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Proceratosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Proceratosaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Wiz Science™
PDFC - Marshosaurus vs Proceratosaurus
PDFC - Marshosaurus vs Proceratosaurus
Published: 2015/12/12
Channel: Entersandman1001
Proceratosaurus Vs Baby Acrocanthosaurus (Read Description)
Proceratosaurus Vs Baby Acrocanthosaurus (Read Description)
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Sebastian Reyna Rivas
PDFC - Proceratosaurus vs Marshosaurus (Audio Remake)
PDFC - Proceratosaurus vs Marshosaurus (Audio Remake)
Published: 2016/09/01
Channel: Israel Barber
Proceratosaurus Remix.
Proceratosaurus Remix.
Published: 2009/08/28
Channel: TheArchosaurQueen.
Proceratosaurus vs Piatnitzkysaurus
Proceratosaurus vs Piatnitzkysaurus
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: Sebastian Reyna Rivas
Dinosaur Toy Collection: Safari CollectA Battat Schleich Dinosaur Collection! Dionsaur Toys for Kids
Dinosaur Toy Collection: Safari CollectA Battat Schleich Dinosaur Collection! Dionsaur Toys for Kids
Published: 2015/04/11
Channel: WildCanadaKids
CollectA Proceratosaurus
CollectA Proceratosaurus
Published: 2015/02/21
Channel: SpinoAcroTaurus
proceratosaurus test
proceratosaurus test
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: ceratosaurus 45
nedft 35- Homalocephale vs Proceratosaurus
nedft 35- Homalocephale vs Proceratosaurus
Published: 2015/04/04
Channel: deinonychus123
The Isla Nublar Experience Tour of Jurassic Park (1993)
The Isla Nublar Experience Tour of Jurassic Park (1993)
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: RedHannya
proceratosaurus tribute
proceratosaurus tribute
Published: 2012/06/29
Channel: KronoSaurusKing96
Tyrannosauroid Tribute
Tyrannosauroid Tribute
Published: 2012/04/06
Channel: CKprimeval07
Tribute to Proceratosaurus
Tribute to Proceratosaurus
Published: 2008/06/21
Channel: Rapator2
Los mejores dinosaurios para niños
Los mejores dinosaurios para niños
Published: 2014/02/06
Channel: Alasandunga
Dino Hunter: Deadly Shores - Hunting Proceratosaurus
Dino Hunter: Deadly Shores - Hunting Proceratosaurus
Published: 2014/06/10
Channel: Quick Gamer
Proceratosaurus WIP01
Proceratosaurus WIP01
Published: 2014/05/29
Channel: Roxanne Gauthier
Fossil Friday - Proceratosaurus - #FossilFriday
Fossil Friday - Proceratosaurus - #FossilFriday
Published: 2016/10/28
Channel: Ben G Thomas
Dino Hunter: Deadly Shores - Hunting a Proceratosaurus
Dino Hunter: Deadly Shores - Hunting a Proceratosaurus
Published: 2014/06/12
Channel: Quick Gamer
Ornitholestes vs iliosuchus vs proceratosaurus
Ornitholestes vs iliosuchus vs proceratosaurus
Published: 2016/10/25
Channel: Cayo Animation
Superceratosaurus Vs Triceratops
Superceratosaurus Vs Triceratops
Published: 2017/02/02
Channel: Sebastian Reyna Rivas
Spinosaurus vs Tyrannotitan
Spinosaurus vs Tyrannotitan
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Sebastian Reyna Rivas
8 AWESOME DINOSAUR TOYS FROM PNSO for kids - JURASSIC WORLD Proceratosaurus Allosaurus Majungasaurus
8 AWESOME DINOSAUR TOYS FROM PNSO for kids - JURASSIC WORLD Proceratosaurus Allosaurus Majungasaurus
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: Dan Surprise
Dinosaur Battle: Season 01, Episode 01
Dinosaur Battle: Season 01, Episode 01
Published: 2014/11/16
Channel: Dinosaur Battle
Ceratosaurid Size Scale.wmv
Ceratosaurid Size Scale.wmv
Published: 2012/04/12
Channel: Gigacerato458
Triassic Warz: the Ultimate Smackdown: episode 9: Proceratosaurus vs  Protoceratops
