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Best Of PolyGram. 寶麗金 摘金寶典
Best Of PolyGram. 寶麗金 摘金寶典
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: James Stimpert
PolyGram Best Sound Series. 寶麗金極品音色系列 超級鑑聽版
PolyGram Best Sound Series. 寶麗金極品音色系列 超級鑑聽版
Published: 2016/12/10
Channel: Dave Gauthier
Best Of PolyGram & Warner Music. 樂壇班霸 寶麗金 華納 10年對壘
Best Of PolyGram & Warner Music. 樂壇班霸 寶麗金 華納 10年對壘
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: Ricky Boatman
Best Of PolyGram. 寶麗金 摘金寶典
Best Of PolyGram. 寶麗金 摘金寶典
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: James Stimpert
Best Of PolyGram. 寶麗金 摘金寶典
Best Of PolyGram. 寶麗金 摘金寶典
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: Tyler Barnes
Alan Tam PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 譚詠麟 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Alan Tam PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 譚詠麟 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: caridad barragan
Lartiste - Polygame (Clip Officiel)
Lartiste - Polygame (Clip Officiel)
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: Lartiste Officiel
PolyGram stars drum circles 1994
PolyGram stars drum circles 1994
Published: 2016/08/30
Channel: Selvira Jackie
Polygram Lets You ‘Like’ A Post Just By Smiling
Polygram Lets You ‘Like’ A Post Just By Smiling
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: Wochit Tech
PolyGram Best Sound Series. 寶麗金極品音色系列 超級鑑聽版
PolyGram Best Sound Series. 寶麗金極品音色系列 超級鑑聽版
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: benton mulele
Polygram Music Video (1990)
Polygram Music Video (1990)
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: EnormousRat
Polygram Superstar Karaoke
Polygram Superstar Karaoke
Published: 2007/05/06
Channel: x8LU3D14M0NDx
PolyGram Records Weekly Meeting - Bon Jovi makes an appearance
PolyGram Records Weekly Meeting - Bon Jovi makes an appearance
Published: 2009/06/11
Channel: lostbands
Polygram Filmed Entertainment logo
Polygram Filmed Entertainment logo
Published: 2009/05/08
Channel: EnormousRat
PolyGram Video Logo History
PolyGram Video Logo History
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Botany Bay Pictures Films Inc.
Polygram Superstar Karaoke
Polygram Superstar Karaoke
Published: 2007/05/06
Channel: x8LU3D14M0NDx
Alan Tam PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 譚詠麟 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Alan Tam PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 譚詠麟 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Harry Escobar
Polygram Home Video
Polygram Home Video
Published: 2006/08/21
Channel: bluebrotherx7
Megamix 98 FM [1994] - (Polygram - CD/Compilation)
Megamix 98 FM [1994] - (Polygram - CD/Compilation)
Published: 2016/10/09
Channel: Maicon Nights DJ
PolyGram Songs Bahasa Kantonis/Cantonese {The 10 years of the PolyGram}
PolyGram Songs Bahasa Kantonis/Cantonese {The 10 years of the PolyGram}
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: RTM1946MalaysiaCh
Alan Tam PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 譚詠麟 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Alan Tam PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 譚詠麟 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Published: 2016/12/12
Channel: Kathryne Lakeisha
Shirley Kwan PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 關淑怡 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Shirley Kwan PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 關淑怡 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: Fayih Dede
I Tre Porcellini - Polygram Video
I Tre Porcellini - Polygram Video
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: DisneyMagicandAnimal
PolyGram Video Logo History
PolyGram Video Logo History
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: BenIsRandom
李克勤 霧之戀 譚詠麟合唱 PolyGram Forever Live 2013
李克勤 霧之戀 譚詠麟合唱 PolyGram Forever Live 2013
