia!
::2014/11/22::
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Playground con Juanchi y Juli: Vení a Playground
Playground con Juanchi y Juli: Vení a Playground
::2013/05/13::
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'Anniversary' - Playground [Official MV HD]
::2013/01/10::
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23
Видеодайджест от PlayGround.ru. Выпуск #199
Видеодайджест от PlayGround.ru. Выпуск #199
::2014/11/22::
Play Video
24
[MV] ใจหาย / Playground
[MV] ใจหาย / Playground
::2011/11/20::
Play Video
25
Playground con Fer y Liesl: Video Musical ¨Ven a Playground¨
Playground con Fer y Liesl: Video Musical ¨Ven a Playground¨
::2013/07/01::
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26
Familia Shake -  Playground Dos Monstros
Familia Shake - Playground Dos Monstros
::2011/10/23::
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27
Just some Outdoor Playground Fun with Sammie - Exercise
Just some Outdoor Playground Fun with Sammie - Exercise
::2014/09/13::
Play Video
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Color Changers Cars & Toy Story Slide n Surprise Playground Playset Colour Shifters Disney Pixar
Color Changers Cars & Toy Story Slide n Surprise Playground Playset Colour Shifters Disney Pixar
::2013/02/11::
Play Video
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Playground - อยากให้ช่วงเวลาเหล่านี้อยู่กับเราไปนานๆได้ไหม
Playground - อยากให้ช่วงเวลาเหล่านี้อยู่กับเราไปนานๆได้ไหม
::2008/03/27::
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"Voy con mi sombrero" - Playground - Juli y Juanchi
"Voy con mi sombrero" - Playground - Juli y Juanchi
::2014/06/18::
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PLAYGROUND MUSIC FESTIVAL RECIFE 2013 | Official | Commotion HD
PLAYGROUND MUSIC FESTIVAL RECIFE 2013 | Official | Commotion HD
::2013/06/12::
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TuTiTu Specials | Playground Toy and Song for Children
TuTiTu Specials | Playground Toy and Song for Children
::2014/11/02::
Play Video
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[Karaoke - Thaisub] GOT7 - Playground
[Karaoke - Thaisub] GOT7 - Playground
::2014/01/20::
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Playground Legends | Day 4
Playground Legends | Day 4
::2014/05/10::
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VIDEO OFICIAL - PLAYGROUND TOUR 10 ANOS
VIDEO OFICIAL - PLAYGROUND TOUR 10 ANOS
::2014/03/10::
Play Video
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Видеодайджест от PlayGround.ru. Выпуск #198
Видеодайджест от PlayGround.ru. Выпуск #198
::2014/11/15::
Play Video
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Playground: Formemos una Banda
Playground: Formemos una Banda
::2014/09/29::
Play Video
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GREATEST SLIDE ON THE PLAYGROUND!
GREATEST SLIDE ON THE PLAYGROUND!
::2014/05/19::
Play Video
39
Alok tocando no Palco Play Tech  na Playground São Paulo
Alok tocando no Palco Play Tech na Playground São Paulo
::2014/09/30::
Play Video
40
Премьерный трейлер Tales from the Borderlands [Перевод PlayGround.ru]
Премьерный трейлер Tales from the Borderlands [Перевод PlayGround.ru]
::2014/11/22::
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Kids Playground ,Girls Playing at a PlayGround.
Kids Playground ,Girls Playing at a PlayGround.
::2013/10/15::
Play Video
42
Apas National High School Playground Demonstration
Apas National High School Playground Demonstration
::2014/11/07::
Play Video
43
Another Bad Creation - Playground
Another Bad Creation - Playground
::2009/12/24::
Play Video
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IN FLAMES - Sounds Of A Playground Fading (OFFICIAL VIDEO)
IN FLAMES - Sounds Of A Playground Fading (OFFICIAL VIDEO)
::2013/09/19::
Play Video
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Indoor playground fun HD , Funderdome , Indoor  Play Area , Children
Indoor playground fun HD , Funderdome , Indoor Play Area , Children's Play Area ,Plac zabaw, pool
::2013/05/22::
Play Video
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En un Animal - Playground
En un Animal - Playground
::2014/09/18::
Play Video
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A la Rayuela - Playground
A la Rayuela - Playground
::2014/09/29::
Play Video
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Ultimate Playground Fails Compilation // FailArmy
Ultimate Playground Fails Compilation // FailArmy
::2014/05/20::
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Indoor Playground Fun - Star Wars Force FX Lightsaber Blue
Indoor Playground Fun - Star Wars Force FX Lightsaber Blue
::2014/01/08::
Play Video
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Kids Surprised w/ Huge Backyard Playground! (w/ Skylander Boy and Girl)
Kids Surprised w/ Huge Backyard Playground! (w/ Skylander Boy and Girl)
::2014/08/28::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This article is about an area for play. For other uses, see Playground (disambiguation).
Combination playground structure for small children; slides, climbers (stairs in this case), playhouse

