Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
3 Most Effective Pranayamas - Deep Breathing Exercises
3 Most Effective Pranayamas - Deep Breathing Exercises
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: VENTUNO YOGA
Pranayama - Baba Ramdev
Pranayama - Baba Ramdev
Published: 2009/05/26
Channel: Mikeydo
Pranayama: Extend Your Life by Extending Your Breath | Jim Kambeitz | TEDxBismarck
Pranayama: Extend Your Life by Extending Your Breath | Jim Kambeitz | TEDxBismarck
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: TEDx Talks
Yoga at Home: 15 Types of Pranayama - The World Of Yoga
Yoga at Home: 15 Types of Pranayama - The World Of Yoga
Published: 2014/09/02
Channel: The World of Yoga
Kundalini Yoga - Pranayama
Kundalini Yoga - Pranayama
Published: 2013/04/04
Channel: YOGI MARK T. KINDER
How to Prep for Pranayama: Breathwork Steps Before you Start
How to Prep for Pranayama: Breathwork Steps Before you Start
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: Yoga International
Excellent Pranayama Explanation from  Himalayan Yoga Swami
Excellent Pranayama Explanation from Himalayan Yoga Swami
Published: 2007/12/07
Channel: onecenter1
Breath of Fire - Pranayama Series
Breath of Fire - Pranayama Series
Published: 2014/10/30
Channel: Yoga With Adriene
Pranayama English | Baba Ramdev Yoga
Pranayama English | Baba Ramdev Yoga
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: Health Wealth Happiness
Pranayama Basics
Pranayama Basics
Published: 2011/05/03
Channel: anandayoga
Yoga + Pranayama for the Spine - Yoga With Adriene
Yoga + Pranayama for the Spine - Yoga With Adriene
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Yoga With Adriene
Art of living Pranayama (meditation) - 3 stages with bhastrika pranayama
Art of living Pranayama (meditation) - 3 stages with bhastrika pranayama
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Yogesh Jain
Most Powerful Yoga Breathing Exercise (Pranayama)
Most Powerful Yoga Breathing Exercise (Pranayama)
Published: 2009/11/16
Channel: Anmol Mehta
Pranayama Breathing
Pranayama Breathing
Published: 2009/12/09
Channel: DrJerath
Every Pranayam Detailed Explaination - Baba Ramdev
Every Pranayam Detailed Explaination - Baba Ramdev
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: Yog Amrit
Yoga - Pranayam
Yoga - Pranayam
Published: 2011/09/08
Channel: NiRuKa
Pranayama Yoga per i principianti in Italiano
Pranayama Yoga per i principianti in Italiano
Published: 2014/08/02
Channel: Yoga Tube
BKS Iyengar - Pranayama meditation, iyengar yoga style
BKS Iyengar - Pranayama meditation, iyengar yoga style
Published: 2017/01/21
Channel: Doroshenkos
BKS Iyengar demonstrating Pranayama
BKS Iyengar demonstrating Pranayama
Published: 2010/04/24
Channel: Ram Godar
Kapalabhati and Anuloma Viloma - Pranayama Yoga Breathing Exercises
Kapalabhati and Anuloma Viloma - Pranayama Yoga Breathing Exercises
Published: 2011/12/30
Channel: Yoga Practice Videos - Yoga Vidya
Breathing Exercises - Introduction to Pranayama
Breathing Exercises - Introduction to Pranayama
Published: 2007/08/24
Channel: Relaxing Music & Yoga -YogaYak
17 Minute Pranayama Practice: With Fightmaster Yoga
17 Minute Pranayama Practice: With Fightmaster Yoga
Published: 2015/05/13
Channel: Fightmaster Yoga
Pranayama - An Introduction | Breathing Basics | Yoga With Aj
Pranayama - An Introduction | Breathing Basics | Yoga With Aj
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: Mind Body Soul
Pranayama Precautions | pranayam ke liye sabadhanya - Yoga Precautions by Ramdev Yoga
Pranayama Precautions | pranayam ke liye sabadhanya - Yoga Precautions by Ramdev Yoga
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: Health Wealth Happiness
Three Types of Kapalbhati Pranayama | Swami Ramdev
Three Types of Kapalbhati Pranayama | Swami Ramdev
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Bharat Swabhiman
Pranayama und Qigong Atemübungen
Pranayama und Qigong Atemübungen
Published: 2016/07/09
Channel: dieZuversicht
Qué es el PRANAYAMA por Ramiro Calle. Diccionario de orientalismo
Qué es el PRANAYAMA por Ramiro Calle. Diccionario de orientalismo
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: Mindalia Televisión