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: Loominos
PolyGram Pictures Logo History
PolyGram Pictures Logo History
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: Botany Bay Pictures Films Inc.
Polygram Video Logo UK VHS
Polygram Video Logo UK VHS
Published: 2012/06/13
Channel: KirsSmellDeSchool
PolyGram Television/King Features Entertainment (1985)
PolyGram Television/King Features Entertainment (1985)
Published: 2009/05/21
Channel: LogicSmash
PolyGram Television Logo (1984)
PolyGram Television Logo (1984)
Published: 2017/09/05
Channel: Maxime Mac Lefèvre Instagram
陳曉東 Daniel Chan - 一萬年 寶麗金PolyGram Forever Live 演唱會 DVD 1080P
陳曉東 Daniel Chan - 一萬年 寶麗金PolyGram Forever Live 演唱會 DVD 1080P
Published: 2013/12/21
Channel: 銀杏之葉
Alan Tam PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 譚詠麟 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Alan Tam PolyGram 88 Best Sound Series. 譚詠麟 寶麗金88極品音色系列
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: James Stimpert
PolyGram Spectrum Video (1982)
PolyGram Spectrum Video (1982)
Published: 2016/09/23
Channel: LogicSmash
陳慧嫻 (Priscilla Chan) - 千千闋歌 Thousands of Songs @ Polygram Forever Live in Singapore 寶麗金永恆金曲演唱會
陳慧嫻 (Priscilla Chan) - 千千闋歌 Thousands of Songs @ Polygram Forever Live in Singapore 寶麗金永恆金曲演唱會
Published: 2014/07/19
Channel: KAvenyou
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment Logo History
PolyGram Filmed Entertainment Logo History
Published: 2016/02/14
Channel: Ryan Holman
Polygram
Polygram
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: Faryar Ghazanfari
VHS Stuff: PolyGram Video/Manga Video (1983-1999)
VHS Stuff: PolyGram Video/Manga Video (1983-1999)
Published: 2014/10/12
Channel: Grand Dad Network
20th Century Fox / Polygram Filmed Entertainment (1995)
20th Century Fox / Polygram Filmed Entertainment (1995)
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Movie Logos
Polygram Superstar Karaoke - Julian Lam
Polygram Superstar Karaoke - Julian Lam
Published: 2007/05/06
Channel: x8LU3D14M0NDx
PUBS VHS: Polygram Video (1)
PUBS VHS: Polygram Video (1)
Published: 2016/08/21
Channel: Jb Lentolome
Bee Gees - Polygram Party Miami 1993
Bee Gees - Polygram Party Miami 1993
Published: 2013/05/16
Channel: Marco Aurélio Giustino
PolyGram Video
PolyGram Video
Published: 2009/09/20
Channel: CPvStock
Polygram Superstar Karaoke - Andy Hui feat. Sammi Cheng
Polygram Superstar Karaoke - Andy Hui feat. Sammi Cheng
Published: 2007/05/06
Channel: x8LU3D14M0NDx
陳曉東&湯寶如—相思風雨中 寶麗金PolyGram Forever Live 演唱會 DVD 1080p
陳曉東&湯寶如—相思風雨中 寶麗金PolyGram Forever Live 演唱會 DVD 1080p
Published: 2013/12/21
Channel: 銀杏之葉
陳慧嫻-傻女@ Polygram Forever Live in Singapore
陳慧嫻-傻女@ Polygram Forever Live in Singapore
Published: 2014/07/23
Channel: JoJo Rau
Polygram Superstar Karaoke
Polygram Superstar Karaoke
Published: 2007/05/06
Channel: x8LU3D14M0NDx
陈晓东 (Daniel Chan) - 心有独中 @ Polygram Forever Live in Singapore 寶麗金永恆金曲演唱會
陈晓东 (Daniel Chan) - 心有独中 @ Polygram Forever Live in Singapore 寶麗金永恆金曲演唱會
Published: 2014/07/20
Channel: KAvenyou
Polygram Video (1998) Company Logo (VHS Capture)
Polygram Video (1998) Company Logo (VHS Capture)
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: retro VHS trailers
PUBS VHS: Polygram Video (2.2)
PUBS VHS: Polygram Video (2.2)
Published: 2016/08/21
Channel: Jb Lentolome
Polygram Video (1992)
Polygram Video (1992)
Published: 2011/11/25
Channel: Logo Archive
Video Warning - PolyGram Video (VIDEO Warning Logo)
Video Warning - PolyGram Video (VIDEO Warning Logo)
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: plainsvideo
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Polygram Records)
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PolyGram Entertainment
Division
Industry Film
TV
Predecessor PolyGram Group Distribution, Inc.
Headquarters Santa Monica, California
Key people
David Blackman (UMG head of film and TV)
Parent Universal Music Group

