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The Progressive Era: Crash Course US History #27
The Progressive Era: Crash Course US History #27
Published: 2013/08/29
Channel: CrashCourse
How Progressivism Happened
How Progressivism Happened
Published: 2013/02/02
Channel: How it Happens
Progressivism
Progressivism
Published: 2013/01/23
Channel: MrBeckerLM
What are the differences between Liberalism and Progressivism
What are the differences between Liberalism and Progressivism
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: Progressive People's Coalition
America in the 20th Century: The Progressive Era
America in the 20th Century: The Progressive Era
Published: 2013/11/11
Channel: Cori Greer-Banks
Progressivism America
Progressivism America's Cancer
Published: 2016/11/20
Channel: I on Flicks
PROGRESSIVISM: EMPIRE OF LIES
PROGRESSIVISM: EMPIRE OF LIES
Published: 2015/05/01
Channel: TruthRevoltOriginals
Defining Progressivism: What Is A Progressive, Anyways?
Defining Progressivism: What Is A Progressive, Anyways?
Published: 2016/03/02
Channel: Robert Hockema
Glenn Beck on Progressivism Part 1
Glenn Beck on Progressivism Part 1
Published: 2010/03/21
Channel: Andy Semple
Progressivism is the new Fascism
Progressivism is the new Fascism
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: Godless Conservative Libertarian
The Progressive Era
The Progressive Era
Published: 2009/03/11
Channel: Media Rich Learning
What is PROGRESSIVISM? What does PROGRESSIVISM mean? PROGRESSIVISM meaning, definition & explanation
What is PROGRESSIVISM? What does PROGRESSIVISM mean? PROGRESSIVISM meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2016/08/29
Channel: The Audiopedia
Progressivism: Overview & Practical Teaching Examples
Progressivism: Overview & Practical Teaching Examples
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: Teea Shook
Progressivism
Progressivism
Published: 2013/09/24
Channel: Daniel Bonevac
Progressivism: The Idea Destroying America
Progressivism: The Idea Destroying America
Published: 2015/03/03
Channel: TomWoodsTV
Progressivism & the New Deal — US Economic History 6
Progressivism & the New Deal — US Economic History 6
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Learn Liberty
The History of Progressivism in 120 Seconds
The History of Progressivism in 120 Seconds
Published: 2013/11/18
Channel: seeprogress
Sam Harris On Progressivism, Torture, Religion & Foreign Policy
Sam Harris On Progressivism, Torture, Religion & Foreign Policy
Published: 2015/10/17
Channel: Secular Talk
Ch. 28 - Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt
Ch. 28 - Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt
Published: 2014/02/01
Channel: MCAPUSH
Progressivism in Education
Progressivism in Education
Published: 2013/05/06
Channel: Raspberries4513
Ann Coulter Debates Liberals At The Conservatism v  Progressivism Debate
Ann Coulter Debates Liberals At The Conservatism v Progressivism Debate
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: IAIDOL AMERICA
Illiberal Progressives
Illiberal Progressives
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: Sargon of Akkad
History Brief: Wilson, Civil Rights, and the End of Progressivism
History Brief: Wilson, Civil Rights, and the End of Progressivism
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Reading Through History
APUSH Review: The Progressive Era
APUSH Review: The Progressive Era
Published: 2013/04/07
Channel: Adam Norris
Liberal Ideas #2 - Neo-Progressive Activists
Liberal Ideas #2 - Neo-Progressive Activists
Published: 2015/10/21
Channel: Sargon of Akkad
PROGRESSIVISM – Weaponized Adolescence
PROGRESSIVISM – Weaponized Adolescence
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: Semiogogue
Libertarianism clashes with Progressivism at FishTank
Libertarianism clashes with Progressivism at FishTank
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: RT America
Dr. Richard Wolff: The Return of Progressivism Around the World
Dr. Richard Wolff: The Return of Progressivism Around the World
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: The Big Picture RT
Dave Rubin
Dave Rubin's ad for "Classical Liberalism" vs. Progressivism
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: Lb ThaRealist -Surrealistic Studios
Progressivism in the 20th Century
Progressivism in the 20th Century
Published: 2015/02/16
Channel: Shane Fairbanks
