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Origins of the Labor Movement
Origins of the Labor Movement
Published: 2007/02/12
Channel: SMARTUnion
The History of Labor Unions
The History of Labor Unions
Published: 2015/10/04
Channel: Alex Cullison
Tony Benn - A History of the Labour Movement
Tony Benn - A History of the Labour Movement
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Activist Journeys
INDIAN HISTORY| मजदूर आंदोलन| labour movement in india|workers movement |communist movement in india
INDIAN HISTORY| मजदूर आंदोलन| labour movement in india|workers movement |communist movement in india
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: study for civil services
History of the American Labor Movement
History of the American Labor Movement
Published: 2013/01/17
Channel: Mitsu Tomoe
The Labor Movement in the United States | History
The Labor Movement in the United States | History
Published: 2017/09/26
Channel: HISTORY
Noam Chomsky - The Labor Movement
Noam Chomsky - The Labor Movement
Published: 2016/04/30
Channel: Chomsky's Philosophy
What Happened To The American Labor Union? | TIME
What Happened To The American Labor Union? | TIME
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: TIME
The Rise of Labor Unions
The Rise of Labor Unions
Published: 2016/05/03
Channel: 16mm Educational Films
Margaret Thatcher on the labour movement (1979) - The Fifth Estate
Margaret Thatcher on the labour movement (1979) - The Fifth Estate
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: The Fifth Estate
Cardinal Movements at Birth
Cardinal Movements at Birth
Published: 2012/09/03
Channel: Dr.G.Bhanu Prakash
Viewpoint from the Labour Movement
Viewpoint from the Labour Movement
Published: 2015/07/02
Channel: Reelisations
What is the Labour Movement?
What is the Labour Movement?
Published: 2016/06/14
Channel: NTUC Membership
Mike Katz On Jewish Labour Movement Hate Speech Rule Change
Mike Katz On Jewish Labour Movement Hate Speech Rule Change
Published: 2017/09/29
Channel: Sports First
Corbyn on Brexit and the
Corbyn on Brexit and the 'rising' Labour movement - BBC News
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: BBC News
Britain
Britain's Labour Movement 1880-1914
Published: 2016/07/30
Channel: Nick Shepley
Past to Present: Lessons from the New Zealand Labour Movement
Past to Present: Lessons from the New Zealand Labour Movement
Published: 2011/10/30
Channel: GarageCollections
The Importance of the Canadian Labour Movement:   Daniel`s speech on the repeal of C-377 and C-525
The Importance of the Canadian Labour Movement: Daniel`s speech on the repeal of C-377 and C-525
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: Daniel Blaikie
Eugene V. Debs and America
Eugene V. Debs and America's Early Socialist and Labor Movements
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Peoples War
Video for Cardinal Movements of Labor
Video for Cardinal Movements of Labor
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: Sadikatul Bari Sadik
Voice of the Labour Movement
Voice of the Labour Movement
Published: 2016/07/31
Channel: Jeremy Corbyn 4 PM
This Union Cause: Animated History of the Labor Movement - by UAW
This Union Cause: Animated History of the Labor Movement - by UAW
Published: 2017/08/24
Channel: Educational Video Library
American Federation of Labor (American Labor Movement)
American Federation of Labor (American Labor Movement)
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: Tom Richey
RAYMOND WILLIAMS: Ecology & the Labour Movement
RAYMOND WILLIAMS: Ecology & the Labour Movement
Published: 2014/11/26
Channel: Richard Wise
Youth Labor Movement Leads The Way In The UK
Youth Labor Movement Leads The Way In The UK
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: TYT Politics
South Africa
South Africa's labour movement reaches crisis point
Published: 2015/05/08
Channel: World News Today
The Big Picture - May Day: Future of Labour Movement in India
The Big Picture - May Day: Future of Labour Movement in India
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: Rajya Sabha TV
African American Women Who Built a Labor Movement: The Untold History
African American Women Who Built a Labor Movement: The Untold History
Published: 2015/12/12
Channel: The Majority Report with Sam Seder
Women
Women's Labor Movement
Published: 2012/06/12
Channel: Mayra Perez
A Representative and Relevant Labour Movement
A Representative and Relevant Labour Movement
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: NTUC Singapore
Jewish Labour Movement Heckled at Labour Party Conference
Jewish Labour Movement Heckled at Labour Party Conference
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: David Scullion
Labour movement unite
Labour movement unite
Published: 2016/04/11
Channel: CapitolNewsGY
Noam Chomsky on the American Labor Movement
Noam Chomsky on the American Labor Movement
Published: 2009/10/18
Channel: buddhagem
Why America Needs a New Kind of Labor Movement (w/ Thomas Geoghegan)
Why America Needs a New Kind of Labor Movement (w/ Thomas Geoghegan)
Published: 2014/12/31
Channel: The Majority Report with Sam Seder
For a Labour movement not just a machine
For a Labour movement not just a machine
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: Stella Creasy
Hesitant Comrades: the Irish Revolution & the British Labour Movement
Hesitant Comrades: the Irish Revolution & the British Labour Movement
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: SchAdvStudy
Jeremy Corbyn - BBC - The labour movement comes together
Jeremy Corbyn - BBC - The labour movement comes together
Published: 2016/06/14
Channel: Official Jeremy Corbyn Channel
Inside out - US labor movement’s fight for survival
Inside out - US labor movement’s fight for survival
Published: 2015/06/08
Channel: PressTV News Videos
Hassan Yussuff: Leadership for a Bold Canadian Labour Movement
Hassan Yussuff: Leadership for a Bold Canadian Labour Movement
Published: 2014/04/30
Channel: Hassan Yussuff
President Kenyatta and President Khama pledge to make labour movement easier
President Kenyatta and President Khama pledge to make labour movement easier
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: NTV Kenya
The Labor Movement
The Labor Movement
Published: 2016/11/03
Channel: Adam Brager
Barb
Barb's on My Team for the Labour Movement
Published: 2014/05/01
Channel: Barbara Byers
Labour movement
Labour movement
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: WikiWikiup
SGfuture | Labour Movement Series
SGfuture | Labour Movement Series
Published: 2016/09/22
Channel: Young NTUC
Irish women in the early labour movement.
Irish women in the early labour movement.
Published: 2007/07/19
Channel: NiklasZenius
Labour Movement in Jute Industry of West Bengal
Labour Movement in Jute Industry of West Bengal
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: Sahapedia online
Pioneering Spirit of the Labour Movement
Pioneering Spirit of the Labour Movement
Published: 2014/12/19
Channel: OTC Institute
Alistair MacGregor supports repealing attacks on the labour movement - Feb 16, 2016
Alistair MacGregor supports repealing attacks on the labour movement - Feb 16, 2016
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: Alistair MacGregor
Labour Movement leaders pay their respects to the late Mr Lee Kuan Yew
Labour Movement leaders pay their respects to the late Mr Lee Kuan Yew
Published: 2015/03/24
Channel: TODAYonline
Class struggle and the labour movement in the Egyptian revolution
Class struggle and the labour movement in the Egyptian revolution
Published: 2014/11/28
Channel: Middle East Eye
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The labour movement (or labor movement, see spelling differences) consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (UK English) or labor union movement (US English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism[a] on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.