PolyGram Entertainment is a film and TV production company owned by Universal Music Group.

PolyGram was a Dutch entertainment company, a subsidiary of Seagram. It started as a major record label recording company founded by Philips and Siemens as a holding company for their music interests in 1972. The name was chosen to reflect the Siemens interest Polydor Records and the Philips interest Phonogram Records The company traced its origins through Deutsche Grammophon back to the inventor of the flat disk gramophone, Emil Berliner. Later on, PolyGram expanded into the largest global entertainment company, creating film and television divisions. In May 1998, it was sold to Seagram which owned MCA Inc. PolyGram was merged into Universal Music Group, and PolyGram Filmed Entertainment was merged into Universal Pictures. When the new company faced financial difficulties, its parent Seagram was sold in large part to Vivendi, and MCA became known as Universal Studios, as Seagram ceased to exist. Vivendi is the current owner of UMG; Comcast is the current owner of the media conglomerate now known as NBCUniversal. In February 2017, Polygram Entertainment was re-launched as the film & television division of Universal Music Group.

Hollandsche Decca Distributie (HDD), 1929–1950

In 1929, Decca Records (London) licensed record shop owner H.W. Van Zoelen as a distributor in the Netherlands. By 1931, his company Hollandsche Decca Distributie (HDD) had become exclusive Decca distributor for all of the Netherlands and its colonies.[1] Over the course of the 1930s, HDD put together its own facilities for A&R, recording, and manufacturing.

HDD was commercially successful during World War II because of the absence of American and British competition. Van Zoelen wanted to sell to Philips so that HDD would have sufficient financial backing when their major competitors returned after the war. This led Philips to purchase HDD in 1942.[1]

In the mid 20th century, the majority of large recording companies manufactured both gramophones and records; Philips CEO Anton Philips noted the risk in creating gramophones without an interest in music recording and record manufacture, and that Radio Corporation of America (RCA) had merged with the Victor Talking Machine Company in 1929[2] for this reason. Philips' labs were developing magnetic tape and LPs, and they could support eventual new formats, although other record companies were notably unenthusiastic about experimenting with new formats.

After the war, Philips built a large factory in Doetinchem to produce 78 rpm records.

Philips Phonografische Industrie (PPI), 1950–1962

In the 1940s, the record business was spread out within Philips: research in the Eindhoven labs, development elsewhere in Eindhoven, recording in Hilversum, manufacturing in Doetinchem, distribution from Amsterdam, and exports from Eindhoven. During the late 1940s, Philips combined its various music businesses into Philips Phonografische Industrie (PPI), a wholly owned subsidiary.

PPI's early growth was based on alliances. A merger was first proposed with Decca of London in late 1945, but was rejected by Edward Lewis, Decca's owner. (PolyGram finally acquired Decca in 1979.)

In the early 1950s, Philips set itself the goal of making PPI the largest record company in Europe.

PPI's second attempt at a merger was with Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft (DGG). DGG, owned by Siemens AG, and well known for its classical repertoire, had been the German licensee for Decca from 1935. DGG also owned Polydor Records. Shortly after PPI was founded it had made a formal alliance with DGG to manufacture each other's records, coordinate releases, and refrain from poaching each other's artists or bidding against each other for new talent. PPI and DGG finally merged in 1962.

The alliance with DGG still left PPI without repertoire in Britain or the United States. But in 1951, after Columbia had failed to renew its international distribution agreement with EMI, PPI agreed to distribute Columbia recordings outside the United States. Columbia became PPI's distributor within the US. This agreement ran until 1961 when Columbia set up its own European network. PPI signed a worldwide distribution deal with Mercury Records in 1961. PPI's parent company Philips, through its U.S. affiliate Consolidated Electronics Industries Corp (a.k.a. Conelco), acquired Mercury in 1962.

PPI built or bought factories in smaller countries. In 1962, PPI had a large factory in Baarn and factories in France, Britain, Denmark, Norway, Spain, Italy, Egypt, Nigeria, and Brazil.

