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Polynesian Chief Taumako Clan.  Polynesian Outlier
Polynesian Chief Taumako Clan. Polynesian Outlier
Published: 2010/04/21
Channel: tulano
Anuta traditional navigator Polynesian outlier Santa Cruz
Anuta traditional navigator Polynesian outlier Santa Cruz
Published: 2010/04/23
Channel: tulano
Tokelau Tikopia ; South Pacific Ocean
Tokelau Tikopia ; South Pacific Ocean
Published: 2009/05/09
Channel: tulano
Pacific Documentation - Lost World of The Pacific - Polynesian Islands Documentary
Pacific Documentation - Lost World of The Pacific - Polynesian Islands Documentary
Published: 2015/02/28
Channel: MotleyVisions
Polynesian navigation - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Polynesian navigation - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: Wiz Science™
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Published: 2014/11/07
Channel: Audiopedia
The Pacific History they dont teach you in School DVD Trailer
The Pacific History they dont teach you in School DVD Trailer
Published: 2014/07/22
Channel: Suluama Fuimaono-Sapolu
Kapingamarangi Loom Weaving Documentation, 1992
Kapingamarangi Loom Weaving Documentation, 1992
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: NGO Pasifika Renaissance パシフィカ・ルネサンス
Polynesian Chief Making Fire
Polynesian Chief Making Fire
Published: 2015/04/14
Channel: Christine Zeller
Polynesian mythology - Wiki Videos
Polynesian mythology - Wiki Videos
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: Wiki Videos
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: WikiWikiup
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 1)
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 1)
Published: 2009/11/26
Channel: MikePearceFilms
Anuta
Anuta
Published: 2015/10/08
Channel: Cultural Anthropology
Duff Islands: Custom dance
Duff Islands: Custom dance
Published: 2007/11/25
Channel: drkavahed
Polynesian origin of tokelau people  history of crafting documentary from fiji lau
Polynesian origin of tokelau people history of crafting documentary from fiji lau
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: RATU Junior tui rewan nasinu prince
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 2)
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 2)
Published: 2009/11/26
Channel: MikePearceFilms
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 3)
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 3)
Published: 2009/11/26
Channel: MikePearceFilms
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 4)
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 4)
Published: 2009/11/26
Channel: MikePearceFilms
Polynesian Anti-depressants
Polynesian Anti-depressants
Published: 2008/09/24
Channel: Antony Robinson
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 5 Tikopia
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 5 Tikopia
Published: 2007/11/28
Channel: drkavahed
4.1 The True (and Accurate) History of Polynesia (Miniseries)
4.1 The True (and Accurate) History of Polynesia (Miniseries)
Published: 2011/06/27
Channel: Snapwave
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 6 Anuta
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 6 Anuta
Published: 2007/11/28
Channel: drkavahed
Malaita: Custom dancers from Ontong Java
Malaita: Custom dancers from Ontong Java
Published: 2008/02/23
Channel: drkavahed
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 7 Duff Islands
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 7 Duff Islands
Published: 2007/12/01
Channel: drkavahed
SAMOIC - HOW TO PRONOUNCE IT!?
SAMOIC - HOW TO PRONOUNCE IT!?
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: WordBox
10 Tribes in the world about to go extinct
10 Tribes in the world about to go extinct