Triassic Warz: the Ultimate Smackdown: episode 9: Proceratosaurus vs Protoceratops
Published: 2015/05/15
Channel: SpinoDragon Productions
Dino Hunter proceratosaurus 다이노헌터 프로케라토사우루스
Dino Hunter proceratosaurus 다이노헌터 프로케라토사우루스
Published: 2015/01/18
Channel: JEONG TAISIK
Tirannosaur ep 3 proceratosaurus bradleyi
Tirannosaur ep 3 proceratosaurus bradleyi
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Anca Chivu
Jungle Mists Region Assault Rifle Series 19/20 Hunt 4 Proceratosaurus
Jungle Mists Region Assault Rifle Series 19/20 Hunt 4 Proceratosaurus
Published: 2014/07/31
Channel: Yalçın Hoca
Proceratosauridae - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Proceratosauridae - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Wiz Science™
Ceratosaurus animation test
Ceratosaurus animation test
Published: 2013/03/27
Channel: proceratosaurus
Matando os proceratosaurus será
Matando os proceratosaurus será
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: aurorosauro paleantologia
TYRANNOSAURS WHICH IN THIS GAME PROCERATOSAURUS IS ONE PART 1
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Channel: dA RaZor// SEeeEESeeeEEEY DiNoSAUr!!
Carcharodontosaurus animation test
Carcharodontosaurus animation test
Published: 2013/05/01
Channel: proceratosaurus
MDF-Proceratosaurus vs Rugops
MDF-Proceratosaurus vs Rugops
Published: 2012/01/21
Channel: kuenstlerplanet
Pivot Art Ceratosaurus Ingens vs Proceratosaurus Radleyi (HQ)
Pivot Art Ceratosaurus Ingens vs Proceratosaurus Radleyi (HQ)
Published: 2012/12/12
Channel: Gigacerato458
MDF-Proceratosaurus vs Postosuchus
MDF-Proceratosaurus vs Postosuchus
Published: 2012/09/15
Channel: CeratosaurRevolution
Carnivores 2 Mod - Raven Landmass
Carnivores 2 Mod - Raven Landmass
Published: 2012/12/07
Channel: Awesome
Dino Hunter 안개낀 정글 AR series Proceratosaurus
Dino Hunter 안개낀 정글 AR series Proceratosaurus
Published: 2015/01/09
Channel: JEONG TAISIK
Prehistoric Facts Special #37: Falcarius & Proceratosaurus
Prehistoric Facts Special #37: Falcarius & Proceratosaurus
Published: 2014/12/13
Channel: Christopher Grall
MDF-Proceratosaurus vs Utahraptor
MDF-Proceratosaurus vs Utahraptor
Published: 2012/02/12
Channel: CeratosaurRevolution
MDF Meet the Fighters
MDF Meet the Fighters
Published: 2012/01/14
Channel: kuenstlerplanet
Christmas unboxing results part 1.
Christmas unboxing results part 1.
Published: 2014/12/25
Channel: SpinoAcroTaurus
OBM - Dinosaur - Proceratosaurus
OBM - Dinosaur - Proceratosaurus
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: Our Best Moments
Tribute to England Dinosaurs
Tribute to England Dinosaurs
Published: 2008/10/18
Channel: Rapator2
Dinosaurus Of Isla Nublar
Dinosaurus Of Isla Nublar
Published: 2012/07/27
Channel: 이석현
Juratyrant: Dinosaur of the Day
Juratyrant: Dinosaur of the Day
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: I Know Dino
PMFC - Meet The Fighters
PMFC - Meet The Fighters
Published: 2013/03/26
Channel: proceratosaurus
Animation test
Animation test
Published: 2013/05/06
Channel: proceratosaurus
Jungle Mists Region Assault Rifle Series 09/20 Mission Hunt 4 Young Proceratosaurus
Jungle Mists Region Assault Rifle Series 09/20 Mission Hunt 4 Young Proceratosaurus
Published: 2014/07/30
Channel: Yalçın Hoca
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Proceratosaurus
Temporal range: Middle Jurassic, 165 Ma
Holotype
Holotype skull, Munich
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Family: Proceratosauridae
Genus: Proceratosaurus
von Huene, 1926
Species: P. bradleyi
Binomial name
Proceratosaurus bradleyi
(Woodward, 1910 [originally Megalosaurus])
Synonyms