PPI played an important role in the introduction of the long-playing vinyl record to Europe. Columbia introduced their LP record in 1948 and Philips presented its first LP at a record retailers' convention in 1949. Philips' commitment to LP technology was an important factor in its 1951–1961 deal with Columbia.[3]

GPG and PolyGram, 1962–1980

PolyGram
Industry Music
Film
Entertainment
Fate Sold to Seagram and merged into MCA Inc. creating Universal Studios/Universal Music Group.
Founded 1962; 55 years ago (1962) (as Grammophon-Philips Group) (GPG), a joint venture of Philips and Siemens
Founder Polydor and Deutsche Grammophon
Defunct 1998 (1998)
Headquarters Baarn, Netherlands

In 1962, PPI and DGG formed the Grammophon-Philips Group (GPG) as a joint-venture holding company, with Philips taking a 50% share in DGG and Siemens a 50% share in PPI. In 1971, the UK record labels of Philips, Fontana, Mercury, and Vertigo were amalgamated into a new company called Phonogram, Ltd. In 1972, Grammophon-Philips Group reorganized all it's operations and was renamed The PolyGram Group' (in some countries, like Argentina, its name was Phonogram), of which Philips and Siemens each owned 50%. In 1977, both organizations merged operationally, integrating the recording, manufacturing, distribution and marketing into a single organization.

The various record labels within PolyGram continued to operate separately. PolyGram gave its labels, as A&R organizations, great autonomy.

After the merger, PolyGram began to move into the US and UK markets, and did so by a process of both formation and acquisition: Polydor Records established its American operations, Polydor Incorporated in 1969, Mercury Record Productions (US) was acquired in 1972 from sister company North American Philips Corp., and became Phonogram, Inc. MGM Records and Verve (US) were acquired in 1972, RSO (UK) in 1975, a 50% stake in Casablanca (US) in 1977 (with the remaining 50% in 1980), Pickwick in 1978, and Decca (UK) in 1980 (the latter acquisition basically brought PolyGram full circle, see the HDD section above). PolyGram acquired United Distribution Corporation (UDC) in 1973, and changed its name to Phonodisc, Inc., and signed international distribution deals with MCA and 20th Century Records in 1976.

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Philips had been at work on a new consumer magnetic tape format for music. The Philips Compact Cassette came out in 1963. It was small, played longer than an LP and was robust. In 1965 the cassette accounted for 3% of revenues, growing in 1968 to 8% and in 1970 to 10.6%.

In the late 1960s, and through the 1970s, GPG/PolyGram diversified into film and television production and home video. RSO's successes included Saturday Night Fever and Grease. PolyGram's highly successful marketing during the disco craze included the Casablanca film Thank God It's Friday and its associated soundtrack. During the boom in disco, PolyGram's US market share had gone from 5% to 20%. This can also be attributed to multi-million selling LPs and 45s by ABBA, the Bee Gees, Donna Summer, the Village People, Andy Gibb, Kool & the Gang, and rock band Kiss. For a short while in the late 1970s, it was the world's largest record company.[4]

In 1969, PolyGram established a direct mail-order business in the UK, Britannia Music Club, which ran till 2007.[5]

Reorganization, 1980–1999

Before 1978, with the acquisition of UDC, the distribution organization was too large and PolyGram was losing money. When US operations were running at full capacity, PolyGram expanded aggressively, and would press large quantities of records without knowing the demand. In late 1979, PolyGram was caught off guard by the sudden end of the popularity of disco music, leaving it with an underutilized distribution network, profligate labels, and over optimistic product orders. PolyGram's Casablanca label was infamous for management spending on lavish industry parties, luxury cars and cocaine. After 1980, PolyGram's losses had spiraled upwards of US$220 million.

Another contributing factor to PolyGram's financial woes was the massive failure of the big budget 1978 musical Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Heart's Club Band. The film starred the Bee Gees and Peter Frampton at the height of their popularity, and featured The Beatles covers by them as well as Aerosmith, Billy Preston, and Earth, Wind & Fire. The film was highly anticipated to surpass the box office success of both the Saturday Night Fever and Grease, mostly due to its popular music stars. The soundtrack LP, based on only advance orders, was released triple platinum.[citation needed] However, the movie was released to poor reviews and died a quick death at the box office. Despite its triple platinum start, the soundtrack LP's sales bombed after the film's release. In turn, record dealers flooded PolyGram with returned LPs. The resulting losses nearly wiped out the profits the company had made on both the Saturday Night Fever and Grease soundtracks. When the disco craze ended in 1979, and record sales for both the Bee Gees and Casablanca's Village People plummeted, the company's fate was sealed. PolyGram also experienced losses with the defection of Casablanca's Donna Summer to newly formed Geffen Records as well as the dropping of Andy Gibb, whose personal problems with cocaine and alcohol began to affect his recording career, from RSO. Summer and the Bee Gees also had legal disputes with their labels which further complicated matters. Summer ended her contract with Polygram in 1980, and was award the rights to her songwriting catalog by the courts; she owed them one more album, and finished out her contract by recording her album She Works Hard For The Money (from which the title track was a huge hit in 1983).

