Play Video
1
Stalin Mind Control
Stalin Mind Control
::2014/02/11::
Play Video
2
Soviet repressions remembered
Soviet repressions remembered
::2009/07/31::
Play Video
3
Victims of Political Persecution Speak Out
Victims of Political Persecution Speak Out
::2011/11/01::
Play Video
4
Ukrainian History  WWI To Present
Ukrainian History WWI To Present
::2014/02/22::
Play Video
5
Chomsky on Lenin, Trotsky, Socialism & the Soviet Union
Chomsky on Lenin, Trotsky, Socialism & the Soviet Union
::2008/11/30::
Play Video
6
IS Ohio a Soviet Union in 1937?
IS Ohio a Soviet Union in 1937?
::2012/10/20::
Play Video
7
Интервью́ c Ковалёвым  part two-to be continued
Интервью́ c Ковалёвым part two-to be continued
::2008/08/26::
Play Video
8
CCCP (Russian) Record - Side  2.
CCCP (Russian) Record - Side 2.
::2010/07/13::
Play Video
9
CCCP (Russia) Record Side - 1.
CCCP (Russia) Record Side - 1.
::2010/07/13::
Play Video
10
Интервью́ c Ковалёвым- part four
Интервью́ c Ковалёвым- part four
::2008/08/26::
Play Video
11
Интервью́ c Ковалёвым part one-to be continued
Интервью́ c Ковалёвым part one-to be continued
::2008/08/26::
Play Video
12
Truth about Russian Georgian Conflict-roots and history-by Kovalev subtitled Интервью́ c Ковалёвым
Truth about Russian Georgian Conflict-roots and history-by Kovalev subtitled Интервью́ c Ковалёвым
::2008/08/14::
Play Video
13
February 25 - Day of Soviet Occupation of Georgia - documentary movie (2013)
February 25 - Day of Soviet Occupation of Georgia - documentary movie (2013)
::2013/06/27::
Play Video
14
Inside the KGB: Terror of the Soviet Union | History Documentary
Inside the KGB: Terror of the Soviet Union | History Documentary
::2013/06/30::
Play Video
15
From Fallen to Freedom: Inside the Jewish Former Soviet Union
From Fallen to Freedom: Inside the Jewish Former Soviet Union
::2011/04/15::
Play Video
16
Repression Machine
Repression Machine
::2010/07/09::
Play Video
17
On The Alleged Deaths in Stalin
On The Alleged Deaths in Stalin's USSR
::2012/12/19::
Play Video
18
N.K.V.D.  Incipit SSSR
N.K.V.D. Incipit SSSR
::2012/04/08::
Play Video
19
USA vs USSR Fight! The Cold War: Crash Course World History #39
USA vs USSR Fight! The Cold War: Crash Course World History #39
::2012/10/18::
Play Video
20
Jehovah Provides Escape-Song 131
Jehovah Provides Escape-Song 131
::2012/02/02::
Play Video
21
1,7 million Poles deported to the Soviet Union 2WW
1,7 million Poles deported to the Soviet Union 2WW
::2008/09/17::
Play Video
22
The REAL M1 Abrams!, Chapter 10: Fun M1 Facts (Part 8 of 10)
The REAL M1 Abrams!, Chapter 10: Fun M1 Facts (Part 8 of 10)
::2012/03/27::
Play Video
23
Life in Former Soviet Union. 02/01/1992 [2/11]
Life in Former Soviet Union. 02/01/1992 [2/11]
::2010/10/01::
Play Video
24
Why was John Kennedy Assassinated?  Why Was He Killed?
Why was John Kennedy Assassinated? Why Was He Killed?
::2008/09/06::
Play Video
25
Ukraine and Nationalism
Ukraine and Nationalism
::2014/02/22::
Play Video
26
Chomsky explains Cold War in 5 min
Chomsky explains Cold War in 5 min
::2010/11/25::
Play Video
27
Meet the new YouTube comments
Meet the new YouTube comments
::2013/11/06::
Play Video
28
Anthem of the U.S.S.R.
Anthem of the U.S.S.R.
::2012/12/28::
Play Video
29