A playground, playpark, or play area is a place with a specific design to allow children to play there. It may be indoors but is typically outdoors (where it may be called a tot lot in some regions).[1] While a playground is usually designed for children, some playgrounds are designed for other age groups. Berlin's Preußenpark for example is designed for senior adults age 70 or higher.[citation needed] It is possible for a playground to exclude children if they are below the required age for entrance.

Modern playgrounds often have recreational equipment such as the seesaw, merry-go-round, swingset, slide, jungle gym, chin-up bars, sandbox, spring rider, monkey bars, overhead ladder, trapeze rings, playhouses, and mazes, many of which help children develop physical coordination, strength, and flexibility, as well as providing recreation and enjoyment. Common in modern playgrounds are play structures that link many different pieces of equipment.

Playgrounds often also have facilities for playing informal games of adult sports, such as a baseball diamond, a skating arena, a basketball court, or a tether ball.

Public playground equipment refers to equipment intended for use in the play areas of parks, schools, child care facilities, institutions, multiple family dwellings, restaurants, resorts, and recreational developments, and other areas of public use.

A type of playground called a playscape is designed to provide a safe environment for play in a natural setting.

History

The idea of the playground as a method for imbuing children with a sense of fair play and good manners originated in Germany where playgrounds were erected in connection to schools,[2] although the first purpose built public-access playground was opened in a park in Manchester, England in 1859.[3] Over time, organized playing areas have been adopted by other countries of the world and have become commonplace.

The first playground in the USA was built in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park in 1887.[4] Recognizing the need for playgrounds, former President Theodore Roosevelt stated in 1907:

City streets are unsatisfactory playgrounds for children because of the danger, because most good games are against the law, because they are too hot in summer, and because in crowded sections of the city they are apt to be schools of crime. Neither do small back yards nor ornamental grass plots meet the needs of any but the very small children. Older children who would play vigorous games must have places especially set aside for them; and, since play is a fundamental need, playgrounds should be provided for every child as much as schools. This means that they must be distributed over the cities in such a way as to be within walking distance of every boy and girl, as most children can not afford to pay carfare.[5]

In post war London the landscape architect and children’s rights campaigner Lady Allen of Hurtwood introduced and popularised the concept of the ’junk playground’ - where the equipment was constructed from the recycled junk and rubble left over from the Blitz. She campaigned for facilities for children growing up in the new high-rise developments in Britain's cities and wrote a series of illustrated books on the subject of playgrounds, and at least one book on adventure playgrounds, spaces for free creativity by children, which helped the idea spread worldwide. [6]

Playgrounds in the Soviet Union

Moydodyr installed in the playground in Novopolotsk (Belarus).

Playgrounds were an integral part of urban culture in the USSR. In the 1970s and 1980s, there were playgrounds in almost every park in many Soviet cities. Playground apparatus was reasonably standard all over the country; most of them consisted of metallic bars with relatively few wooden parts, and were manufactured in state-owned factories. Some of the most common constructions were the carousel, sphere, seesaw, rocket, bridge, etc.

Design

Playground design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience. Separate play areas might be offered to accommodate very young children. Single, large, open parks tend to not to be used by older schoolgirls or less aggressive children, because there is little opportunity for them to escape more aggressive children.[7] By contrast, a park that offers multiple play areas is used equally by boys and girls.