In 1980, PolyGram created PolyGram Pictures in a partnership with Peter Guber. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, PolyGram continued to invest in a diversified film unit with the purchases of individual production companies.

In 1981, Philips executive, Jan Timmer became a member of the Group Management of PolyGram and was appointed President and Chief Executive Officer of newly formed parent company, PolyGram International Ltd. in 1983. He cut the workforce from 13,000 to 7,000, reduced PolyGram's LP and cassette plants from eighteen to five, and decreased the company's dependence on superstars by spreading the repertoire across different genres and nurturing national and regional talent. Also in 1983, PolyGram's U.S. roster of labels by this time included: Polydor, Mercury, London, London/FFRR, Casablanca (until 1986, later to be reincarnated in 1994), RSO, De-Lite, Riva, Threshold (owned by the Moody Blues), Tin Pan Apple (under Polydor Records), Total Experience (founded by Lonnie Simmons, from 1981 to 1984) and Atlanta Artists (founded by Cameo lead singer Larry Blackmon) all consolidated into PolyGram Records, Inc. By 1985, PolyGram was profitable once more.

Wing Records was reincarnated in 1987 and became a very popular label over the following years, spawning the careers of Tony! Toni! Toné! and former Miss America, Vanessa Williams; the label was discontinued in the mid-1990s. Fontana was revived in the U.S. in 1989, but only for a short while. Today, Fontana Distribution is an independent label distribution unit of Universal Music Group. Vertigo Records still remained a rare U.S. PolyGram label, as most of its music was from Europe.

In 1982, PolyGram purchased 20th Century Fox Records from 20th Century Fox, which had just recently been bought out by oil magnate Marvin Davis, who was not interested in keeping the record company. The assets of the former 20th Century Fox Records were consolidated with the company's Casablanca label.

After an attempted 1983 merger with Warner Elektra Atlantic failed, Philips bought 40% of PolyGram from Siemens, acquiring the remaining 10% in 1987.

The CD, invented by Philips and Sony, helped greatly in boosting the company's sales and market share. PolyGram's strength in classical music helped greatly, as many of the CD's early adopters were classical music lovers. Total US sales of CDs were $1 million in 1983, $334 million in 1990 and $943 million in 2000. Total UK sales were $300,000 in 1983, $51 million in 1990 and $202 million in 2000. The CD increased PolyGram's profit margin from 4-6% in the mid-1980s to 7-9% by the early 1990s. As well, videos were distributed by PolyGram Video.

In 1988, Philips acquired the remaining 50% of PolyGram from long time partner Siemens and later in 1989, floated 16% of PolyGram on the Amsterdam stock exchange, valuing the whole company at $5.6 billion. PolyGram embarked on a new program of acquisitions, including A&M and Island Records in 1989, Swedish company Polar Music which held the rights to the ABBA catalogue, Motown and Def Jam in 1994, and Rodven (Venezuela) in 1995.

In 1990, after acquiring Island Records and A&M Records, Alain Levy (then) executive vice president of PolyGram N.V., re-organized the U.S. operations of PolyGram Record's, Inc. into a new expanded conglomerate entitled PolyGram Group Distribution, Inc. In addition to overseeing the sales, marketing, manufacturing, and distribution of music and video products created by PolyGram, PGD was also responsible for supervising a number of other divisions within PolyGram (U.S.) such as: PolyGram Music Group, PolyGram Video, PolyMedia, PolyGram Special Markets, PolyGram Merchandising, Independent Label Sales (ILS), and New Media & Business Development.

Polygram and Granada TV form a joint venture, Big Picture Productions, in 1990 as music programing firm. At Cannes 1990, Big Picture purchased exclusive international distribution rights to Brown Sugar, from the New York-based Gene David Group The two-hour special covers black female performers and hosted by Billy Dee Williams.[6]

In 1991, Alain Levy was promoted to worldwide president/C.E.O. of PolyGram N.V.

