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enra " pleiades "
enra " pleiades "
::2013/12/27::
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History of the Pleiades - Conscious Matrix Communication
History of the Pleiades - Conscious Matrix Communication
::2012/12/15::
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3
Seven Sisters or Pleiades (M45) - Deep Sky Videos
Seven Sisters or Pleiades (M45) - Deep Sky Videos
::2012/06/11::
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A message from the Pleiadians
A message from the Pleiadians
::2011/03/26::
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Alcyon Pleiades 21-3 - Bermuda Triangle, Malaysia Air flights, Mysteries on the 27th Parallel
Alcyon Pleiades 21-3 - Bermuda Triangle, Malaysia Air flights, Mysteries on the 27th Parallel
::2014/07/20::
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ALCYON PLEIADES - 29th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
ALCYON PLEIADES - 29th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
::2014/05/11::
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7
PLEIADES Short Film
PLEIADES Short Film
::2012/09/06::
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Alcyon Pleiades 21 Pt.1 - Pleiadean Photonic DNA Recodification
Alcyon Pleiades 21 Pt.1 - Pleiadean Photonic DNA Recodification
::2014/05/25::
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9
Alcyon Pleiades 15 Pt.1-Comet ISON and its effects, Obama
Alcyon Pleiades 15 Pt.1-Comet ISON and its effects, Obama's dictatorship...
::2013/10/12::
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10
Bashar - Pleiades - Adronis On Annunaki, Nephilims, Elohim
Bashar - Pleiades - Adronis On Annunaki, Nephilims, Elohim
::2012/02/27::
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11
Pleiades The Divine Power Within
Pleiades The Divine Power Within
::2012/07/02::
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Message from the Pleiades.mov
Message from the Pleiades.mov
::2012/07/03::
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Sundance Chief- Lakota Star Connection to Pleiades
Sundance Chief- Lakota Star Connection to Pleiades
::2012/04/22::
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Grand Event -- The Beginning -- April 15th Blood Moon -- Pleiades
Grand Event -- The Beginning -- April 15th Blood Moon -- Pleiades
::2014/04/01::
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15
ALCYON PLEIADES 6 - The gold fraud and the deceit of the alien oppressors
ALCYON PLEIADES 6 - The gold fraud and the deceit of the alien oppressors
::2013/03/29::
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16
Contact from Pleiades Film
Contact from Pleiades Film
::2014/01/14::
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Pleiades Message to the Planet Earth September-1-2013
Pleiades Message to the Planet Earth September-1-2013
::2013/09/02::
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18
ALCYON PLEIADES - 31st NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
ALCYON PLEIADES - 31st NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
::2014/07/05::
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19
The Flower of life Via Pleiades, The Indigo
The Flower of life Via Pleiades, The Indigo's Guide to Earth Star (part 1)
::2014/02/08::
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ALCYON PLEIADES - 30th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
ALCYON PLEIADES - 30th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
::2014/06/03::
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21
Alcyon Pleiades (Part 1 of 3) - Original Version
Alcyon Pleiades (Part 1 of 3) - Original Version
::2012/12/06::
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22
ALCYON PLEIADES 8 - Tesla
ALCYON PLEIADES 8 - Tesla's new source of energy and neutralising the dominating aliens
::2013/04/23::
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23
ALCYON PLEIADES - 24th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
ALCYON PLEIADES - 24th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
::2014/01/19::
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24
Pleiades: Grand Event - The Beginning - April 15th Blood Moon - March 31, 2014
Pleiades: Grand Event - The Beginning - April 15th Blood Moon - March 31, 2014
::2014/04/02::
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25
ALCYON PLEIADES - 25th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
ALCYON PLEIADES - 25th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
::2014/02/09::
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26
Alcyon Pleiades (Part 2 of 3) - Original Version
Alcyon Pleiades (Part 2 of 3) - Original Version
::2013/01/05::
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27
YuGiOh! ARC-V XYZ Summon: Constellar Pleiades
YuGiOh! ARC-V XYZ Summon: Constellar Pleiades
::2014/06/08::
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28
Pleiadians - The Pleiades
Pleiadians - The Pleiades
::2013/12/19::