My Philosophy of Education: Progressivism
My Philosophy of Education: Progressivism
Published: 2013/12/07
Channel: Brittany Ann Ruh
The Cancer of Progressivism
The Cancer of Progressivism
Published: 2013/08/05
Channel: Godless Conservative Libertarian
Debate on Racial Inequality, Progressivism vs Alt-Right
Debate on Racial Inequality, Progressivism vs Alt-Right
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: The Distributist
Paul Ryan: Obama Proves
Paul Ryan: Obama Proves 'Progressivism Just Doesn't Work'
Published: 2016/09/14
Channel: Secular Talk
The Birth of Progressivism
The Birth of Progressivism
Published: 2007/04/15
Channel: dchistory
APUSH - Rise of Progressivism
APUSH - Rise of Progressivism
Published: 2013/02/25
Channel: Brian Conner
Republicans Attempt To Kill Progressivism At The Local Level
Republicans Attempt To Kill Progressivism At The Local Level
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: The Ring of Fire
Objective 2.12- Progressivism Under Taft
Objective 2.12- Progressivism Under Taft
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: You Will Love History
Progressivism at the National Level
Progressivism at the National Level
Published: 2007/04/15
Channel: dchistory
APUSH Progressive Era Part 1: Introduction to Progressivism
APUSH Progressive Era Part 1: Introduction to Progressivism
Published: 2015/02/27
Channel: David Beller
Progressivism
Progressivism
Published: 2010/01/24
Channel: tubulartrish
Progressivism: Debunked in 2 Minutes
Progressivism: Debunked in 2 Minutes
Published: 2013/05/31
Channel: debunkedin2mins
PART 1 Glenn Beck: Progressivism and Government Control 09-27-2010.flv
PART 1 Glenn Beck: Progressivism and Government Control 09-27-2010.flv
Published: 2010/09/28
Channel: fab4bear
Progressivism and American Imperialism
Progressivism and American Imperialism
Published: 2013/05/23
Channel: Robert Schauner
Black Progressivism and the Problem of The Democratic Establishment
Black Progressivism and the Problem of The Democratic Establishment
Published: 2016/01/09
Channel: The Benjamin Dixon Show
Dr. Carey Roberts - The History of Progressivism and the Tendency for Cronyism to Win
Dr. Carey Roberts - The History of Progressivism and the Tendency for Cronyism to Win
Published: 2015/04/03
Channel: John W. Hammond Institute for Free Enterprise
Prospects for a New Progressivism
Prospects for a New Progressivism
Published: 2012/10/24
Channel: The RSA
Matt Spalding on Progressivism
Matt Spalding on Progressivism's Assault on America's Founding
Published: 2009/11/19
Channel: The Heritage Foundation
The religion of Progressivism -- They Hate Us
The religion of Progressivism -- They Hate Us
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Rationalist Yoda
Response - Dave Rubin Cowardly Craps On Progressives, Disowns Progressivism for "Classical" Liberal
Response - Dave Rubin Cowardly Craps On Progressives, Disowns Progressivism for "Classical" Liberal
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: Progressive People's Coalition
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of social reform.[1] As a philosophy, it is based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancements in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to the improvement of the human condition. Progressivism became highly significant during the Age of Enlightenment in Europe, out of the belief that Europe was demonstrating that societies could progress in civility from uncivilized conditions to civilization through strengthening the basis of empirical knowledge as the foundation of society.[2] Figures of the Enlightenment believed that progress had universal application to all societies and that these ideas would spread across the world from Europe.[2] The meanings of progressivism have varied over time and from different perspectives. The contemporary common political conception of progressivism in the culture of the Western world emerged from the vast social changes brought about by industrialization in the Western world in the late 19th century, particularly out of the view that progress was being stifled by vast economic inequality between the rich and the poor; minimally regulated laissez-faire capitalism with monopolistic corporations; and intense and often violent conflict between workers and capitalists, thus claiming that measures were needed to address these problems.[3]