Megalosaurus bradleyi Woodward, 1910

Proceratosaurus is a genus of small-sized (~3 metres (9.8 ft) long) carnivorous theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of England.[1] It was originally thought to be an ancestor of Ceratosaurus, due to the similar small crest on its snout.[2] Now, however, it is considered a coelurosaur, specifically one of the earliest known members of Tyrannosauroidea,[3] the clade of basal relatives of the tyrannosaurs.[4]

The type specimen is held in the London Museum of Natural History and was recovered in 1910 at Minchinhampton while excavating for a reservoir.[4]

Classification[edit]

Estimated size compared to a human

Arthur Smith Woodward, who initially studied Proceratosaurus, originally thought it to be an ancestor of the Late Jurassic Ceratosaurus, due to the similarity of their nasal crests.[5] Later study during the 1930s by Friedrich von Huene supported this interpretation, and Huene thought both dinosaurs represented members of the group Coelurosauria.[6]

It was not until the late 1980s, after Ceratosaurus had been shown to be a much more primitive theropod and not a coelurosaur, that the classification of Proceratosaurus was again re-examined. Gregory S. Paul suggested that it was a close relative of Ornitholestes, again mainly due to the crest on the nose (though the idea that Ornitholestes bore a nasal crest was later disproved). Paul considered both Proceratosaurus and Ornitholestes to be neither ceratosaurs nor coelurosaurs, but instead primitive allosauroids. Furthermore, Paul considered the much larger dinosaur Piveteausaurus to be the same genus as Proceratosaurus, making Piveteausaurus a junior synonym.[7] However, no overlapping bones between the two had yet been exposed from the rock around their fossils, and future study showed that they were indeed distinct.[8]

Several phylogenetic studies in the early 21st century finally found Proceratosaurus (as well as Ornitholestes) to be a coelurosaur, only distantly related to the ceratosaurids and allosauroids, though one opinion published in 2000 considered Proceratosaurus a ceratosaurid without presenting supporting evidence. Phylogenetic analyses by Thomas R. Holtz, Jr. in 2004 also placed Proceratosaurus among the coelurosaurs, though with only weak support, and again found an (also weakly supported) close relationship with Ornitholestes.[8]

The first major re-evaluation of Proceratosaurus and its relationships was published in 2010 by Oliver Rauhut and colleagues. Their study concluded that Proceratosaurus was in fact a coelurosaur, and moreover a tyrannosauroid, a member of the lineage leading to the giant tyrannosaurs of the Late Cretaceous. Furthermore, they found that Proceratosaurus was most closely related to the Chinese tyrannosauroid Guanlong. They named the clade containing these two dinosaurs the Proceratosauridae, defined as all theropods closer to Proceratosaurus than to Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus, Compsognathus, Coelurus, Ornithomimus, or Deinonychus.[8]

Restoration

Below is a cladogram by Loewen et al. in 2013.[9]

Tyrannosauroidea
Proceratosauridae


Proceratosaurus bradleyi



Kileskus aristotocus



Guanlong wucaii





Sinotyrannus kazuoensis




Juratyrant langhami



Stokesosaurus clevelandi







Dilong paradoxus




Eotyrannus lengi




Bagaraatan ostromi




Raptorex kriegsteini




Dryptosaurus aquilunguis





Alectrosaurus olseni



Xiongguanlong baimoensis





Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis





Alioramus altai



Alioramus remotus




Tyrannosauridae











See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2008) Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages Supplementary Information
  2. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 114. ISBN 1-84028-152-9. 
  3. ^ Holtz, Thomas (December 1998). "A new phylogeny of the carnivorous dinosaurs" (PDF). Gaia. 15: 5–61. 
  4. ^ a b "Oldest T. rex relative identified". BBC News. 2009-11-04. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  5. ^ Woodward, A. S. (1910). "On a Skull of Megalosaurus from the Great Oolite of Minchinhampton (Gloucestershire)". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. 66: 111–115. doi:10.1144/GSL.JGS.1910.066.01-04.07. 
  6. ^ von Huene, F. (1932). "Die fossile Reptil-Ordnung Saurischia, ihre Entwicklung und Geschichte." Monographien zur Geologie und Palaeontologie (Serie 1), 4: 1–361.
  7. ^ Paul, G.S. (1988). Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 366–369. ISBN 0-671-61946-2. 
  8. ^ a b c Rauhut, O.W.M., Milner, A.C. and Moore-Fay, S. (2010). "Cranial osteology and phylogenetic position of the theropod dinosaur Proceratosaurus bradleyi (Woodward, 1910) from the Middle Jurassic of England". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, published online before print November 2009. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00591.x
  9. ^ Loewen, M.A.; Irmis, R.B.; Sertich, J.J.W.; Currie, P. J.; Sampson, S. D. (2013). Evans, David C, ed. "Tyrant Dinosaur Evolution Tracks the Rise and Fall of Late Cretaceous Oceans". PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e79420. PMC 3819173Freely accessible. PMID 24223179. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079420. 

External links[edit]

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