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Proceratosauridae - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Proceratosauridae - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Wiz Science™
Louis Baydala - Quintana Proceratosauridae
Louis Baydala - Quintana Proceratosauridae
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Channel: loubski
Ancient Reptile Four: Guanlong Wukaii / Proceratosaur - Dinosaur.
Ancient Reptile Four: Guanlong Wukaii / Proceratosaur - Dinosaur.
Published: 2011/12/01
Channel: DromaeosaurusJack
Juratyrant - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Juratyrant - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/04
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Juratyrant: Dinosaur of the Day
Juratyrant: Dinosaur of the Day
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: I Know Dino
Guanlong: Dinosaur of the Day
Guanlong: Dinosaur of the Day
Published: 2017/09/20
Channel: I Know Dino
Rugops - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Rugops - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/08
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pckg-velociraptor vs kileskus (round 1 match 14
pckg-velociraptor vs kileskus (round 1 match 14
Published: 2013/04/05
Channel: deinonychus123
Proceratosaurus WIP01
Proceratosaurus WIP01
Published: 2014/05/29
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Kileskus - Light Year
Kileskus - Light Year
Published: 2012/09/13
Channel: Kileskus DB
Guanlong: I Know Dino Podcast Episode 147
Guanlong: I Know Dino Podcast Episode 147
Published: 2017/09/20
Channel: I Know Dino
Proceratosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Proceratosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Wiz Science™
Guanlong
Guanlong
Published: 2015/07/30
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Valient Belaphontes -Pretty Sincere Passion
Valient Belaphontes -Pretty Sincere Passion
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: loubski
Yutyrannus: Dinosaur of the Day
Yutyrannus: Dinosaur of the Day
Published: 2017/05/10
Channel: I Know Dino
Килеск Kileskus aristotocus
Килеск Kileskus aristotocus
Published: 2015/08/10
Channel: Государственный Дарвиновский музей
Yutyrannus: I Know Dino Podcast Episode 128
Yutyrannus: I Know Dino Podcast Episode 128
Published: 2017/05/10
Channel: I Know Dino
Амурозавр - первый житель палеопарка
Амурозавр - первый житель палеопарка
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: Государственный Дарвиновский музей
Dolichorhynchops - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Dolichorhynchops - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/07
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Килеск  Kileskus aristotocus
Килеск Kileskus aristotocus
Published: 2016/01/11
Channel: сергей евдокимов
OBM - Dinosaur - Kileskus
OBM - Dinosaur - Kileskus
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: Our Best Moments
Louis Baydala - "Air Field Hare"
Louis Baydala - "Air Field Hare"
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: loubski
Juratyrant: I Know Dino Podcast Episode 08
Juratyrant: I Know Dino Podcast Episode 08
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: I Know Dino
Louis Baydala -Everyday Is Blossom
Louis Baydala -Everyday Is Blossom
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: loubski
Prehistoric Facts Special #37: Falcarius & Proceratosaurus
Prehistoric Facts Special #37: Falcarius & Proceratosaurus
Published: 2014/12/13
Channel: Christopher Grall
GAD
GAD
Published: 2008/03/07
Channel: kilesk
B
B'ds
Published: 2014/06/01
Channel: loubski
Louis Baydala - Wrong Guess
Louis Baydala - Wrong Guess
Published: 2014/06/12
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Louis Baydala - Orange Owl Scissors
Louis Baydala - Orange Owl Scissors
Published: 2014/06/13
Channel: loubski
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Proceratosaurids
Temporal range: Middle Jurassic - Early Cretaceous, 165–120 Ma
Guanlong wucaii head.jpg
Artist's impression of Guanlong wucaii
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea
Family: Proceratosauridae
Rauhut, Milner & Moore-Fay, 2010
Type species
Megalosaurus bradleyi
Woodward, 1910
Subgroups

Proceratosauridae is a family or clade of theropod dinosaurs from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous.