The term is also now often used as shorthand for a more or less left-wing way of looking at the world.[4]

Progressivism in philosophy and politics[edit]

From the Enlightenment to the Industrial Revolution[edit]

Immanuel Kant identified progress as being a movement away from barbarism towards civilization. Eighteenth century philosopher and political scientist Marquis de Condorcet predicted that political progress would involve the disappearance of slavery, the rise of literacy, the lessening of inequalities between the sexes, reforms of harsh prisons and the decline of poverty.[5] "Modernity" or "modernization" was a key form of the idea of progress as promoted by classical liberals in the 19th and 20th centuries, who called for the rapid modernization of the economy and society to remove the traditional hindrances to free markets and free movements of people.[6] German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was influential in promoting the Idea of Progress in European philosophy by emphasizing a linear-progressive conception of history and rejecting a cyclical conception of history. Karl Marx applied to his writings the Hegelian conception of linear-progressive history, the modernization of the economy through industrialization, and criticisms of the social class structure of industrial capitalist societies. As industrialization grew, concerns over its effects grew beyond Marxist and other radical critiques and became mainstream.

Contemporary mainstream political conception[edit]

In the late 19th century, a political view rose in popularity in the Western world that progress was being stifled by vast economic inequality between the rich and the poor, minimally regulated laissez-faire capitalism with out-of-control monopolistic corporations, intense and often violent conflict between workers and capitalists, and a need for measures to address these problems.[7] Progressivism has influenced various political movements. Modern liberalism was influenced by liberal philosopher John Stuart Mill's conception of people being "progressive beings".[8] British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli developed progressive conservatism under "One Nation" Toryism.[9][10] Similarly in Germany, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck enacted various progressive social welfare measures out of conservative motivations to distance workers from the socialist movement and as humane ways to assist in maintaining the Industrial Revolution.[11] Proponents of social democracy have identified themselves as promoting the progressive cause.[12] The Catholic Church encyclical Rerum novarum issued by Pope Leo XIII in 1891, condemned the exploitation of labour and urged support for labour unions, government regulation of businesses in the interests of social justice, while upholding the rights of private property and criticizing socialism.[13] A Protestant progressive outlook called the Social Gospel emerged in North America that focused on challenging economic exploitation and poverty, and by the mid-1890s the Social Gospel was common in many Protestant theological seminaries in the United States.[14] In 1892, during a major political contest between landlords and tenants, the landlord advocates were known as the "moderates" and the land value tax reformers were known as the "progressives".[15]

In America, progressivism began as a social movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and grew into a political movement, in what was known as the Progressive Era. While the term "American progressives" represent a range of diverse political pressure groups (not always united), some American progressives rejected Social Darwinism, believing that the problems society faced (poverty, violence, greed, racism, class warfare) could best be addressed by providing good education, a safe environment, and an efficient workplace. Progressives lived mainly in the cities, were college educated, and believed that government could be a tool for change.[16] American President Theodore Roosevelt of the US Republican Party and later the US Progressive Party declared that he "always believed that wise progressivism and wise conservatism go hand in hand".[17] American President Woodrow Wilson was also a member of the American progressive movement within the Democratic Party.

John Gast, American Progress, c. 1872. The right side of the painting shows white settlers and modern technology arriving and the area is depicted in brightness. The left side of the painting shows indigenous people and wildlife leaving and the area is depicted in darkness. In the middle is an angelic female representation of "manifest destiny" – the concept and agenda that promoted westward territorial expansion of the United States as a necessity.

Progressive stances have evolved over time. In the late 19th century, for example, certain progressives argued for scientific racism on the grounds that it had a scientific basis.[18] Other progressives holding both Christian and racist beliefs justified racism on biblical text.[19][20] Modern progressives now tend to describe race as merely a social construct[21][not in citation given] noting that genetic markers are not exclusive to any race of people, and that human races do not even exist biologically. [22][23][24][not in citation given] Imperialism was a controversial issue within progressivism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the United States where some progressives supported American imperialism, while others opposed it.[25]