  • The trade union movement consists of the collective organization of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, by the implementation of labour and employment laws, from their governments. The standard unit of organization is the trade union.
  • The political labour movement in many countries includes a political party that represents the interests of employees, often known as a "labour party" or "workers' party". Many individuals and political groups otherwise considered to represent ruling classes may be part of and active in the labour movement.

The labour movement developed in response to the depredations of industrial capitalism at about the same time as socialism. However, while the goal of the labour movement is to protect and strengthen the interests of labour within capitalism, the goal of socialism was to replace the capitalist system entirely.[2]

History[edit]

Labor is prior to, and independent of, capital. Capital is only the fruit of labor, and could never have existed if labor had not first existed. Labor is the superior of capital, and deserves much the higher consideration.
U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, December 3, 1861[3]

In Europe, the labour movement began during the industrial revolution, when agricultural jobs declined and employment moved to more industrial areas. The idea met with great resistance. In the early 19th century, groups such as the Tolpuddle Martyrs of Dorset were punished and transported for forming unions, which was against the laws of the time.

Trade unionism was active during the early to mid 19th century and various labour parties and trade unions were formed throughout the industrialised parts of the world. The International Workingmen's Association, the first attempt at international coordination, was founded in London in 1864. The major issues included the right of the workers to organize themselves, and the right to an 8-hour working day. In 1871 workers in France rebelled and the Paris Commune was formed. From the mid-nineteenth century onward the labour movement became increasingly globalized.

The movement gained major impetus during the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the Catholic Social Teaching tradition which began in 1891 with the publication of Pope Leo XIII's foundational document, Rerum novarum, also known as "On the Condition of the Working Classes," in which he advocated a series of reforms including limits on the length of the work day, a living wage, the elimination of child labour, the rights of labour to organize, and the duty of the state to regulate labour conditions.

Throughout the world, action by labourists has resulted in reforms and workers' rights, such as the two-day weekend, minimum wage, paid holidays, and the achievement of the eight-hour day for many workers. There have been many important labour activists in modern history who have caused changes that were revolutionary at the time and are now regarded as basic. For example, Mary Harris Jones, better known as "Mother Jones", and the National Catholic Welfare Council were important in the campaign to end child labour in the United States during the early 20th century.

Labour parties[edit]

Modern labour parties originated from an increase in organizing activities in Europe and European colonies during the 19th century, such as the Chartist movement in the United Kingdom during 1838–50.

In 1891, localised labour parties were formed, by trade union members in the British colonies of Australia. They later amalgamated to form the Australian Labor Party (ALP). In 1893, Members of Parliament in the Colony of Queensland briefly formed the world's first labour government.

