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Anuta traditional navigator Polynesian outlier Santa Cruz
Anuta traditional navigator Polynesian outlier Santa Cruz
Published: 2010/04/23
Channel: tulano
Polynesian Chief Taumako Clan.  Polynesian Outlier
Polynesian Chief Taumako Clan. Polynesian Outlier
Published: 2010/04/21
Channel: tulano
Polynesian outliers my ancestors kiribaiti and tuvalau and fiji Nauru ocean island and rotuma
Polynesian outliers my ancestors kiribaiti and tuvalau and fiji Nauru ocean island and rotuma
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: Roko RATU Junior tui rewan nasinu prince
Tokelau Tikopia ; South Pacific Ocean
Tokelau Tikopia ; South Pacific Ocean
Published: 2009/05/09
Channel: tulano
Polynesian mythology - Wiki Videos
Polynesian mythology - Wiki Videos
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: Wiki Videos
Pacific Documentation - Lost World of The Pacific - Polynesian Islands Documentary
Pacific Documentation - Lost World of The Pacific - Polynesian Islands Documentary
Published: 2015/02/28
Channel: MotleyVisions
VANUATU: the HIDEAWAY ISLAND RESORT (& an underwater POST OFFICE), PACIFIC OCEAN
VANUATU: the HIDEAWAY ISLAND RESORT (& an underwater POST OFFICE), PACIFIC OCEAN
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: Vic Stefanu - World Travels and Adventures
Ancient Pyramid Discovery Deep in the Jungles of Samoa
Ancient Pyramid Discovery Deep in the Jungles of Samoa
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: Earth Ancients
Polynesian Anti-depressants
Polynesian Anti-depressants
Published: 2008/09/24
Channel: Antony Robinson
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Published: 2014/11/07
Channel: Audiopedia
Polynesian origin of tokelau people  history of crafting documentary from fiji lau
Polynesian origin of tokelau people history of crafting documentary from fiji lau
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Roko RATU Junior tui rewan nasinu prince
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 5 Tikopia
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 5 Tikopia
Published: 2007/11/28
Channel: drkavahed
Episode 9 - Sailing to Fiji or so we thought
Episode 9 - Sailing to Fiji or so we thought
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: Adventures of the Outlier
Tokelau Language Week 2017: Atafu (Ko Te Ata o Te Vaveao)
Tokelau Language Week 2017: Atafu (Ko Te Ata o Te Vaveao)
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: Nathan Lopa
Polynesian navigation - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Polynesian navigation - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: Wiz Science™
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: WikiWikiup
Polynesian Vessel
Polynesian Vessel
Published: 2010/04/16
Channel: Kiwiamerican34
4.1 The True (and Accurate) History of Polynesia (Miniseries)
4.1 The True (and Accurate) History of Polynesia (Miniseries)
Published: 2011/06/27
Channel: Snapwave
Anuta
Anuta
Published: 2015/10/08
Channel: Cultural Anthropology
West Isles V Rennel
West Isles V Rennel
Published: 2014/11/02
Channel: Farhad K
Culture Of Tuvalu
Culture Of Tuvalu
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: FrogCast
Duff Islands: Custom dance
Duff Islands: Custom dance
Published: 2007/11/25
Channel: drkavahed
The Pacific History they dont teach you in School DVD Trailer
The Pacific History they dont teach you in School DVD Trailer
Published: 2014/07/22
Channel: Suluama Fuimaono-Sapolu
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 1)
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 1)
Published: 2009/11/26
Channel: MikePearceFilms
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 2)
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 2)