Soviet National Anthem(With Lyrics)
Soviet National Anthem(With Lyrics)
::2008/04/13::
Play Video
30
Worsening Repression by the Vietnamese Government
Worsening Repression by the Vietnamese Government
::2013/07/08::
Play Video
31
Victims of the 1930s Great Purge. Archive footage
Victims of the 1930s Great Purge. Archive footage
::2013/10/30::
Play Video
32
[FREE PDF] Mastering the Art of Soviet Cooking: A Memoir of Food and Longing
[FREE PDF] Mastering the Art of Soviet Cooking: A Memoir of Food and Longing
::2013/12/12::
Play Video
33
Kremlin Secret Files: Magic pills for Soviet leaders
Kremlin Secret Files: Magic pills for Soviet leaders
::2012/03/31::
Play Video
34
Russian Opposition Braves Sub-Zero Cold on Protest Anniversary
Russian Opposition Braves Sub-Zero Cold on Protest Anniversary
::2013/01/10::
Play Video
35
June 10, 1963 - John F. Kennedy
June 10, 1963 - John F. Kennedy's Commencement Address at American University, Washington D.C.
::2013/05/27::
Play Video
36
Socialist Republic of Romania 1947-1989.
Socialist Republic of Romania 1947-1989.
::2010/04/16::
Play Video
37
Soviet KGB defector & Communist propaganda expert, predicts Obama
Soviet KGB defector & Communist propaganda expert, predicts Obama's gameplan almost 30 years ago
::2013/01/28::
Play Video
38
The Soviet Coup:  Day One, August 19th 1991
The Soviet Coup: Day One, August 19th 1991
::2011/08/26::
Play Video
39
The European Union - the New Soviet Union?
The European Union - the New Soviet Union?
::2006/10/01::
Play Video
40
Final Soviet October Revolution Parade, 1990 Парад 7 ноября
Final Soviet October Revolution Parade, 1990 Парад 7 ноября
::2011/09/09::
Play Video
41
Russia  Putin Slated Over
Russia Putin Slated Over 'Worst Crackdown'
::2013/02/01::
Play Video
42
I Am Not Alone (1956) - Polish Resistance Member Tortured by the NKVD - Public Domain
I Am Not Alone (1956) - Polish Resistance Member Tortured by the NKVD - Public Domain
::2012/09/22::
Play Video
43
Interview with Nikolai Gregorivich, a survivor of Militant Atheist Persecution
Interview with Nikolai Gregorivich, a survivor of Militant Atheist Persecution
::2012/09/27::
Play Video
44
Faith in the Camp - With God
Faith in the Camp - With God's help through all hardships
::2012/11/14::
Play Video
45
Nasser - People
Nasser - People's Pharao
::2014/01/08::
Play Video
46
2.03.2014.UKRAINE.Odessa-East Ukraine.Protest against Russian agression.10 000 people.
2.03.2014.UKRAINE.Odessa-East Ukraine.Protest against Russian agression.10 000 people.
::2014/03/03::
Play Video
47
SACHA BARON COHEN Kills Award Presenter at the 2013 Britannia Awards - BBC AMERICA
SACHA BARON COHEN Kills Award Presenter at the 2013 Britannia Awards - BBC AMERICA
::2013/11/10::
Play Video
48
When They Come for Us, We
When They Come for Us, We'll Be Gone by Gal Beckerman
::2010/09/21::
Play Video
49
American History - Part 200 - All About the Cold War
American History - Part 200 - All About the Cold War
::2013/09/08::
Play Video
50
The Battle of Stalingrad - A victory for humanity
The Battle of Stalingrad - A victory for humanity
::2013/08/03::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Coat of arms of the Soviet Union.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Soviet Union
 