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: 1 Mega Videos Channel
Danse traditionnelle de Futuna (Tafea) VANUATU  -  3rd National Arts Festival Port-Vila 2009
Danse traditionnelle de Futuna (Tafea) VANUATU - 3rd National Arts Festival Port-Vila 2009
Published: 2010/09/30
Channel: Töémîrî popai
Kapingamarangi
Kapingamarangi
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: WikiWikiup
Tuvaluan Language Study Bible 64P / Tusitapu Tauloto Tuvalu / Golden Edges, Burgundy Leather Bound
Tuvaluan Language Study Bible 64P / Tusitapu Tauloto Tuvalu / Golden Edges, Burgundy Leather Bound
Published: 2015/07/29
Channel: BibleInMyLanguage
Vaka Taumako
Vaka Taumako
Published: 2015/05/15
Channel: Eahonos Gluzaon
FIJI - Rabi Island
FIJI - Rabi Island
Published: 2011/12/15
Channel: Alexey Bekmuratov
The opening of the Tokelau Matauala Hall 1987
The opening of the Tokelau Matauala Hall 1987
Published: 2017/04/22
Channel: Te Paloa
Polynesians
Polynesians
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: Audiopedia
FOOK-WELCOME BACK #8 ft SHAXE
FOOK-WELCOME BACK #8 ft SHAXE
Published: 2012/02/28
Channel: 3RPtv
Vaka Taumako Project - We, the Voyagers Trailer
Vaka Taumako Project - We, the Voyagers Trailer
Published: 2013/07/25
Channel: Vaka Taumako
Tale of a Boy Who Became Named "Octopus", Kapingamarangi
Tale of a Boy Who Became Named "Octopus", Kapingamarangi
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: NGO Pasifika Renaissance パシフィカ・ルネサンス
Proto.in Pune - Audience Interaction - Outliers
Proto.in Pune - Audience Interaction - Outliers
Published: 2009/08/26
Channel: Syed Razik
Marquee Matchup: (7) Mililani vs. Leilehua
Marquee Matchup: (7) Mililani vs. Leilehua
Published: 2016/09/30
Channel: KHON2 News
Account of Timothy Monop
Account of Timothy Monop's Activities during the 1960s, Kapingamarangi
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: NGO Pasifika Renaissance パシフィカ・ルネサンス
Paia, Maui: The Star Compass-Polynesian Navigation
Paia, Maui: The Star Compass-Polynesian Navigation
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: PAIA Town
Tupaia,  Captain Cook
Tupaia, Captain Cook's Polynesian Navigator, by Joan Druett
Published: 2010/11/24
Channel: Rick Spilman
Polynesian Dancing at Chief
Polynesian Dancing at Chief's Luau
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Edward Hewer
Hokule
Hokule'a Arrival Polynesian Dance Yorktown, Virginia
Published: 2016/04/27
Channel: David James
2010 - Polynesian and Melanesian Children
2010 - Polynesian and Melanesian Children
Published: 2014/10/09
Channel: RvcKlement Klement
Account of an Ancient Custom named "Hokaholau", Nukuoro
Account of an Ancient Custom named "Hokaholau", Nukuoro
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: NGO Pasifika Renaissance パシフィカ・ルネサンス
Polynesian Vessel
Polynesian Vessel
Published: 2010/04/16
Channel: Kiwiamerican34
Account of the Marshallese People
Account of the Marshallese People's Drift to Kapingamarangi in the Late Nineteenth Century
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: NGO Pasifika Renaissance パシフィカ・ルネサンス
Account of Athletic Competitions during the Japanese Colonial Period, Nukuoro
Account of Athletic Competitions during the Japanese Colonial Period, Nukuoro
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: NGO Pasifika Renaissance パシフィカ・ルネサンス
Chief
Chief's Luau Polynesian Dance
Published: 2012/07/30
Channel: mbabes08
Chief
Chief's Luau Polynesian Dance
Published: 2012/07/30
Channel: mbabes08
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Polynesian outliers are a number of culturally Polynesian societies that lie outside the main region of Polynesian influence, known as the Polynesian Triangle; instead, Polynesian outliers are scattered in the two other Pacific subregions: Melanesia and Micronesia.