Pranayama, l
Pranayama, l'art d'écouter le Souffle Subtil avec Agathe Yogasana
Published: 2013/12/02
Channel: Yoga&Vedas
Pranayama Ujjayi | Respiração Vitoriosa - Pri Leite
Pranayama Ujjayi | Respiração Vitoriosa - Pri Leite
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: Pri Leite Yoga
Living By Pranayama & Sunlight - Speech by Prof Dr. BM Hegde - happy Omyoga
Living By Pranayama & Sunlight - Speech by Prof Dr. BM Hegde - happy Omyoga
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: RMTV
कपालभाति प्राणायाम: विधि, फायदे और सावधानियां| How To Do Kapalbhati Pranayama, Benefit & Precautions
कपालभाति प्राणायाम: विधि, फायदे और सावधानियां| How To Do Kapalbhati Pranayama, Benefit & Precautions
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: Health Tips - आयुर्वेदिक घरेलु नुस्खे
Yoga Pranayama : exercices de respiration alternée
Yoga Pranayama : exercices de respiration alternée
Published: 2014/07/26
Channel: Doctissimo
Bhastrika Pranayama by Baba Ramdev
Bhastrika Pranayama by Baba Ramdev
Published: 2009/03/02
Channel: gopaltri
Simple Yoga Pranayama for Arthritis | Beginner Yoga for Joint & Knee Pain Relief | Pranava Pranayama
Simple Yoga Pranayama for Arthritis | Beginner Yoga for Joint & Knee Pain Relief | Pranava Pranayama
Published: 2017/07/24
Channel: Geethanjali - Yoga
Meditacion Guiada Técnica Pranayama - Respiracion que Cura - Respiracion Consciente Calmar Ansiedad
Meditacion Guiada Técnica Pranayama - Respiracion que Cura - Respiracion Consciente Calmar Ansiedad
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: Meditaciones Guiadas
Swami Niranjanananda On What is Pranayama ?
Swami Niranjanananda On What is Pranayama ?
Published: 2014/01/31
Channel: Shantanu Saha
Respiração para Ansiedade - Pranayama Bhramari - Pri Leite
Respiração para Ansiedade - Pranayama Bhramari - Pri Leite
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Pri Leite Yoga
PRANAYAMA Yoga para Voce
PRANAYAMA Yoga para Voce
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Yoga para Você
El Pranayama Egipcio - GNOSIS
El Pranayama Egipcio - GNOSIS
Published: 2016/04/24
Channel: ego271163
La Ciencia de la Respiración- Pranayama por Paramahamsa Nithyananda
La Ciencia de la Respiración- Pranayama por Paramahamsa Nithyananda
Published: 2012/08/30
Channel: NIthyananda Español
பிரணயாமம் என்றால் என்ன | யார் செய்ய கூடாது? | நன்மைகள்| Pranayama benefits in tamil
பிரணயாமம் என்றால் என்ன | யார் செய்ய கூடாது? | நன்மைகள்| Pranayama benefits in tamil
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: Bindaz Boy
कब और किसे नहीं करना चाहिए - Kapalbhati Pranayama | सावधानियां जिनका ध्यान रखना  ज़रूरी है
कब और किसे नहीं करना चाहिए - Kapalbhati Pranayama | सावधानियां जिनका ध्यान रखना ज़रूरी है
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: Health Tips - आयुर्वेदिक घरेलु नुस्खे
Yoga Pranayama Asanas | Tipos, pose y Posturas | Tutorial Yoga En Español
Yoga Pranayama Asanas | Tipos, pose y Posturas | Tutorial Yoga En Español
Published: 2014/11/15
Channel: The World of Yoga
Pranayama Count   1,2,3 Stages   Sri Sri Ravi Shankar 2
Pranayama Count 1,2,3 Stages Sri Sri Ravi Shankar 2
Published: 2016/12/28
Channel: Muthu kumar
Pranayama
Pranayama
Published: 2016/07/16
Channel: FernandaLimaOficial
Nadi  Sodana Pranayama - Respirazione calmante
Nadi Sodana Pranayama - Respirazione calmante
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: La Scimmia Yoga
Pranayama in Tamil
Pranayama in Tamil
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: GREEN LEAVES FOUNDATION
Relaja tu cuerpo y mente | Respiración Alternada| Pranayama | Técnicas de Respiración
Relaja tu cuerpo y mente | Respiración Alternada| Pranayama | Técnicas de Respiración
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: Yoga Con Lina
3 HOURS Restorative Yoga Music: Calming Music for Yoga, Meditation & Pranayama
3 HOURS Restorative Yoga Music: Calming Music for Yoga, Meditation & Pranayama
Published: 2016/02/11
Channel: BuddhaTribe
Pranayama NEFES ve Timus Bezi ile Hayat Enerjisi
Pranayama NEFES ve Timus Bezi ile Hayat Enerjisi
Published: 2015/09/22
Channel: ŞİMDİ Farkındalık
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Man practicing Prāṇāyām