Throughout the history of the Soviet Union millions of people became victims of political repression, which was an instrument of the state since the October Revolution. Culminating during the Stalin era, it still existed during the "Khrushchev Thaw", followed by increased persecution of Soviet dissidents during the Brezhnev stagnation, and didn't cease to exist during Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika. Its heritage still influences the life of modern Russia and other former Soviet states.

Origins and early Soviet times[edit]

The Gulag Memorial in St Petersburg is made of a boulder from the Solovki camp — the first prison camp in the Gulag system. People gather here every year on the Day of Remembrance of Victims of the Repression (October 30)

Early on, the Leninist view of the class struggle and the resulting notion of the dictatorship of the proletariat provided the theoretical basis of the repressions. Its legal basis was formalized into the Article 58 in the code of Russian SFSR and similar articles for other Soviet republics.[citation needed]

At times, the repressed were called the enemies of the people. Punishments by the state included summary executions, sending innocent people to Gulag, forced resettlement, and stripping of citizen's rights. At certain times, all members of a family, including children, were punished as "traitor of the Motherland family-members". Repression was conducted by the Cheka and its successors, and other state organs. Periods of the increased repression include Red Terror, Collectivisation, the Great Purges, the Doctor's Plot, and others. The secret-police forces conducted massacres of prisoners on numerous occasions. Repression took place in the Soviet republics and in the territories occupied by the Soviet Army during World War II, including the Baltic States and Eastern Europe.[1][unreliable source?].

State repression led to incidents of resistance, such as the Tambov rebellion (1920-1921), the Kronstadt rebellion (1921), and the Vorkuta Uprising (1953); the Soviet authorities suppressed such resistance with overwhelming military force. During the Tambov rebellion Tukhachevsky (chief Red Army commander in the area) allegedly authorized Bolshevik military forces to use chemical weapons against villages with civilian population and rebels. (According to witnesses' accounts, chemical weapons were never actually used.[2]) Prominent citizens of villages were often taken as hostages and executed if the resistance fighters did not surrender.[3]

Red Terror[edit]

Red Terror in Soviet Russia was the campaign of mass arrests and executions conducted by the Bolshevik government. The Red Terror was officially announced on September 2, 1918 by Yakov Sverdlov and ended in about October 1918. However Sergei Melgunov applies this term to repressions for the whole period of the Russian Civil War, 1918-1922.[4][5]

Collectivization[edit]

Collectivization in the Soviet Union was a policy, pursued between 1928 and 1933, to consolidate individual land and labour into collective farms (Russian: колхо́з, kolkhoz, plural kolkhozy). The Soviet leaders were confident that the replacement of individual peasant farms by kolkhozy would immediately increase food supplies for the urban population, the supply of raw materials for processing industry, and agricultural exports generally. Collectivization was thus regarded as the solution to the crisis in agricultural distribution (mainly in grain deliveries) that had developed since 1927 and was becoming more acute as the Soviet Union pressed ahead with its ambitious industrialization program.[6] As the peasantry, with the exception of the poorest part, resisted the collectivization policy, the Soviet government resorted to harsh measures to force the farmers to collectivize. In his conversation with Winston Churchill Stalin gave his estimate of the number of "kulaks" who were repressed for resisting collectivization as 10 million, including those forcibly deported.[7][8]

Great Purge[edit]

The Great Purge (Russian: Большая чистка, transliterated Bolshaya chistka) was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin in 1937-1938.[9][10] It involved the purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, repression of peasants, deportations of ethnic minorities, and the persecution of unaffiliated persons, characterized by widespread police surveillance, widespread suspicion of "saboteurs", imprisonment, and killings.[9] Estimates of the number of deaths associated with the Great Purge run from the official figure of 681,692 to nearly 2 million.

Genocide, ethnic cleansing, and population transfers[edit]

In Soviet Union, political repressions targeted not only individual persons, but also whole ethnic, social, religious, and other categories of population.

Population transfer in the Soviet Union may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population, often classified as "enemies of workers"; deportations of nationalities; labor force transfer; and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories. In most cases their destinations were underpopulated remote areas (see Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union).

Entire nations and ethnic groups were collectively punished by the Soviet Government for alleged collaboration with the enemy during World War II. At least nine distinct ethnic-linguistic groups, including ethnic Germans, ethnic Greeks, ethnic Poles, Crimean Tatars, Balkars, Chechens, and Kalmyks, were deported to remote unpopulated areas of Siberia (see sybirak) and Kazakhstan. Population transfer in the Soviet Union led to millions of deaths from the inflicted hardships.[11] Koreans and Romanians were also deported. Mass operations of the NKVD were needed to deport hundreds of thousands of people.