Distinguishing features[edit]

Unlike the advanced tyrannosaurids but similar to primitive tyrannosauroids like Dilong, proceratosaurids were generally small (with the exception of the possible proceratosaurids Yutyrannus and Sinotyrannus) and had fairly long, three-fingered arms capable of grasping prey. In comparison to other members of Tyrannosauroidea, proceratosaurids can be distinguished by the following features according to phylogenetic analyses by Averianov et al. (2010) and Loewen et al. (2013) :[2][3]

  • A saggital cranial crest formed by the nasals starting at the junction of the premaxilla and nasals.
  • Extremely elongated external nares, with posterior margins posterior to the anterior margin of the antorbital fossa and maxillary fenestrae.
  • A short ventral margin of the premaxilla.
  • The depth of the antorbital fossa ventral to the antorbital fenestra being much greater than that of the maxilla below the antorbital fossa.
  • A ventrally concave ischium.
  • A convex tubercule on the anterior margin of the pubis just ventral to contact with the illium.
  • A short and shallow concave step on the anterior margin of the maxilla.

Classification[edit]

The family belongs to the tyrannosaur lineage. It was first named in 2010 by Oliver Rauhut and colleagues in their re-evaluation of the type genus, Proceratosaurus. Their study supported the idea that Proceratosaurus is a coelurosaur, a tyrannosauroid, and most closely related to the Chinese tyrannosauroid Guanlong. They defined the clade containing these two dinosaurs as all theropods closer to Proceratosaurus than to Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, Compsognathus, Coelurus, Ornithomimus, or Deinonychus.[4] Later studies included the Russian Kileskus and the Chinese Sinotyrannus in the family.[5] Recently, Proceratosauridae has been found to include Proceratosaurus, Guanlong, Kileskus, Sinotyrannus, and the genera Stokesosaurus, Juratyrant, and Dilong previously recognized as non-proceratosaurid tyrannosauroids.[3][1] In their re-evaluation of Proceratosaurus, Rauhut et al. stated that tooth taxa from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous previously assigned to the dromaeosaurid subfamily Velociraptorinae may instead be Proceratosaurid in nature, due to the similarity between the teeth of the two groups and the fact that Velociraptorines are otherwise unknown from the fossil record until the Late Cretaceous. This would mean that Nuthetes and other dubious genera are potential Proceratosaurids.[4]

Below is the cladogram by Loewen et al. in 2013.[3]

Proceratosauridae


Proceratosaurus



Kileskus



Guanlong





Sinotyrannus




Juratyrant



Stokesosaurus





An analysis by Brusatte et al. in 2016 provides both parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, with Yutyrannus being placed within proceratosauridae as a sister taxon to Sinotyrannus and Juratyrant and Stokesosaurus being placed as more advanced tyrannosauroids in each instance. The Bayesian analysis is shown below.[6]

Proceratosauridae

Guanlong




Proceratosaurus




Kileskus




Yutyrannus



Sinotyrannus






See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Juan D. Porfiri; Fernando E. Novas; Jorge O. Calvo; Federico L. Agnolín; Martín D. Ezcurra; Ignacio A. Cerda (2014). "Juvenile specimen of Megaraptor (Dinosauria, Theropoda) sheds light about tyrannosauroid radiation". Cretaceous Research. 51: 35–55. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.04.007. 
  2. ^ "A new basal coelurosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Middle Jurassic of Siberia (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-09-08. 
  3. ^ a b c Loewen, M.A.; Irmis, R.B.; Sertich, J.J.W.; Currie, P. J.; Sampson, S. D. (2013). Evans, David C, ed. "Tyrant Dinosaur Evolution Tracks the Rise and Fall of Late Cretaceous Oceans". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e79420. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079420. PMC 3819173Freely accessible. PMID 24223179. 
  4. ^ a b Rauhut, O. W. M.; Milner, A. C.; Moore-Fay, S. (2010). "Cranial osteology and phylogenetic position of the theropod dinosaurProceratosaurus bradleyi(Woodward, 1910) from the Middle Jurassic of England". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158: 155. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00591.x. 
  5. ^ Brusatte, S.L.; Norell, M.A.; Carr, T.D.; Erickson, G.M.; Hutchinson, J.R.; Balanoff, A.M.; Bever, G.S.; Choiniere, J.N.; Makovicky, P.J.; and Xu, X. (2010). "Tyrannosaur paleobiology: new research on ancient exemplar organisms". Science. 329: 1481–1485. Bibcode:2010Sci...329.1481B. doi:10.1126/science.1193304. PMID 20847260. 
  6. ^ Brusatte, S. L.; Carr, T. D. (2016). "The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs". Scientific Reports. 6: 20525. doi:10.1038/srep20252. 

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