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29
Xenakis: Pleiades, PEAUX - So Percussion and the Meehan Perkins Duo
Xenakis: Pleiades, PEAUX - So Percussion and the Meehan Perkins Duo
::2011/10/01::
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Alcyon Pleiades 19 Pt.3 - World Genocide, New Concentration Camps
Alcyon Pleiades 19 Pt.3 - World Genocide, New Concentration Camps
::2014/03/15::
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31
UFO Contact from the Pleiades - Wendelle Stevens and Billy Meier Chapter 1 Asket and the DALs
UFO Contact from the Pleiades - Wendelle Stevens and Billy Meier Chapter 1 Asket and the DALs
::2012/05/19::
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Pleiades- Beta Radio
Pleiades- Beta Radio
::2011/08/27::
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Pleiades vocal group
Pleiades vocal group
::2012/07/22::
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REIKI PARA LA SANACION Y MEDITACION  - DOORWAY TO THE PLEIADES" HEALING MEDITATION MUSIC
REIKI PARA LA SANACION Y MEDITACION - DOORWAY TO THE PLEIADES" HEALING MEDITATION MUSIC
::2013/08/13::
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Alcyon Pleiades 21 Pt.2 - Extraterrestrial Mentors and Plasma Ships of Light
Alcyon Pleiades 21 Pt.2 - Extraterrestrial Mentors and Plasma Ships of Light
::2014/06/13::
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ALCYON PLEIADES 7 - The end of Illuminati dominion, crisis in the Vatican and its interest in aliens
ALCYON PLEIADES 7 - The end of Illuminati dominion, crisis in the Vatican and its interest in aliens
::2013/04/15::
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Encardia - Pleiades - Women...of stone! - March 2013
Encardia - Pleiades - Women...of stone! - March 2013
::2013/04/03::
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PLEIADES - FIRE FIRE! (Clipe Oficial)
PLEIADES - FIRE FIRE! (Clipe Oficial)
::2011/07/14::
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UFO Contact from the Pleiades - Chapter 4 Part 1
UFO Contact from the Pleiades - Chapter 4 Part 1
::2012/06/04::
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40
ALCYON PLEIADES - 28th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
ALCYON PLEIADES - 28th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
::2014/04/15::
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41
Pleiadians - The Pleiades
Pleiadians - The Pleiades
::2010/05/20::
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42
UFO Contact from the Pleiades - Chapter 3 Aboard the DAL Spacecraft
UFO Contact from the Pleiades - Chapter 3 Aboard the DAL Spacecraft
::2012/05/23::
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43
Takashi Yoshimatsu - Pleiades Dances, Kyoko Tabe
Takashi Yoshimatsu - Pleiades Dances, Kyoko Tabe
::2012/04/15::
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44
2° ALCYON PLEIADES -- INFORMATIONS 2013: Apparitions d
2° ALCYON PLEIADES -- INFORMATIONS 2013: Apparitions d'OVNI, Conspirations, phénomènes Etranges
::2013/02/21::
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Alcyon Pleiades 20 Pt.1 - The help of the Cosmic Confederation: Crop circles, UFO sightings...
Alcyon Pleiades 20 Pt.1 - The help of the Cosmic Confederation: Crop circles, UFO sightings...
::2014/04/10::
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ALCYON PLEIADES 4 - DOMINATION DES ALIENS ENVAHISSEURS ET LE NOUVEL ORDRE MONDIAL
ALCYON PLEIADES 4 - DOMINATION DES ALIENS ENVAHISSEURS ET LE NOUVEL ORDRE MONDIAL
::2013/03/25::
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PLEIADES - Astros (15/10) - SBT - Led Zeppelin (cover)
PLEIADES - Astros (15/10) - SBT - Led Zeppelin (cover)
::2012/10/16::
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48
John Michael Talbot - The Pleiades and Orion - Quiet Reflections Part 2
John Michael Talbot - The Pleiades and Orion - Quiet Reflections Part 2
::2008/12/29::
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ALCYON PLEIADES - 26th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
ALCYON PLEIADES - 26th NEWS REPORT - 2014: UFO sightings, conspiracies, strange phenomena...
::2014/03/02::
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ANCIENT ALIEN ARTIFACTS EXPO - MUSEUM QUALITY REPLICAS OF PLEIADES STAR MAP
ANCIENT ALIEN ARTIFACTS EXPO - MUSEUM QUALITY REPLICAS OF PLEIADES STAR MAP
::2013/10/02::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This article is about the star cluster. For other uses of Pleiades or Pléiades, see Pleiades (disambiguation).
Pleiades
Pleiades large.jpg
A color-composite image of the Pleiades from the Digitized Sky Survey
Credit: NASA/ESA/AURA/Caltech
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Constellation Taurus
Right ascension 3h 47m 24s[1]
Declination +24° 7′[1]
Distance 390–460 ly (120–140 pc[2][3][4][5])
Apparent magnitude (V) 1.6[6]
Apparent dimensions (V) 110' (arcmin.)[6]
Physical characteristics
Other designations M45,[1] Seven Sisters,[1] Melotte 22[1]
See also: Open cluster, List of open clusters