The Soviet famine of 1932-1933 was severely aggravated by the actions of the government of the Soviet Union, such as the confiscation of food, the lack of meat, planned delivery limitations that ignored the famine, blocking the migration of its starving population, and the suppression of the information about the famine, all of which prevented any organized relief effort. This led to deaths of millions of people in the affected area.[11] The overall number of the 1932-1933 famine victims Soviet-wide is variously estimated as 6-7 million[12] or 6-8 million.[13]

Gulag[edit]

The Gulag "was the branch of the State Security that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps and prisons. While these camps housed criminals of all types, the Gulag system has become primarily known as a place for political prisoners and as a mechanism for repressing political opposition to the Soviet state.”[14][15] Russian author and former prisoner Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wrote extensively about the gulag and its history in his series of books The Gulag Archipelago.

Repressions in annexed territories[edit]

During the early years of World War II Soviet Union annexed several territories in East Europe as the consequence of the German-Soviet Pact and its Secret Additional Protocol.[16]

Baltic States[edit]

In the Baltic countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, repressions and the mass deportations were carried out by the Soviets. The Serov Instructions, "On the Procedure for carrying out the Deportation of Anti-Soviet Elements from Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia", contained detailed procedures and protocols to observe in the deportation of Baltic nationals. Public tribunals were also set up to punish "traitors to the people": those who had fallen short of the "political duty" of voting their countries into the USSR. In the first year of Soviet occupation, from June 1940 to June 1941, the number confirmed executed, conscripted, or deported is estimated at a minimum of 124,467: 59,732 in Estonia, 34,250 in Latvia, and 30,485 in Lithuania.[17] This included 8 former heads of state and 38 ministers from Estonia, 3 former heads of state and 15 ministers from Latvia, and the then president, 5 prime ministers and 24 other ministers from Lithuania.[18]

Poland[edit]

Romania[edit]

Post-Stalin era (1953-1991)[edit]

After Stalin's death, the suppression of dissent was dramatically reduced and took new forms. The internal critics of the system were convicted for anti-Soviet agitation, Anti-Soviet slander, or as "social parasites". Others were labeled as mentally ill, having sluggish schizophrenia and incarcerated in "psikhushkas", i.e. mental hospitals used by the Soviet authorities as prisons.[19] A number of notable dissidents, including Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Vladimir Bukovsky, and Andrei Sakharov, were sent to internal or external exile.

Loss of life[edit]

The exact number of victims may never be known and remains a matter of debate among historians. The published results vary depending on the time when the estimate was made, on the criteria and methods used for the estimates, and sources available for estimates. Some historians attempt to make separate estimates for different periods of the Soviet history. For example, the number of victims under Joseph Stalin's regime vary from 642,980 to 61 million.[5][20][21][22][23][24]

Difficulties in counting the repressed[edit]

Russian writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who deeply studied this problem, considers that 66 million 700 thousand people became victims to the state repression and terrorism from 1917 to 1959.[25]:375 Analogous figure — over 66 million people — was announced by Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev, the chairman of the Commission for Rehabilitation of the Victims of Political Repression.[25]:375, 376 According to Viktor Luneyev, actual struggle against dissent was manyfold larger than it was registered in sentences, and we do not know how many persons were kept under surveillance of secret services, held criminally liable, arrested, sent to psychiatric hospitals, expelled from their work, restricted in their rights everyway.[25]:373 No objective counting of repressed persons is possible without fundamental analysis of archival documents.[25]:378 The difficulty of this method is that the required data are very diverse and are not in one archive.[25]:378 They are in the State Archive of the Russian Federation, in the archive of the Goskomstat of Russia, in the archives of the MVD of Russia, the FSB of Russia, the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, in the Russian Military and Historical Archive, in archives of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, in urban and regional archives, as well as in archives of the former Soviet Republics that now are independent countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltics.[25]:378 Where, for example, can one determine the number of people shot in the second half of the 1930s and in the early 1940s in the Kurapaty hole (estimate for them is from 30 to 100 thousand people or, by some estimates, up to 200 thousand)?[25]:378 Only in Belarus.[25]:378 The same can be said of other mass shootings and other forms of repression of victims of Soviet regime.[25]:378