In 1995, PolyGram purchased ITC Entertainment for $156 million.[7][8] In early January 1999, Carlton Communications bought ITC television and film library from PolyGram/Seagram for £91 million.[9] ITV plc continues to release ITC's original output through television repeats, books and DVD releases.

Around the same time, PolyGram was sold to Seagram and merged into Universal Music Group.[10] The name survives via reissue of music under the Polydor Records label as well as a publishing arm of Universal Music Publishing Group. The Japanese branches of the PolyGram labels that were absorbed to form Universal Music Japan were merged into one label named Universal Sigma.

Polygram Entertainment

Polygram Entertainment on February 11, 2017 was relaunched as a film and television unit of Universal Music Group led by David Blackman, UMG head of film & television development and production. Before the announcement, the revived Polygram co-distributed with Studio Canal in September 2016 The Beatles: Eight Days a Week documentary. Polygram had on its slate as its first production The Story of Motown, a documentary about the record label's cultural and historical effects. Also on its slate is the co-production and financing of Mystify, INXS frontman Michael Hutchence biography.[11] Republic Records appointed its first executive vice president of film & television in July 2017 to oversee film and TV projects and Federal Films initiative in working with Polygram.[12]

Films

Release Date Title Co-production companies Notes
September 15, 2016 The Beatles: Eight Days a Week Apple Corps, Imagine Entertainment, White Horse Pictures, UMG distribution only with StudioCanal[11]
Pending[13]
TBA The Story of Motown Motown, Ghost Pictures, Fulwell 73
“Mystify” Surfing Cowboys, Ghost Pictures, Passion Pictures
Luciano Pavarotti authorized documentary Imagine Entertainment, White Horse Pictures co-financers: Polygram Entertainment and Studiocanal[14]

Notable labels

See also

Sources

  • Bakker, Gerben. "The Making of a Music Multinational: The International Strategy of PolyGram, 1945-1988." Business History Review 80:1 (Spring 2006), pp. 81–123. (preprint)

References

  1. ^ a b Hardy, Phil. "Would You Like to Dance? EMI and WMG". Download! How The Internet Transformed The Record Business. Music Sales Group / Google Books. pp. Chapter 4. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  2. ^ Geisst, Charles R. "Radio Industry". Encyclopedia of American Business History. Ifobase / Google Books. p. 352. Retrieved 15 April 2016. 
  3. ^ Bakker, p.17. "Philips’ commitment to the LP technology was an important factor for Columbia’s willingness to enter the long-term alliance with PPI in 1950. "
  4. ^ Bakker, p.26. "During the disco-boom, Polygram’s US market share had jumped from five to twenty percent. For a few years, it was the world’s largest record company."
  5. ^ Billboard - 25 Dec 1999 - 1 janv. 2000 - Page 90 "In the year ending in June, both companies are said to have had combined sales of $460 million and an operating profit of $50 million. Sales of $480 million are forecast for the year to June 2000. Britannia, launched in 1969 by Poly Gram, has ..."
  6. ^ "Worldwide deal doings at Cannes" (PDF). Broadcasting. Broadcasting Publications Inc.: 39 April 30, 1990. ISSN 0007-2028. Retrieved September 15, 2017. 
  7. ^ PolyGram filmed entertainment acquires ITC Entertainment Group. Business Wire January 10, 1995. Retrieved on November 21, 2010.
  8. ^ PolyGram buys Itc for $156m. The Times, Wednesday, January 11, 1995; pg. 25
  9. ^ "Thunderbirds are going, going, gone". BBC News. 1999-01-19. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  10. ^ Universal Music shake-up. The Times, Friday, January 15, 1999
  11. ^ a b "Universal Music Relaunching Polygram, Announces 'Story of Motown' as First Production". billboard.com. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  12. ^ Halperin, Shirley (July 17, 2017). "‘Fifty Shades’ Franchise Veteran Dana Sano to Head Film and Television at Republic Records". Variety. Retrieved August 22, 2017. 
  13. ^ Littleton, Cynthia (February 12, 2017). "Universal Music Group Revives Polygram Label for Film and TV Production". Variety. Retrieved August 22, 2017. 
  14. ^ McNary, Dave (June 1, 2017). "Ron Howard to Direct Luciano Pavarotti Documentary". Variety. Retrieved August 22, 2017. 

External links

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