Effects on child development

A weblike structure in many bright colors with several pendulous appendages hanging from it, itself hanging from the textile roof of an open wooden structure. There are children playing with the pendulous appendages and seated around the side, where many backpacks and shoes have also been left
Colorful sheltered playground at Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, Japan

Professionals recognize that the social skills that children develop on the playground often become lifelong skill sets that are carried forward into their adulthood. Independent research concludes that playgrounds are among the most important environments for children outside the home. Most forms of play are essential for healthy development, but free, spontaneous play—the kind that occurs on playgrounds—is the most beneficial type of play.

Exciting, engaging and challenging playground equipment is important to keep children happy while still developing their learning abilities. These should be developed in order to suit different groups of children for different stages of learning, such as specialist playground equipment for nursery & pre-school children teaching them basic numeracy & vocabulary, to building a child's creativity and imagination with role play panels or puzzles.

There is a general consensus that physical activity reduces the risk of psychological problems in children and fosters their self-esteem.[citation needed] The American Chief Medical Officer’s report (Department of Health, 2004), stated that a review of available research suggests that the health benefits of physical activity in children are predominantly seen in the amelioration of risk factors for disease, avoidance of weight gain, achieving a peak bone mass and mental well-being.

Evidence suggests that children who participate in physical activity improve their self-esteem.[citation needed] Ekeland, Heian and Hagan (2005) and Gruber[8] found that exercise programmes had a significant positive effect on children's self-esteem.

Commentators argue that the quality of a child’s exercise experience can affect their self-esteem. Ajzen TPB (1991) promotes the notion that children’s self-esteem is enhanced through the encouragement of physical mastery and self-development. It can be seen that playgrounds provide an ideal opportunity for children to master physical skills, such as learning to swing, balance and climb. Personal development may be gained through the enhancement of skills, such as playing, communicating and cooperating with other children and adults in the playground.

It can also be seen that public and private playgrounds act as a preventative health measure amongst young people because they promote physical activity at a stage in children’s lives when they are active and not yet at risk from opting out of physical activity.[citation needed]

Seesaw with a crowd of children playing
Rope bridge for improving balance

Children have devised many playground games and pastimes. But because playgrounds are usually subject to adult supervision and oversight, young children's street culture often struggles to fully thrive there. Research by Robin Moore[9] concluded shown that playgrounds need to be balanced with marginal areas that (to adults) appear to be derelict or wasteground but to children they are area's that they can claim for themselves, ideally a wooded area or field.

For many children, it is their favorite time of day when they get to be on the playground for free time or recess. It acts as a release for them from the pressures of learning during the day. They know that time on the playground is their own time.[citation needed]

A type of playground called a playscape can provide children with the necessary feeling of ownership that Moore describes above. Playscapes can also provide parents with the assurance of their child's safety and wellbeing, which may not be prevalent in an open field or wooded area.

Funding

In the UK, several organisations exist that help provide funding for schools and local authorities to construct playgrounds. These include the Biffa Award, which provides funding under the Small Grants Scheme; Funding Central, which offers support for voluntary organisations and social enterprises; and the Community Construction Fund, a flagship programme by Norfolk County Council. [10]

Safety

Safety, in the context of playgrounds, is generally understood as the prevention of injuries. Risk aversion and fear of lawsuits on the part of the adults who design playgrounds prioritizes injury prevention above other factors, such as cost or developmental benefit to the users.[11] It is important that children gradually develop the skill of risk assessment, and a completely safe environment does not allow that.

Sometimes the safety of playgrounds is disputed in school or among regulators. Over at least the last twenty years, the kinds of equipment to be found in playgrounds has changed, often towards safer equipment built with plastic. For example, an older jungle gym might be constructed entirely from steel bars, while newer ones tend to have a minimal steel framework while providing a web of nylon ropes for children to climb on. Playgrounds with equipment that children may fall off often use mulch on the ground to help cushion the impact.[12]

Playgrounds are also made differently for different age groups. Often schools have a playground that is taller and more advanced for older schoolchildren and a lower playground with less risk of falling for younger children.