Published: 2009/11/26
Channel: MikePearceFilms
SAMOIC - HOW TO PRONOUNCE IT!?
SAMOIC - HOW TO PRONOUNCE IT!?
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: WordBox
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 7 Duff Islands
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 7 Duff Islands
Published: 2007/12/01
Channel: drkavahed
Vortex HD | Tuvalu
Vortex HD | Tuvalu
Published: 2017/12/08
Channel: David Cassel
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 3)
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 3)
Published: 2009/11/26
Channel: MikePearceFilms
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 6 Anuta
Tour of Temotu Province by ship: Part 6 Anuta
Published: 2007/11/28
Channel: drkavahed
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 4)
Cry of Nukumanu (PART 4)
Published: 2009/11/26
Channel: MikePearceFilms
Malaita: Custom dancers from Ontong Java
Malaita: Custom dancers from Ontong Java
Published: 2008/02/23
Channel: drkavahed
Polynesian Chief Making Fire
Polynesian Chief Making Fire
Published: 2015/04/14
Channel: Christine Zeller
vandwelleruk Going Tribal-Lost Islands of Anuta part2
vandwelleruk Going Tribal-Lost Islands of Anuta part2
Published: 2008/01/12
Channel: vandwelleruk
Culture Of The Solomon Islands
Culture Of The Solomon Islands
Published: 2017/12/10
Channel: FrogCast
Tuvaluan Language Study Bible 64P / Tusitapu Tauloto Tuvalu / Golden Edges, Burgundy Leather Bound
Tuvaluan Language Study Bible 64P / Tusitapu Tauloto Tuvalu / Golden Edges, Burgundy Leather Bound
Published: 2015/07/29
Channel: BibleInMyLanguage
Tuvalu
Tuvalu
Published: 2017/12/06
Channel: FrogCast
Kapingamarangi
Kapingamarangi
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: WikiWikiup
Danse traditionnelle de Futuna (Tafea) VANUATU  -  3rd National Arts Festival Port-Vila 2009
Danse traditionnelle de Futuna (Tafea) VANUATU - 3rd National Arts Festival Port-Vila 2009
Published: 2010/09/30
Channel: Töémîrî popai
Salat se Rotuma - Passage to Rotuma
Salat se Rotuma - Passage to Rotuma
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Eye On U Productions Ltd
Anuta Village
Anuta Village
Published: 2013/06/27
Channel: Jacob Ells
The Void
The Void
Published: 2015/02/08
Channel: Stephen Scott - Topic
ontong java
ontong java
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: nicedaymovie
Nukumanu Bible Dedication
Nukumanu Bible Dedication
Published: 2015/06/16
Channel: Josh Kitchen
vandwelleruk Going Tribal-Lost Islands of Anuta part 4
vandwelleruk Going Tribal-Lost Islands of Anuta part 4
Published: 2008/01/13
Channel: vandwelleruk
Best Things in life are Free " Part 2 " - E
Best Things in life are Free " Part 2 " - E' io Aquatic Fun Ride with 'El Rico'
Published: 2010/10/10
Channel: PuraVida101010
Tupaia,  Captain Cook
Tupaia, Captain Cook's Polynesian Navigator, by Joan Druett
Published: 2010/11/24
Channel: Rick Spilman
Paia, Maui: The Star Compass-Polynesian Navigation
Paia, Maui: The Star Compass-Polynesian Navigation
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: PAIA Town
anuta anutana
anuta anutana
Published: 2013/12/21
Channel: Anuta Anutana
Hokule
Hokule'a Arrival Polynesian Dance Yorktown, Virginia
Published: 2016/04/27
Channel: David James
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Polynesian outliers are a number of culturally Polynesian societies that geographically lie outside the main region of Polynesian influence, known as the Polynesian Triangle; instead, Polynesian outliers are scattered in the two other Pacific subregions: Melanesia and Micronesia. Based on archaeological and linguistic analysis, these islands are considered to have been colonized by seafaring Polynesians, mostly from the area of Tonga, Samoa and Tuvalu.