In astronomy, the Pleiades (/ˈpl.ədz/ or /ˈpl.ədz/), or Seven Sisters (Messier 45 or M45), is an open star cluster containing middle-aged hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus. It is among the nearest star clusters to Earth and is the cluster most obvious to the naked eye in the night sky. The celestial entity has several meanings in different cultures and traditions.

The cluster is dominated by hot blue and extremely luminous stars that have formed within the last 100 million years. Dust that forms a faint reflection nebulosity around the brightest stars was thought at first to be left over from the formation of the cluster (hence the alternate name Maia Nebula after the star Maia), but is now known to be an unrelated dust cloud in the interstellar medium, through which the stars are currently passing. Computer simulations have shown that the Pleiades was probably formed from a compact configuration that resembled the Orion Nebula.[7] Astronomers estimate that the cluster will survive for about another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood.[8]

Observational history[edit]

The Pleiades are a prominent sight in winter in both the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere, and have been known since antiquity to cultures all around the world, including the Celts, Māori, Aboriginal Australians, the Persians, the Arabs (known as Thurayya), the Chinese, the Japanese, the Maya, the Aztec, and the Sioux and Cherokee. In Hinduism, the Pleiades are known as Krittika and are associated with the war-god Kartikeya (Murugan, Skanda), who derives his name from them. The god is raised by the six Krittika sisters, also known as the Matrikas. He is said to have developed a face for each of them.

The Nebra sky disk, dated c. 1600 BC. The cluster of dots in the upper right portion of the disk is believed to be the Pleiades.

The Babylonian star catalogues name the Pleiades MUL.MUL or "star of stars", and they head the list of stars along the ecliptic, reflecting the fact that they were close to the point of vernal equinox around the 23rd century BC. The earliest known depiction of the Pleiades is likely a bronze age artifact known as the Nebra sky disk, dated to approximately 1600 BC. Some Greek astronomers considered them to be a distinct constellation, and they are mentioned by Hesiod, and in Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. They are also mentioned three times in the Bible (Job 9:9 and 38:31, as well as Amos 5:8). Some scholars of Islam suggested that the Pleiades (ath-thurayya) are the star mentioned in the sura (chapter) Najm of the Quran.

In Japan, the constellation is mentioned under the name Mutsuraboshi ("six stars") in the 8th century Kojiki and Manyosyu documents. The constellation is also known in Japan as Subaru (“unite”) and is depicted in the logo and name of the Subaru automobile company. The Persian equivalent is Nahid (pronounced "Naheed").