Prāṇāyāma (Sanskrit: प्राणायाम prāṇāyāma) is a Sanskrit word alternatively translated as "extension of the prāṇa (breath or life force)" or "breath control." The word is composed from two Sanskrit words: prana meaning life force (noted particularly as the breath), and either ayama (to restrain or control the prana, implying a set of breathing techniques where the breath is intentionally altered in order to produce specific results) or the negative form ayāma, meaning to extend or draw out (as in extension of the life force). It is a yogic discipline with origins in ancient India.

Etymology[edit]

Prāṇāyāma (Devanagari: प्राणायाम prāṇāyāma) is a Sanskrit compound.

V. S. Apte provides fourteen different meanings for the word prāṇa (Devanagari: प्राण, prāṇa) including these:[1]

  • Breath, respiration
  • The breath of life, vital air, principle of life (usually plural in this sense, there being five such vital airs generally assumed, but three, six, seven, nine, and even ten are also spoken of)[2]
  • Energy, vigor
  • The spirit or soul

Of these meanings, the concept of "vital air" is used by Bhattacharyya to describe the concept as used in Sanskrit texts dealing with prāṇāyāma.[3] Thomas McEvilley translates prāṇa as "spirit-energy".[4] The breath is understood to be its most subtle material form, but is also believed to be present in the blood, and most concentrated in men's semen and women's vaginal fluid.[5]

Monier-Williams defines the compound prāṇāyāma as "(m., also pl.) N. of the three 'breath-exercises' performed during Saṃdhyā (See pūrak, rechak (English: retch or throw out), kumbhak".[6] This technical definition refers to a particular system of breath control with three processes as explained by Bhattacharyya: pūrak (to take the breath inside), kumbhak (to retain it), and rechak (to discharge it).[7] There are also other processes of prāṇāyāma in addition to this three-step model.[7]

Macdonell gives the etymology as prāṇa + āyāma and defines it as "m. suspension of breath (sts. pl.)".[8]

Apte's definition of āyāmaḥ derives it from ā + yām and provides several variant meanings for it when used in compounds. The first three meanings have to do with "length", "expansion, extension", and "stretching, extending", but in the specific case of use in the compound prāṇāyāma he defines āyāmaḥ as meaning "restrain, control, stopping".[9]

An alternative etymology for the compound is cited by Ramamurti Mishra, who says that:

Expansion of individual energy into cosmic energy is called prāṇāyāma (prāṇa, energy + ayām, expansion).[10]

Bhagavad Gītā[edit]