In response to World War I, progressive President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points established the concept of national self-determination and criticized imperialist competition and colonial injustices; these views were supported by anti-imperialists in areas of the world that were resisting imperial rule.[26] During the period of acceptance of economic Keynesianism, circa 1920s to 1970s, there was widespread acceptance in many nations of a large role for state intervention in the economy. However, with the rise of neoliberalism and challenges to state interventionist policies in the 1970s and 1980s, centre-left progressive movements responded by creating the Third Way that emphasized a major role for the market economy.[27] In the aftermath of the arising of the Great Recession, economic policies established or influenced by neoliberalism have faced scrutiny and criticism in mainstream politics.[citation needed] There have been social democrats who have called for the social democratic movement to move past Third Way.[28] Prominent progressive conservative elements in the British Conservative Party have criticized neoliberalism.[29]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ "Definition of progressivism in English". oxforddictionaries.com. Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 2 May 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Harold Mah. Enlightenment Phantasies: Cultural Identity in France and Germany, 1750–1914. Cornell University. (2003). p. 157.
  3. ^ Nugent, Walter (2010). Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780195311068. 
  4. ^ Brian Wheeler (26 November 2010). "So what exactly is 'progressive' in politics?". BBC News. Retrieved 19 April 2016. 
  5. ^ Nisbet, Robert (1980). History of the Idea of Progress. New York: Basic Books. ch 5
  6. ^ Joyce Appleby; Lynn Hunt & Margaret Jacob (1995). Telling the Truth about History. p. 78. 
  7. ^ Nugent, Walter (2010). Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9780195311068. 
  8. ^ Alan Ryan. The Making of Modern Liberalism. p. 25.
  9. ^ Patrick Dunleavy, Paul Joseph Kelly, Michael Moran. British Political Science: Fifty Years of Political Studies. Oxford, England, UK; Malden, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell, 2000. pp. 107–08.
  10. ^ Robert Blake. Disraeli. Second Edition. London, England, UK: Eyre & Spottiswoode (Publishers) Ltd, 1967. p. 524.
  11. ^ Union Contributions to Labor Welfare Policy and Practice: Past, Present and Future. Routledge, 16, 2013. p. 172.
  12. ^ Henning Meyer, Jonathan Rutherford. The Future of European Social Democracy: Building the Good Society. Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. p. 108.
  13. ^ Faith Jaycox. The Progressive Era. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing, 2005. p. 85.
  14. ^ Faith Jaycox. The Progressive Era. New York, New York: Infobase Publishing, 2005. p. 84.
  15. ^ Johnson, Alfred S. (1893). The Quarterly Register of Current History; Volume 2: The Year of 892. Detroit: Current History Publishing Company. p. 40. Retrieved 23 February 2016. The landlord element style themselves 'Moderates,' and the tenant element are known as 'Progressives.' 
  16. ^ he Progressive Era (1890–1920), The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project (retrieved 31 September 2014).
  17. ^ Jonathan Lurie. William Howard Taft: The Travails of a Progressive Conservative. New York, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012. p. 196.
  18. ^ Nugent, Walter (2010). Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780195311068. 
  19. ^ Sankar-Gorton, Eliza. "The Surprising Science of Race and Racism". Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  20. ^ Thompson, Amanda. "Scientific Racism: The Justification of Slavery and Segregated Education in America" (PDF). Texas A&M University: Phi Alpha Theta. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  21. ^ Indre Viskontas, Chris Mooney. "The Science of Your Racist Brain". Mother Jones. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  22. ^ "Genetically Speaking, Race Doesn't Exist In Humans". Science Daily (1998). Washington University of St. Louis. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  23. ^ Rutherford, Adam. "Why racism is not backed by science". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  24. ^ Svokos, Alexandra. "Bill Nye Tells Rutgers Grads: We Are 'Much More Alike Than Different'". Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  25. ^ Nugent, Walter (2010). Progressivism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780195311068. 
  26. ^ Reconsidering Woodrow Wilson: Progressivism, Internationalism, War, and Peace. p. 309.
  27. ^ Jane Lewis, Rebecca Surender. Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?. Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 3–4, 16.
  28. ^ After the Third Way: The Future of Social Democracy in Europe. I.B. Taurus, 2012. p. 47.
  29. ^ Hugh Bochel. The Conservative Party and Social Policy. The Policy Press, 2011. p. 108.

Bibliography


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