The rising of the Pleiades is mentioned in the Ancient Greek text Geoponica.[9] The Greeks oriented the Hecatompedon temple of 550 BC and the Parthenon of 438 BC to their rising.[10] The rising of the Pleiades before dawn (usually at the beginning of June) has long been regarded as the start of the new year in Māori culture, with the star group being known as Matariki. The rising of Matariki is celebrated as a midwinter festival in New Zealand.[11]

Animation of proper motion in 400,000 years (cross-eyed viewing Stereogram guide cross-eyed.png). Due to technical limitations on thumbnails, you must click through to the actual image to see the animation.
A Spitzer image of the Pleiades in infrared, showing the associated dust (Merope Nebula). Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Galileo Galilei was the first astronomer to view the Pleiades through a telescope. He thereby discovered that the cluster contains many stars too dim to be seen with the naked eye. He published his observations, including a sketch of the Pleiades showing 36 stars, in his treatise Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610.

The Pleiades have long been known to be a physically related group of stars rather than any chance alignment. The Reverend John Michell calculated in 1767 that the probability of a chance alignment of so many bright stars was only 1 in 500,000, and so correctly surmised that the Pleiades and many other clusters of stars must be physically related.[12] When studies were first made of the stars' proper motions, it was found that they are all moving in the same direction across the sky, at the same rate, further demonstrating that they were related.

Charles Messier measured the position of the cluster and included it as M45 in his catalogue of comet-like objects, published in 1771. Along with the Orion Nebula and the Praesepe cluster, Messier's inclusion of the Pleiades has been noted as curious, as most of Messier's objects were much fainter and more easily confused with comets—something that seems scarcely possible for the Pleiades. One possibility is that Messier simply wanted to have a larger catalogue than his scientific rival Lacaille, whose 1755 catalogue contained 42 objects, and so he added some bright, well-known objects to boost his list.[13]

Edme-Sébastien Jeaurat then drew in 1782 a map of 64 stars of the Pleiades from his observations in 1779, which he published in 1786.[14][15][16]

Distance[edit]

Comet Machholz appears to pass near the Pleiades in early 2005
An amateur photograph taken with a DSLR camera.(Photo is reversed)

The distance to the Pleiades can be used as an important first step to calibrate the cosmic distance ladder. As the cluster is so close to the Earth, its distance is relatively easy to measure and has been estimated by many methods. Accurate knowledge of the distance allows astronomers to plot a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the cluster, which, when compared to those plotted for clusters whose distance is not known, allows their distances to be estimated. Other methods can then extend the distance scale from open clusters to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, and a cosmic distance ladder can be constructed. Ultimately astronomers' understanding of the age and future evolution of the universe is influenced by their knowledge of the distance to the Pleiades. Yet some authors argue that the controversy over the distance to the Pleiades discussed below is a red herring, since the cosmic distance ladder can (presently) rely on a suite of other nearby clusters where consensus exists regarding the distances as established by Hipparcos and independent means (e.g., the Hyades, Coma Berenices cluster, etc.).[3]

Measurements of the distance have elicited much controversy. Results prior to the launch of the Hipparcos satellite generally found that the Pleiades were about 135 parsecs away from Earth. Data from Hipparcos yielded a surprising result, namely a distance of only 118 parsecs by measuring the parallax of stars in the cluster—a technique that should yield the most direct and accurate results. Later work consistently argued that the Hipparcos distance measurement for the Pleiades was erroneous.[3][4][5][17][18] In particular, distances derived to the cluster via the Hubble Space Telescope and infrared color-magnitude diagram fitting favor a distance between 135–140 pc.[3][17] However, the author of the 2007–2009 catalog of revised Hipparcos parallaxes reasserted that the distance to the Pleiades is ~120 pc, and challenged the dissenting evidence.[2] Recently, Francis and Anderson[19] proposed that a systematic effect on Hipparcos parallax errors for stars in clusters biases calculation using the weighted mean, and gave a Hipparcos parallax distance of 126 pc, and photometric distance 132 pc based on stars in the AB Doradus, Tucana-Horologium moving group and Beta Pictoris moving groups, which are similar in age and composition to the Pleiades. Those authors note that the difference between these results can be attributed to random error.