Playground at Yonkers, NY

Safety discussions do not normally include an evaluation of the unintended consequences of injury prevention, such as older children who do not exercise at the playground because the playground is too boring.[13]

Safety efforts sometimes paradoxically increase the likelihood and severity of injuries because of how people choose to use playground equipment. For example, older children may choose to climb on the outside of a "safe" but boring play structure, rather than using it the way the designers intended. Similarly, rather than letting young children play on playground slides by themselves, some injury-averse parents seat the children on the adult's lap and go down the slide together.[14] This seems safer at first glance, but if the child's shoe catches on the edge of the slide, this arrangement frequently results in the child's leg being broken.[14] If the child had been permitted to use the slide independently, then this injury would not happen, because when the shoe caught, the child would have stopped sliding rather than being propelled down the slide by the adult's weight.[14]

Also concerning the safety of playgrounds is the material in which they are built. Wooden playgrounds act as a more natural environment for the children to play but can cause even more minor injuries. Slivers are the main concern when building with wood material. Wet weather is also a threat to children playing on wooden structures. Most woods are treated and do not wear terribly fast, but with enough rain, wooden playgrounds can become slippery and dangerous for children to be on.

Regulation

In the United States, the Consumer Product Safety Commission and the American National Standards Institute have created a Standardized Document and Training System for certification of Playground Safety Inspectors. These regulations are nationwide and provide a basis for safe playground installation and maintenance practices. ASTM F1487-07 deals with specific requirements regarding issues such as play ground layout, use zones, and various test criteria for determining play ground safety. ASTM F2373 covers public use play equipment for children 6–24 months old. This information can be applied effectively only by a trained C.P.S.I. A National Listing of Trained Playground Safety Inspectors is available for many states. A Certified Playground Safety Inspector (CPSI) is a career that was developed by the National Playground Safety Institute (NPSI) and is recognized nationally by the National Recreation and Park Association or N.R.P.A. (Some information sources offer interactive examples[15] of playground equipment that violates CPSC guidelines.)

In Australia, Standards Australia is responsible for the publication of the playground safety Standards AS/NS4422, AS/NZS4486.1 and AS4685 Parts 1 to 6. The University of Technology Sydney is responsible for the training and accreditation of playground inspectors.[16] The Register of Playground Inspectors Australia lists all the individuals who have been certified to inspector playgrounds within Australia.[17]

European Standards EN 1177 specifies the requirements for surfaces used in playgrounds. For each material type and height of equipment it specifies a minimum depth of material required.[18] EN 1176 covers playground equipment standards.[19][20] In the UK, playground inspectors can sit the examinations of the Register of Play Inspectors International at the three required levels - routine, operational and annual. Annual inspectors are able to undertake the post-installation inspections recommended by EN 1176.

Prevention strategies

Because the majority of playground injuries are due to falls from equipment, injury prevention efforts are primarily directed at reducing the likelihood of a child falling and reducing the likelihood of a severe injury if the child does fall. This is done by:

  • reducing the maximum fall height of equipment, primarily by reducing the overall height of anything a child might climb on or into;
  • reducing the likelihood of falling from equipment, through using barriers, discouraging climbing, and making upper surfaces inconvenient or uncomfortable for climbing or sitting on; and
  • installing a more flexible surface under and around play equipment, so that a child who falls is less likely to break a bone.

How effective these strategies are at preventing injuries is debated by experts, because when playgrounds are made from padded materials, children often take more risks.[13][21]

Playground injury

Each year in the United States, emergency departments treat more than 200,000 children ages 14 and younger for playground-related injuries.[22][23] Approximately 156,040 (75.8%) of the 1999 injuries occurred on equipment designed for public use; 46,930 (22.8%) occurred on equipment designed for home use; and 2,880 (1.4%) occurred on homemade playground equipment (primarily rope swings).

Percentage of injuries involving public equipment
  • About 46% occurred in schools.
  • About 31% occurred in public parks.
  • About 10% occurred in commercial childcare centers.
  • About 3% occurred in home childcare.
  • About 3% occurred in apartment complexes.
  • About 2% occurred in fast food restaurants.
  • About 9% occurred in other locations.

From January 1990 to August 2000, CPSC received reports of 147 deaths to children younger than 15 that involved playground equipment.

  • 70% of those deaths occurred in home
  • 30% of those deaths occurred in public use

Girls were involved in a slightly higher percentage of injuries (55%) than were boys (45%).