The British Labour Party was created as the Labour Representation Committee, as a result of an 1899 resolution by the Trade Union Congress.

While archetypal labour parties are made of direct union representatives, in addition to members of geographical branches, some union federations or individual unions have chosen not to be represented within a labour party and/or have ended association with them.

Labour festivals[edit]

Labour festivals have long been a part of the labour movement. Often held outdoors in the summer, the music, talks, food, drink, and film have attracted hundreds of thousands of attendees each year.

Labour and racial equality[edit]

A degree of strategic bi-racial cooperation existed among black and white dockworkers on the waterfronts of New Orleans, Louisiana during the early 20th century. Although the groups maintained racially separate labour unions, they coordinated efforts to present a united front when making demands of their employers. These pledges included a commitment to the "50-50" or "half-and-half" system wherein a dock crew would consist of 50% black and 50% white workers and agreement on a single wage demand to reduce the risk of ship owners pitting one race against the other. Black and white dockworkers also cooperated during protracted labour strikes, including general levee strikes in 1892 and 1907 as well as smaller strikes involving skilled workers such as screwmen in the early 1900s.

Negroes in the United States read the history of labour and find it mirrors their own experience. We are confronted by powerful forces telling us to rely on the good will and understanding of those who profit by exploiting us [...] They are shocked that action organizations, sit-ins, civil disobedience and protests are becoming our everyday tools, just as strikes, demonstrations and union organization became yours to insure that bargaining power genuinely existed on both sides of the table [...] Our needs are identical to labor's needs: decent wages, fair working conditions, livable housing, old age security, health and welfare measures [...] That is why the labor-hater and labor-baiter is virtually always a twin-headed creature spewing anti-Negro epithets from one mouth and anti-labor propaganda from the other mouth.

— Martin Luther King, Jr, "If the Negro Wins, Labor Wins", December 11, 1961[5]

Development of labour movements within nation states[edit]

Historically labour markets have often been constrained by national borders that have restricted movement of workers. Labour laws are also primarily determined by individual nations or states within those nations. While there have been some efforts to adopt a set of international labour standards through the International Labour Organization (ILO), international sanctions for failing to meet such standards are very limited. In many countries labour movements have developed independently and represent those national boundaries.

Development of an international labour movement[edit]

With ever-increasing levels of international trade and increasing influence of multinational corporations, there has been debate and action among labourists to attempt international co-operation. This has resulted in renewed efforts to organize and collectively bargain internationally. A number of international union organizations have been established in an attempt to facilitate international collective bargaining, to share information and resources and to advance the interests of workers generally.

List of national labour movements[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ very rarely labourism or laborism[1]'

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ngram Viewer
  2. ^ Eatwell & Wright, Roger & Anthony (March 1, 1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies: Second Edition. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 83. ISBN 978-0826451736. If ‘labourism’ sought to protect and defend the interests of labour in relation to this system, ‘socialism’ sought to change the system itself... 
  3. ^ Selections from the Letters, Speeches, and State Papers of Abraham BOBBY, by Abraham Lincoln, edited by Ida Minerva Tarbell, Ginn, 1911 / 2008, pg 77
  4. ^ James, Paul; O’Brien, Robert (2007). Globalization and Economy, Vol. 4: Globalizing Labour. London: Sage Publications. pp. ix–x. 
  5. ^ A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr, edited by James Melvin Washington, HarperCollins, 1991, ISBN 0-06-064691-8, pg 202-203

Further reading[edit]

  • Robert N. Stern, Daniel B. Cornfield, The U.S. labor movement:References and Resources, G.K. Hall & Co 1996
  • John Hinshaw and Paul LeBlanc (ed.), U.S. labor in the twentieth century : studies in working-class struggles and insurgency, Amherst, NY : Humanity Books, 2000
  • James, Paul; O’Brien, Robert (2007). Globalization and Economy, Vol. 4: Globalizing Labour. London: Sage Publications. 
  • Philip Yale Nicholson, Labor's story in the United States, Philadelphia, Pa. : Temple Univ. Press 2004 (Series ‘Labor in Crisis’), ISBN 978-1-59213-239-3
  • Beverly Silver: Forces of Labor. Worker's Movements and Globalization since 1870, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-52077-0
  • St. James Press Encyclopedia of Labor History Worldwide, St. James Press 2003 ISBN 1-55862-542-9
  • Lenny Flank (ed), IWW: A Documentary History, Red and Black Publishers, St Petersburg, Florida, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9791813-5-1
  • Tom Zaniello: Working Stiffs, Union Maids, Reds, and Riffraff: An Expanded Guide to Films about Labor (ILR Press books), Cornell University Press, revised and expanded edition 2003, ISBN 0-8014-4009-2
  • Neither Washington Nor Stowe: Common Sense For The Working Vermonter, The Green Mountain Anarchist Collective, Catamount Tavern Press, 2004.

External links[edit]

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