Prāṇāyāma is mentioned in verse 4.29 of the Bhagavad Gītā.[11]

According to Bhagavad-Gītā As It Is, prāṇāyāma is translated to "trance induced by stopping all breathing", also being made from the two separate Sanskrit words, prāṇa and āyām.[12]

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali[edit]

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali[13]
Pada (Chapter) English meaning Sutras
Samadhi Pada On being absorbed in spirit
51
Sadhana Pada On being immersed in spirit
55
Vibhuti Pada On supernatural abilities and gifts
56
Kaivalya Pada On absolute freedom
34

Pranayama is the fourth "limb" of the eight limbs of Ashtanga Yoga mentioned in verse 2.29 in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.[14][15] Patanjali, a Hindu Rishi, discusses his specific approach to pranayama in verses 2.49 through 2.51, and devotes verses 2.52 and 2.53 to explaining the benefits of the practice.[16] Patanjali does not fully elucidate the nature of prana, and the theory and practice of pranayama seem to have undergone significant development after him.[17] He presents pranayama as essentially an exercise that is preliminary to concentration, as do the earlier Buddhist texts.[17]

Many yoga teachers advise that pranayama should be part of an overall practice that includes the other limbs of Patanjali's Raja Yoga teachings, especially Yama, Niyama, and Asana.[18]

Forms[edit]

Prāṇāyāma techniques and forms include:[19][20]

Man practising Nadi sodhana in a yoga pose.
  • Nadi Shodan prāṇāyāma.
  • Pratiloma prāṇāyāma - the inverse of anuloma: the inhale is drawn through one nostril (alternating sides each time) and the exhale is released through both nostrils.
  • Sama vṛtti prāṇāyāma ("Even breathing") - the inhale and exhale are of equal size and duration. The opposite of visama vṛtti.
  • Shitali prāṇāyāma ("Cooling breath") - Inhalation is drawn over the curled and extended tongue.
  • Shitkari prāṇāyāma - Similar to shitali but the tongue is held between the teeth.
  • Surya Bhastrika prāṇāyāma.
  • Surya bhedana prāṇāyāma and Chandra bhedana prāṇāyāma - Channeling breath in one side and out the other without alternating, meant to energize ida or pingala nadi. The right nostril is associated with the sun (surya) and left nostril with the moon (ida).
  • Surya Chandra Bhastrika prāṇāyāma.
  • Udgeeth prāṇāyāma ("Chanting prāṇāyāma") - often done with the chanting of the Om mantra.
  • Ujjayi prāṇāyāma - also known as "victorious or conquering breath" is breathing with the glottis slightly engaged, producing a soft sound. Considered to be the only prāṇāyāma one can safely practice while walking or engaged in other activities (e.g. during āsana practice. Some older versions require digital prāṇāyāma (the fingers controlling the nostrils). The slightly closed airway creates a valsalva maneuver and typically results in a parasympathetic response (lowered heart rate, lowered blood pressure, increased digestive activity, stimulation of the vagus nerve, etc...)
  • Viloma prāṇāyāma - "the air is inhaled with pauses and exhaled as one breath or vice-versa, usually with added kumbhaka".[22]
  • Visama vṛtti - "Uneven breathing" where specific ratios (e.g. 1:4:2) are maintained between inhale, retention, and exhale. The opposite of sama vṛtti.
  • Laughter yoga is based on the belief that voluntary laughter provides the same physiological and psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter.Laughter Yoga is done in groups, with eye contact and playfulness between participants. Forced laughter soon turns into real and contagious laughter. This yoga can be recognized in pranayama or other forms

Medical[edit]

Several researchers have reported that pranayama techniques are beneficial in treating a range of stress-related disorders.[23] A Cochrane systematic review on the symptomatic relief of asthma by breathing exercises did not find a statistically significant improvement but did find that there was a statistically significant increase in the dose of histamine needed to provoke a 20% reduction in FEV1 (PD20) during pranayama breathing but not with the placebo device.[24]

Safety[edit]