Injuries to the head and face accounted for 49% of injuries to children 0-4, while injuries to the arm and hand accounted for 49% of injuries to children ages 5–14. Approximately 15% of the injuries were classified as severe, with 3% requiring hospitalization. The most prevalent diagnoses were fractures (39%), lacerations (22%), contusions/abrasions (20%), strains/sprains (11%).

For children ages 0–4, climbers (40%) had the highest incidence rates, followed by slides (33%). For children ages 5–14, climbing equipment (56%) had the highest incidence rates, followed by swings (24%). Most injuries on public playground equipment were associated with climbing equipment (53%), swings (19%), and slides (17%).

Falls to the surface was a contributing factor in 79% of all injuries. On home equipment, 81% were associated with falls.

In 1995, playground-related injuries among children ages 14 and younger cost an estimated $1.2 billion.[24]

On public playgrounds, more injuries occur on climbers than on any other equipment.[23] On home playgrounds, swings are responsible for most injuries.[23]

Playgrounds in low-income areas have more maintenance-related hazards than playgrounds in high-income areas. For example, playgrounds in low-income areas had significantly more trash, rusty play equipment, and damaged fall surfaces.[25]

Unintended consequences

A playground being built for a homeowner's backyard as part of a handyman project. Modern playgrounds can have many options besides swingsets, including sandboxes, rope-climbs, tic-tac-toe games, a fort with dormer roofs and a chimney, a slide, and other amenities.

As a result of what some experts say is overprotectiveness driven by a fear of lawsuits, playgrounds have been designed to be, or at least to appear, excessively safe.[13] This overprotectiveness may protect the playground owner from lawsuits, but it appears to result in a decreased sense of achievement and increased fears in children.[13]

The equipment limitations result in the children receiving less value from the play time.[13] The enclosed, padded, constrained, low structures prevent the child from taking risks and developing a sense of mastery over his or her environment. Successfully taking a risk is empowering to children. For example, a child climbing to the top of a tall jungle gym feels happy about successfully managing the challenging climb to the top, and he experiences the thrill of being in a precarious, high position. By contrast, the child on a low piece of equipment, designed to reduce the incidence of injuries from falls, experiences no such thrill, sense of mastery, or accomplishment. Additionally, a lack of experience with heights as a child is associated with increased acrophobia (fear of heights) in adults.[13]

The appearance of safety encourages unreasonable risk-taking in children, who might take more reasonable risks if they correctly understood that it is possible to break a bone on the soft surfaces under most modern equipment.[13][21]

Finally, the playground that is designed to appear low-risk is boring, especially to older children.[13] As a result, they tend to seek out alternative play areas, which may be very unsafe.[13]

Risk management is an important life skill, and risk aversion in playgrounds is unhelpful in the long term. Experts studying child development such as Tim Gill have written about the over-protective bias in provision for children, particularly with playgrounds.[21] Instead of a constructed playground, allowing children to play in a natural environment such as open land or a park is sometimes recommended; children gain a better sense of balance playing on uneven ground, and learn to interpret the complexity and signals of nature more effectively.[21]

Types

Playgrounds can be

Inclusive playgrounds

A play area, titled Wonder World, at the departure lounge of Suvarnabhumi International Airport, Bangkok.

Universally designed playgrounds are created to be accessible to all children. There are three primary components to a higher level of inclusive play:

  • physical accessibility;
  • age and developmental appropriateness; and
  • sensory-stimulating activity.

Some children with disabilities or developmental differences do not interact with playgrounds in the same way as typical children. A playground designed without considering these children's needs may not be accessible or interesting to them.

Most efforts at inclusive playgrounds have been aimed at accommodating wheelchair users. For example, rubber paths and ramps replace sand pits and steps, and some features are placed at ground level. Efforts to accommodate children on the autism spectrum, who may find playgrounds overstimulating or who may have difficulty interacting with other children, have been less common.[26]

Natural playgrounds

Main article: Playscape

"Natural playgrounds" are play environments that blend natural materials, features, and indigenous vegetation with creative landforms to create purposely complex interplays of natural, environmental objects in ways that challenge and fascinate children and teach them about the wonders and intricacies of the natural world while they play within it.