By the request of N.S. Khruschev in February 1954 a report about the number of repressed people was prepared and signed by General Prosecutor (Attorney General) of the USSR R. Rudenko, Interior Minister of the USSR S. Kruglov, Justice Minister of the USSR K. Gorshenin. The report listed the total number of people prosecuted for counter-revolutionary crimes during the period from 1921 to February 1, 1954. During that period the Collegia of OGPU, NKVD Troikas, Special Council of the NKVD, Courts and Military Courts indicted 3,777,380 individuals, including 642,980 who received the death penalty, 2,369,220 with sentences of up to 25 years, and 765,180 exiled or deported. At the time of the report, it further stated, there were 467,946 people in the labor camps and prisons convicted for the counter-revolutionary crimes and 62,462 former prisoners in exile.[26]

Remembering the victims[edit]

Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions (День памяти жертв политических репрессий - October 30, since 1991), in former Soviet republics (except for Ukraine, which has its own annual Day of Remembrance for the victims of political repressions by the Soviet regime on third Sunday of May). Members of the Memorial society take active part in meetings.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Anton Antonov-Ovseenko Beria (Russian) Moscow, AST, 1999. Russian text online[unreliable source?]
  2. ^ Химико-политический туман (Chemical Political Fog) by Alexander Shirokorad.
  3. ^ Courtois et al, 1999:[page needed]
  4. ^ Serge Petrovich Melgunov, Red Terror in Russia, Hyperion Pr (1975), ISBN 0-88355-187-X
  5. ^ a b Courtois et al., 1999:[page needed]
  6. ^ Davies, R.W., The Soviet Collective Farms, 1929-1930, Macmillan, London (1980), p. 1.
  7. ^ Valentin Berezhkov, "Kak ya stal perevodchikom Stalina", Moscow, DEM, 1993, ISBN 5-85207-044-0. p. 317
  8. ^ Stanislav Kulchytsky, "How many of us perished in Holodomor in 1933", Zerkalo Nedeli, November 23–29, 2002.
  9. ^ a b Figes, 2007: pp. 227-315
  10. ^ Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. By Robert Gellately. 2007. Knopf. 720 pages ISBN 1-4000-4005-1
  11. ^ a b Conquest, 1986:[page needed]
  12. ^ С. Уиткрофт (Stephen G. Wheatcroft), "О демографических свидетельствах трагедии советской деревни в 1931—1933 гг." (On demographic evidence of the tragedy of the Soviet village in 1931-1833), "Трагедия советской деревни: Коллективизация и раскулачивание 1927-1939 гг.: Документы и материалы. Том 3. Конец 1930-1933 гг.", Российская политическая энциклопедия, 2001, ISBN 5-8243-0225-1, с. 885, Приложение № 2
  13. ^ "Ukraine", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  14. ^ Anne Applebaum (2003). Gulag: A History. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0767900560. 
  15. ^ Robert Service (June 7, 2003). "The accountancy of pain". The Guardian. 
  16. ^ The Soviet occupation and incorporation at Encyclopædia Britannica
  17. ^ Dunsdorfs, Edgars. The Baltic Dilemma. Speller & Sons, New York. 1975
  18. ^ Küng, Andres. Communism and Crimes against Humanity in the Baltic States. 1999 [1]
  19. ^ The Soviet Case: Prelude to a Global Consensus on Psychiatry and Human Rights. Human Rights Watch. 2005
  20. ^ Ponton, G. (1994) The Soviet Era.
  21. ^ Tsaplin, V.V. (1989) Statistika zherty naseleniya v 30e gody.
  22. ^ Nove, 1993:[page needed]
  23. ^ Davies, Norman. Europe: A History, Harper Perennial, 1998. ISBN 0-06-097468-0.
  24. ^ Bibliography: Rummel.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i Лунеев, Виктор (2005). Преступность XX века: Mировые, региональные и российские тенденции. Wolters Kluwer Russia. ISBN 5-466-00098-1. 
  26. ^ V.N. Zemskov. GULAG. The Historical and Sociological Aspect. 1991. Социологические исследования (Sociological Studies) 6, 10-27; 7. 3-16. Available at [2]

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License

Mashpedia enables any individual or company to promote their own Youtube-hosted videos or Youtube Channels, offering a simple and effective plan to get them in front of our engaged audience.

Want to learn more? Please contact us at: hello@mashpedia.com

Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014