Based on archaeological and linguistic analysis, these islands are considered to have been colonized by seafaring Polynesians, mostly from the area of Tonga, Samoa and Tuvalu.

General definition[edit]

The region commonly termed "Polynesia" includes thousands of islands, most of them arranged in a rough triangle bounded by Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand. Outside the Polynesian Triangle, in areas commonly designated Micronesia and Melanesia, lie about two dozen islands, most of them small and widely separated, whose inhabitants speak Polynesian languages. These islands are collectively termed the Polynesian "outliers"

Their residents generally share features found within Triangle Polynesia. Physically, Polynesians tend to have brown complexions and dark, wavy hair, and they are typically large people of muscular build.

The fact that people in all of the Polynesian outliers speak recognizably Polynesian languages implies that their ancestors fairly recently migrated from the Polynesian heartland. Yet there is much social variation. In some places, outlier populations settled in close proximity to Melanesian or Micronesian populations and seem to have been influenced by them. In other locations, outlier populations remained isolated by geography, ecology, or choice and seem more classically Polynesian.[1]

Geography[edit]

Map of the Polynesian outliers (in red) and the original Polynesian homeland (red zone).

Polynesian outlier cultures are scattered across five countries of the Pacific: in the Federated States of Micronesia, in Papua New Guinea, in the Solomon Islands, in Vanuatu, and in New Caledonia.

The Federated States of Micronesia has two outlier cultures, Kapingamarangi and Nukuoro. Papua New Guinea has four : Nuguria, Nukumanu, and Takuu Vu'ula or Hula. The country with the most outlier cultures is the Solomon Islands, with seven: Anuta, Bellona, Ontong Java, Rennell, Sikaiana, Tikopia, and Vaeakau-Taumako. Vanuatu has three: Emae, Makura, Mele (Erakoro, Eratapu) stemming from Rarotonga, (Aniwa) and Futuna. Futuna recognizes links with Tonga. The principal outlier culture in New Caledonia is on Ouvéa in the Loyalty Islands, where the Fagauvea language is spoken.

The links of these people are multiple. [2]

Language[edit]

The outlier groups in Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands speak Ellicean languages (which also includes Tuvaluan), while those further to the south in the Solomons, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia speak Futunic languages (which also includes the language of Wallis and Futuna). These are two of the branches of the Samoic language family, which is sometimes called the Samoan-Outlier language family for this reason. It is a sub-branch of the Nuclear Polynesian languages. In some of these islands, the outlier population may also speak the local Melanesian or Micronesian language.

Genetics[edit]

A 1983 study analyzing the DNA of 2400 people in the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu have found markers which clearly distinguish the Polynesian outlier islands of the group. Of the four Polynesian outliers considered, Anuta was the most genetically distinct, followed by Rennell and Bellona. Tikopia showed more influence from the nearby Melanesian population. All indicate traces of inter-island population movements, and even sources from Europeans, Africans, and Asians, though the latter were at a low level.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Feinberg, Richard and Richard Scaglion, eds. 2012. Polynesian Outliers: The State of the Art. Ethnology Monographs, No. 21. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  2. ^ They come from Tonga, Samoa, Rarotonga, and the Wallis and Futuna islands. There are groups of Polynesian descent dispersed on the east coast of New Caledonia (Balade, Pouébo). One has even crossed over the centuries from the east coast at Houaïlou to the west coast at Bourail. There is a Polynesian group (from Wallis islands) on South Lifou and one on the coast, coming from Rarotonga. The present inhabitants of Rennell and Bellona have come by way of Ouvéa. Those of Taumako have come from the Ellice islands, as well as part of the inhabitants of Tikopia. There are descendants of the crews of Samoan canoes on Tongoa, Tongariki and Makura in the Shepherds' islands.[citation needed]
  3. ^ Blake, N.M.; Hawkins, B.R.; Kirk, R.L.; Bhatia, K.; Brown, P.; Garruto, R.M.; Gajdusek, D.C. (December 1983). "A population genetic study of the Banks and Torres Islands (Vanuatu) and of the Santa Cruz Islands and Polynesian Outliers (Solomon Islands)". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 62 (4): 343–61. PMID 6607679. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330620402. 

External links[edit]

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