Play components may include earth shapes (sculptures), environmental art, indigenous vegetation (trees, shrubs, grasses, flowers, lichens, mosses), boulders or other rock structures, dirt and sand, natural fences (stone, willow, wooden), textured pathways, and natural water features.

Playgrounds for adults

Further information: Outdoor gym and Fitness trail

China and some countries in Europe have playgrounds designed for adults.[27] These are outdoor spaces that feature fitness equipment designed for use primarily by adults, such as chin-up bars.

Metaphorical uses

Playground is also be used as a metaphor to describe a place for some types of play. For example, a laboratory may also be referred to as playground for a scientist.

See also

References

  1. ^ July 18, 2006 (2006-07-18). "Double-Tongued Dictionary definition of "tot lot"". Doubletongued.org. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  2. ^ http://www.espplay.co.uk/news/the-history-of-playgrounds
  3. ^ "The ‘Generationless’ Playground: Fun and Fitness for All". Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  4. ^ "The Politics of Playgrounds, a History - Arts & Lifestyle". The Atlantic Cities. 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  5. ^ To Cuno H. Rudolph, Washington Playground Association, February 16, 1907. Presidential Addresses and State Papers VI, 1163.
  6. ^ "Lady Allen of Hurtwood archive". National Children's Bureau. 
  7. ^ Foran, Clare (16 September 2013) "How to Design a City for Women" The Atlantic Cities.
  8. ^ As cited in Biddle and Mutrie, 2001, p186
  9. ^ Childhood's Domain: Play and Place, 1986
  10. ^ "Funding Advice". Fenland Leisure. 
  11. ^ Gill, Tim (2007). No fear: Growing up in a Risk Averse society. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-903080-08-5. 
  12. ^ "EPA Playground Surfaces". Epa.gov. 2006-06-28. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tierney, John (18 July 2011). "Can a Playground Be Too Safe?" The New York Times
  14. ^ a b c Parker-Pope, Tara (23 April 2012). "Well: At Playground, Child Plus Lap Can Equal Danger - NYTimes.com". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  15. ^ http://www.playgroundinspectionusa.com/partsgallery.html
  16. ^ "UTS: Engineering - Playground safety training". Eng.uts.edu.au. 2012-10-23. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  17. ^ "UTS: Register of Playground Inspectors Australia - engineering and information technology at UTS". Feit.uts.edu.au. 2012-11-21. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  18. ^ "Impact Absorbing Playground Surfacing". EN 1177. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  19. ^ The Royal Society for the prevention of Accidents: EN1176 Playground Equipment Standard[dead link]
  20. ^ "SMP Specifiers Guide to EN 1176 parts 1 To 7 Playground Equipment (A light-hearted guide)". Smp.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  21. ^ a b c d Gill, Tim (2007). No fear: Growing up in a Risk Averse Society. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. p. 81. ISBN 978-1-903080-08-5. 
  22. ^ "U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Tips for Public Playground Safety, Publication #324" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-12-04. 
  23. ^ a b c Tinsworth D, McDonald J. Special Study: Injuries and Deaths Associated with Children’s Playground Equipment. Washington (DC): U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission; 2001.
  24. ^ Office of Technology Assessment, U.S. Congress. Risks to Students in School. Washington (DC): U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.
  25. ^ Suecoff SA, Avner JR, Chou KJ, Crain EF. A Comparison of New York City Playground Hazards in High- and Low–Income Areas. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1999;153:363–6.
  26. ^ Play! A Portal to New Worlds Pamela Wolfberg, Ph.d, Inclusive Play Advisory Board, 2009
  27. ^ Hu, Winnie (1 July 2012). "New York Introduces Its First Adult Playground". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 July 2012. 
  • Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.
  • Biddle, S. J., & Mutrie, N. (2001). Psychology of physical activity: Determinants, well-being and interventions. Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Ekeland, E., Heian, M., & Hagen, K.B. (2005). Can exercise improve self-esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 792-798.
  • Department of Health (2004). The benefits of regular physical activity. A report from the Chief Medical Officer. At least five days a week: evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health. Retrieved September 25, 2006 from http://www.dh.gov/PublicationsAndStatistics/Publications/ PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidanceArticles/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=40809948chk=1Ft1Of.

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