General definition[edit]

The region commonly termed "Polynesia" includes thousands of islands, most of them arranged in a rough triangle bounded by Hawaii, Easter Island, and New Zealand. Outside the Polynesian Triangle, in areas commonly designated Micronesia and Melanesia, lie about two dozen islands, most of them small and widely separated, whose inhabitants speak Polynesian languages. These islands are collectively termed the Polynesian "outliers".

Their residents generally share features found within Triangle Polynesia. Physically, Polynesians tend to have brown complexions and dark, wavy hair, and they are typically large people of muscular build.

The fact that people in all of the Polynesian outliers speak recognizably Polynesian languages implies that their ancestors fairly recently migrated from the Polynesian heartland. Yet there is much social variation. In some places, outlier populations settled in close proximity to Melanesian or Micronesian populations and seem to have been influenced by them. In other locations, outlier populations remained isolated by geography, ecology, or choice and seem more classically Polynesian.[1]

Geography[edit]

Map of the Polynesian outliers (in red) and the original Polynesian homeland (red zone).

Polynesian outlier cultures are scattered across five countries of the Pacific: in the Federated States of Micronesia, in Papua New Guinea, in the Solomon Islands, in Vanuatu, and in New Caledonia.

The Federated States of Micronesia has two outlier cultures, Kapingamarangi and Nukuoro. Papua New Guinea has four : Nuguria, Nukumanu, and Takuu Vu'ula or Hula. The country with the most outlier cultures is the Solomon Islands, with seven: Anuta, Bellona, Ontong Java, Rennell, Sikaiana, Tikopia, and Vaeakau-Taumako (or Duff Islands and Reef Islands. Vanuatu has three: Emae, Makura, Mele (Erakoro, Eratapu) stemming from Rarotonga, (Aniwa) and Futuna. Futuna recognizes links with Tonga. The principal outlier culture in New Caledonia is on Ouvéa in the Loyalty Islands, where the Fagauvea language is spoken.

The links of these people are multiple. [2]

Language[edit]

The outlier groups in Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, and the northern Solomon Islands speak Ellicean languages (which also includes Tuvaluan), while those further to the south in the Solomons, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia speak Futunic languages (which also includes the language of Wallis and Futuna). These are two of the branches of the Samoic language family, which is sometimes called the Samoan-Outlier language family for this reason. It is a sub-branch of the Nuclear Polynesian languages. In some of these islands, the outlier population may also speak the local Melanesian or Micronesian language.

Genetics[edit]

A 1983 study analyzing the DNA of 2400 people in the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu have found markers which clearly distinguish the Polynesian outlier islands of the group. Of the four Polynesian outliers considered, Anuta was the most genetically distinct, followed by Rennell and Bellona. Tikopia showed more influence from the nearby Melanesian population. All indicate traces of inter-island population movements, and even sources from Europeans, Africans, and Asians, though the latter were at a low level.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Feinberg, Richard and Richard Scaglion, eds. 2012. Polynesian Outliers: The State of the Art. Ethnology Monographs, No. 21. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  2. ^ They come from Tonga, Samoa, Rarotonga, and the Wallis and Futuna islands. There are groups of Polynesian descent dispersed on the east coast of New Caledonia (Balade, Pouébo). One has even crossed over the centuries from the east coast at Houaïlou to the west coast at Bourail. There is a Polynesian group (from Wallis islands) on South Lifou and one on the coast, coming from Rarotonga. The present inhabitants of Rennell and Bellona have come by way of Ouvéa. Those of Taumako have come from the Ellice islands, as well as part of the inhabitants of Tikopia. There are descendants of the crews of Samoan canoes on Tongoa, Tongariki and Makura in the Shepherds' islands.[citation needed]
  3. ^ Blake, N.M.; Hawkins, B.R.; Kirk, R.L.; Bhatia, K.; Brown, P.; Garruto, R.M.; Gajdusek, D.C. (December 1983). "A population genetic study of the Banks and Torres Islands (Vanuatu) and of the Santa Cruz Islands and Polynesian Outliers (Solomon Islands)". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 62 (4): 343–61. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330620402. PMID 6607679. 

External links[edit]

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