Authoritative texts on Yoga state that, in order to avoid injuries and unwanted side effects, pranayama should only be undertaken when one has a firmly established yoga practice and then only under the guidance of an experienced Guru.[18] Although relatively safe, Hatha Yoga is not risk free. Sensible precautions can usefully be taken such as beginners should avoid advanced moves if they have any physical health related issue. It can get dangerous if someone is trying to pose tough exercise which requires extreme flexibility and good shapes of bones. Hatha Yoga should not be combined with psychoactive drug use, and competitive Hatha Yoga should be avoided. Person should inform the teacher or trainer of their physical limitations and concerns before getting involved themselves for extreme pose positions. Functional limitations should be taken into consideration. Modifications can then be made using props, altering the duration or poses.[25]

According to at least one study, pranayama was the yoga practice leading to most injuries, with four injuries in a study of 76 practitioners. There have been limited reports of adverse effects including haematoma and pneumothorax, though the connections are not always well established.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Apte, p. 679.
  2. ^ For the vital airs as generally assumed to be five, with other numbers given, see: Macdonell, p. 185.
  3. ^ Bhattacharyya, p. 311.
  4. ^ McEvilley, Thomas. "The Spinal Serpent", in: Harper and Brown, p. 94.
  5. ^ Richard King, Indian philosophy: an introduction to Hindu and Buddhist thought. Edinburgh University Press, 1999, p. 70.
  6. ^ Moner-Williams, p. 706, left column.
  7. ^ a b Bhattacharyya, p. 429.
  8. ^ Macdonell, p.185, main entry prāṇāghāta
  9. ^ See main article आयामः (āyāmaḥ) in: Apte, p. 224. Passages cited by Apte for this usage are Bhagavatgita 4.29 and Manusmriti 2.83.
  10. ^ Mishra, p. 216.
  11. ^ Gambhirananda, pp. 217–218.
  12. ^ "Bhagavad-gītā 4.29 — ISKCON Press". 
  13. ^ Stiles 2001, p. x.
  14. ^ Taimni, p. 205.
  15. ^ Flood (1996), p. 97.
  16. ^ Taimni, pp. 258–268.
  17. ^ a b G. C. Pande, Foundations of Indian Culture: Spiritual Vision and Symbolic Forms in Ancient India. Second edition published by Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1990, p. 97.
  18. ^ a b Bellur Krishnamachar Sundararaja Iyengar (2011). Light on prāṇāyāma : the yogic art of breathing. New York: Crossroad. OCLC 809217248. 
  19. ^ "Pranayama Basics and Pranayama Types". Yoga Health Center. 
  20. ^ Czipin, Jana A (2012). Practice Manual Pranayama. OCLC 863972234. 
  21. ^ YAI-Breath of Fire (Agni-Prasana), http://www.yogaalliance.com.au/yoga-breath-of-fire.html
  22. ^ Bellur Krishnamachar Sundararaja Iyengar. "20:Viloma prāṇāyāma". Light on pranayama. OCLC 68941560. 
  23. ^ Holland, Anne E.; Hill, Catherine J.; Jones, Alice Y.; McDonald, Christine F. (2012). "Breathing exercises for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 10: CD008250. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 23076942. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008250.pub2. 
  24. ^ Freitas DA, Holloway EA, Bruno SS, Chaves GS, Fregonezi GA, Mendonça KP (1 October 2013). "Breathing exercises for adults with asthma". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 10 (CD001277.pub3): CD001277. PMID 24085551. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001277.pub3. 
  25. ^ Cramer H, Krucoff C, Dobos G (2013). "Adverse events associated with yoga: a systematic review of published case reports and case series". PLoS ONE (Systematic review). 8 (10): e75515. PMC 3797727Freely accessible. PMID 24146758. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075515. 
  26. ^ Cramer H, Krucoff C, Dobos G (2013). "Adverse events associated with yoga: a systematic review of published case reports and case series". PLoS ONE (Systematic review). 8 (10): e75515. PMC 3797727Freely accessible. PMID 24146758. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075515. The yoga practice that was most often associated with reported adverse events was Pranayama 

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license