Composition[edit]

X-ray images of the Pleiades reveal the stars with the hottest atmospheres. Green squares indicate the seven optically brightest stars.

The cluster core radius is about 8 light years and tidal radius is about 43 light years. The cluster contains over 1,000 statistically confirmed members, although this figure excludes unresolved binary stars.[20] It is dominated by young, hot blue stars, up to 14 of which can be seen with the naked eye depending on local observing conditions. The arrangement of the brightest stars is somewhat similar to Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. The total mass contained in the cluster is estimated to be about 800 solar masses.[20]

The cluster contains many brown dwarfs, which are objects with less than about 8% of the Sun's mass, not heavy enough for nuclear fusion reactions to start in their cores and become proper stars. They may constitute up to 25% of the total population of the cluster, although they contribute less than 2% of the total mass.[21] Astronomers have made great efforts to find and analyse brown dwarfs in the Pleiades and other young clusters, because they are still relatively bright and observable, while brown dwarfs in older clusters have faded and are much more difficult to study.

Age and future evolution[edit]

Ages for star clusters can be estimated by comparing the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the cluster with theoretical models of stellar evolution. Using this technique, ages for the Pleiades of between 75 and 150 million years have been estimated. The wide spread in estimated ages is a result of uncertainties in stellar evolution models, which include factors such as convective overshoot, in which a convective zone within a star penetrates an otherwise non-convective zone, resulting in higher apparent ages.

Another way of estimating the age of the cluster is by looking at the lowest-mass objects. In normal main sequence stars, lithium is rapidly destroyed in nuclear fusion reactions. Brown dwarfs can retain their lithium, however. Due to lithium's very low ignition temperature of 2.5 million kelvin, the highest-mass brown dwarfs will burn it eventually, and so determining the highest mass of brown dwarfs still containing lithium in the cluster can give an idea of its age. Applying this technique to the Pleiades gives an age of about 115 million years.[22][23]

The cluster is slowly moving in the direction of the feet of what is currently the constellation of Orion. Like most open clusters, the Pleiades will not stay gravitationally bound forever. Some component stars will be ejected after close encounters with other stars; others will be stripped by tidal gravitational fields. Calculations suggest that the cluster will take about 250 million years to disperse, with gravitational interactions with giant molecular clouds and the spiral arms of our galaxy also hastening its demise.

Reflection nebulosity[edit]

Hubble Space Telescope image of reflection nebulosity near Merope (IC 349)

Under ideal observing conditions, some hint of nebulosity may be seen around the cluster, and this shows up in long-exposure photographs. It is a reflection nebula, caused by dust reflecting the blue light of the hot, young stars.

It was formerly thought that the dust was left over from the formation of the cluster, but at the age of about 100 million years generally accepted for the cluster, almost all the dust originally present would have been dispersed by radiation pressure. Instead, it seems that the cluster is simply passing through a particularly dusty region of the interstellar medium.

Studies show that the dust responsible for the nebulosity is not uniformly distributed, but is concentrated mainly in two layers along the line of sight to the cluster. These layers may have been formed by deceleration due to radiation pressure as the dust has moved towards the stars.[24]

Brightest stars[edit]

The nine brightest stars of the Pleiades are named for the Seven Sisters of Greek mythology: Sterope, Merope, Electra, Maia, Taygeta, Celaeno, and Alcyone, along with their parents Atlas and Pleione. As daughters of Atlas, the Hyades were sisters of the Pleiades. The English name of the cluster itself is of Greek origin (Πλειάδες), though of uncertain etymology. Suggested derivations include: from πλεῖν plein, "to sail," making the Pleiades the "sailing ones"; from πλέος pleos, "full, many"; or from πελειάδες peleiades, "flock of doves." The following table gives details of the brightest stars in the cluster:

A map of the Pleiades
The location of the Pleiades on the constellation Taurus.
Pleiades bright stars
Name Pronunciation (IPA & respelling) Designation Apparent magnitude Stellar classification
Alcyone /ælˈsaɪ.əniː/ al-SY-ə-nee Eta (25) Tauri 2.86 B7IIIe
Atlas /ˈætləs/ AT-ləs 27 Tauri 3.62 B8III
Electra /ɨˈlɛktʃrə/ i-LEK-trə 17 Tauri 3.70 B6IIIe
Maia /ˈmeɪə/, /ˈmaɪə/ MAY, MY 20 Tauri 3.86 B7III
Merope /ˈmɛrəpiː/ MERR-ə-pee 23 Tauri 4.17 B6IVev
Taygeta /teɪˈɪdʒɨtə/ tay-IJ-i-tə 19 Tauri 4.29 B6V
Pleione /ˈplaɪ.əniː/ PLY-ə-nee 28 (BU) Tauri 5.09 (var.) B8IVpe
Celaeno /sɨˈliːnoʊ/ sə-LEE-noh 16 Tauri 5.44 B7IV
Sterope, Asterope /ˈstɛrɵpiː/, /əˈstɛrɵpiː/ (ə)-STERR-ə-pee 21 and 22 Tauri 5.64;6.41 B8Ve/B9V
18 Tauri 5.65 B8V

Possible planets[edit]

Analyzing deep-infrared images obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope and Gemini North telescope, astronomers discovered that one of the cluster's stars – HD 23514, which has a mass and luminosity a bit greater than that of the sun, is surrounded by an extraordinary number of hot dust particles. This could be evidence for planet formation around HD 23514.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "SIMBAD Astronomical Database". Results for M45. Retrieved 2007-04-20. 
  2. ^ a b Van Leeuwen, F. (2009). "Parallaxes and proper motions for 20 open clusters as based on the new Hipparcos catalogue". Astronomy and Astrophysics 497: 209. arXiv:0902.1039. Bibcode:2009A&A...497..209V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200811382. 
  3. ^ a b c d Majaess, Daniel J.; Turner, David G.; Lane, David J.; Krajci, Tom (2011). "Deep Infrared ZAMS Fits to Benchmark Open Clusters Hosting delta Scuti Stars". arXiv:1102.1705 [astro-ph.GA].
  4. ^ a b Percival, S. M.; Salaris, M.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Salaris; Groenewegen (2005). "The distance to the Pleiades. Main sequence fitting in the near infrared". Astronomy and Astrophysics 429 (3): 887. arXiv:astro-ph/0409362. Bibcode:2005A&A...429..887P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041694. 
  5. ^ a b Zwahlen, N.; North, P.; Debernardi, Y.; Eyer, L.; Galland, F.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Hummel, C. A.; North; Debernardi; Eyer; Galland; Groenewegen; Hummel (2004). "A purely geometric distance to the binary star Atlas, a member of the Pleiades". Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters 425 (3): L45. arXiv:astro-ph/0408430. Bibcode:2004A&A...425L..45Z. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200400062. 
  6. ^ a b Messier 45
  7. ^ Kroupa, Pavel; Aarseth, Sverre; Hurley, Jarrod (2001). "The formation of a bound star cluster: From the Orion nebula cluster to the Pleiades". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 321 (4): 699. arXiv:astro-ph/0009470. Bibcode:2001MNRAS.321..699K. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04050.x. 
  8. ^ Gendler, Robert (2006). A Year in the Life of the Universe: A Seasonal Guide to Viewing the Cosmos. Voyageur Press. p. 54. ISBN 1610603400. 
  9. ^ http://www.ancientlibrary.com/geoponica/0028.html[dead link]
  10. ^ Kyselka, Will (1993). "On the Rising of the Pleiades". Hawaiian Journal of History (Honolulu, Hawaiian Historical Society) 27: 173–183. hdl:10524/105. 
  11. ^ Meredith, P., "Matariki – Māori New Year", Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 22 September 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  12. ^ Michell J. (1767). "An Inquiry into the probable Parallax, and Magnitude, of the Fixed Stars, from the Quantity of Light which they afford us, and the particular Circumstances of their Situation". Philosophical Transactions 57: 234–264. Bibcode:1767RSPT...57..234M. doi:10.1098/rstl.1767.0028. 
  13. ^ Frommert, Hartmut (1998). "Messier Questions & Answers". Retrieved 2005-03-01. 
  14. ^ A New review: with literary curiosities and literary intelligence, page 326, Paul Henry Maty, Printed for the author, 1783.
  15. ^ Mémoires de l'Acadêmie des sciences de l'Institut de France, page 289, Didot frères, fils et cie, 1786.
  16. ^ Edme-Sébastien Jeaurat, Carte des 64 Principales Etoiles des Playades par M. Jeaurat, pour le 1.er Janvier 1786.
  17. ^ a b Soderblom D. R., Nelan E., Benedict G. F., McArthur B., Ramirez I., Spiesman W., Jones B. F.; Nelan; Benedict; McArthur; Ramirez; Spiesman; Jones (2005). "Confirmation of Errors in Hipparcos Parallaxes from Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Astrometry of the Pleiades". Astronomical Journal 129 (3): 1616–1624. arXiv:astro-ph/0412093. Bibcode:2005AJ....129.1616S. doi:10.1086/427860. 
  18. ^ Turner, D. G. (1979). "A reddening-free main sequence for the Pleiades cluster". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 91: 642–647. Bibcode:1979PASP...91..642T. doi:10.1086/130556. 
  19. ^ Francis C., Anderson E.,; Anderson (2012). "XHIP II: clusters and associations". Astronomy Letters 1203: 4945. arXiv:1203.4945. Bibcode:2012arXiv1203.4945F. 
  20. ^ a b Adams, Joseph D.; Stauffer, John R.; Monet, David G.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Beichman, Charles A.; Stauffer; Monet; Skrutskie; Beichman (2001). "The Mass and Structure of the Pleiades Star Cluster from 2MASS". Astronomical Journal 121 (4): 2053. arXiv:astro-ph/0101139. Bibcode:2001AJ....121.2053A. doi:10.1086/319965. 
  21. ^ Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Stauffer, J. R.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Bouvier; Stauffer; Cuillandre (2003). "Brown in the Pleiades cluster: Clues to the substellar mass function". Astronomy and Astrophysics 400 (3): 891. arXiv:astro-ph/0212571. Bibcode:2003A&A...400..891M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021903. 
  22. ^ Basri G., Marcy G. W., Graham J. R.; Marcy; Graham (1996). "Lithium in Brown Dwarf Candidates: The Mass and Age of the Faintest Pleiades Stars". Astrophysical Journal 458: 600. Bibcode:1996ApJ...458..600B. doi:10.1086/176842. 
  23. ^ Ushomirsky, G., Matzner, C., Brown, E., Bildsten, L., Hilliard, V., Schroeder, P.; Matzner; Brown; Bildsten; Hilliard; Schroeder (1998). "Light-Element Depletion in Contracting Brown Dwarfs and Pre-Main-Sequence Stars". Astrophysical Journal 497: 253. arXiv:astro-ph/9711099. Bibcode:1998ApJ...497..253U. doi:10.1086/305457. 
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  25. ^ ScienceDaily (2007). "Planets Forming In Pleiades Star Cluster, Astronomers Report". Retrieved 2012-11-15. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: Sky map 03h 47m 24s, +24° 07′ 00″

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