Play Video
1
Primates-the Prosimians and Monkeys
Primates-the Prosimians and Monkeys
::2011/12/30::
Play Video
2
LEMURS OF MADAGASCAR from the 5th Prosimian Congress
LEMURS OF MADAGASCAR from the 5th Prosimian Congress
::2013/09/02::
Play Video
3
Save The Lemurs of Madagascar - 2013 Prosimian Congress Video
Save The Lemurs of Madagascar - 2013 Prosimian Congress Video
::2013/08/19::
Play Video
4
How to Pronounce Prosimian
How to Pronounce Prosimian
::2014/05/21::
Play Video
5
How to Pronounce Pro Simian
How to Pronounce Pro Simian
::2014/08/07::
Play Video
6
Safari Shirl 8 Prosimian
Safari Shirl 8 Prosimian
::2014/06/26::
Play Video
7
Good God (featuring Prosimian)
Good God (featuring Prosimian)
::2012/07/26::
Play Video
8
How to Pronounce Prosimians
How to Pronounce Prosimians
::2014/05/21::
Play Video
9
prosimians on jeopardy
prosimians on jeopardy
::2006/03/01::
Play Video
10
PL3: PRIMATE FOSSILS: PROSIMIANS.avi
PL3: PRIMATE FOSSILS: PROSIMIANS.avi
::2012/11/30::
Play Video
11
TARSIER WORLD
TARSIER WORLD'S SMALLEST PRIMATE
::2009/03/20::
Play Video
12
All About - Evolutionary history of lemurs
All About - Evolutionary history of lemurs
::2014/06/16::
Play Video
13
THE NONSENSE ENGINE - Kung-Fu Panda
THE NONSENSE ENGINE - Kung-Fu Panda
::2014/08/04::
Play Video
14
Ringstaartmaki - ring-tailed lemur - Lemur catta #07
Ringstaartmaki - ring-tailed lemur - Lemur catta #07
::2013/12/07::
Play Video
15
How to Pronounce Pseudoanthropoid
How to Pronounce Pseudoanthropoid
::2014/08/02::
Play Video
16
lemurs in the trees at the duke lemur center
lemurs in the trees at the duke lemur center
::2013/05/25::
Play Video
17
Red bellied lemur
Red bellied lemur
::2014/07/24::
Play Video
18
Slow Loris endangered by viral videos
Slow Loris endangered by viral videos
::2013/07/31::
Play Video
19
Prehistoric Species of Man- Introduction
Prehistoric Species of Man- Introduction
::2012/11/30::
Play Video
20
Dramatic Lemur - Actually a Tarsier!
Dramatic Lemur - Actually a Tarsier!
::2008/01/31::
Play Video
21
MOV013 WMV V9
MOV013 WMV V9
::2011/09/01::
Play Video
22
How to Pronounce Anthropoidal
How to Pronounce Anthropoidal
::2014/08/11::
Play Video
23
Demo Reel
Demo Reel
::2011/09/30::
Play Video
24
Duke Lemur Center
Duke Lemur Center
::2011/02/16::
Play Video
25
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - bucsuztatok
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - bucsuztatok
::2011/09/01::
Play Video
26
Ozsvath-Csuri.avi
Ozsvath-Csuri.avi
::2010/05/19::
Play Video
27
Szarka Tibor.avi
Szarka Tibor.avi
::2010/05/19::
Play Video
28
Andrasi.avi
Andrasi.avi
::2010/05/19::
Play Video
29
Creationist cat is a bad Kitteh
Creationist cat is a bad Kitteh
::2012/05/20::
Play Video
30
RAINFOREST PYRAMID® UPDATE: Pygmy Slow Loris
RAINFOREST PYRAMID® UPDATE: Pygmy Slow Loris
::2011/03/31::
Play Video
31
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 7
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 7
::2009/11/10::
Play Video
32
Primate Patterns II - PREVIEW
Primate Patterns II - PREVIEW
::2008/09/11::
Play Video
33
A Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly01
A Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly01
::2009/11/10::
Play Video
34
ZooZappers - Ring-tailed Lemur Family - Ringstaartmaki  #05
ZooZappers - Ring-tailed Lemur Family - Ringstaartmaki #05
::2012/01/13::
Play Video
35
Megnyito.avi
Megnyito.avi
::2010/05/19::
Play Video
36
kalotaszegi tancok ezustperje ersemjen
kalotaszegi tancok ezustperje ersemjen
::2011/02/10::
Play Video
37
Molnar Albert- Pacsika Laszlo.avi
Molnar Albert- Pacsika Laszlo.avi
::2010/05/19::
Play Video
38
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 8
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 8
::2009/11/10::
Play Video
39
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - leves talalasa
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - leves talalasa
::2011/09/01::
Play Video
40
Kazinczy szavaloverseny VIII XI osztaly 3
Kazinczy szavaloverseny VIII XI osztaly 3
::2009/11/10::
Play Video
41
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - zenekar
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - zenekar
::2011/09/01::
Play Video
42
ZooZappers - Ring-tailed Lemur Family - Ringstaartmaki  #06
ZooZappers - Ring-tailed Lemur Family - Ringstaartmaki #06
::2012/02/05::
Play Video
43
Geszti Laszlo.avi
Geszti Laszlo.avi
::2010/05/19::
Play Video
44
Duke Lemur Center - Winter Facility
Duke Lemur Center - Winter Facility
::2009/11/24::
Play Video
45
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 4
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 4
::2009/11/10::
Play Video
46
II  Kazinczy Szavaloverseny 01
II Kazinczy Szavaloverseny 01
::2010/03/03::
Play Video
47
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 5
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 5
::2009/11/10::
Play Video
48
Our Primate Cousins
Our Primate Cousins
::2007/05/05::
Play Video
49
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 1
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 1
::2009/11/10::
Play Video
50
Venkli Istvan.avi
Venkli Istvan.avi
::2010/05/19::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tarsiers are prosimian primates, but more closely related to monkeys, apes, and humans (simians) than to other prosimians.

Prosimians are a type of primate that include lemurs, lorises, bushbabies, and tarsiers, but not simians, e.g. monkeys and apes (including humans). They are considered to have characteristics that are more "primitive" than those of monkeys and apes.[1] Prosimians are the only primates native to Madagascar, but are also found throughout Africa and in Asia. With the exception of tarsiers, all extant prosimians are in the suborder Strepsirrhini. Because simians (including all monkeys and apes) are not included in the prosimian group even though they also descend from the prosimian most recent common ancestor, prosimians are a paraphyletic group and not a clade.

The adapiforms are an extinct grouping that were both prosimians and strepsirrhines.[1] The omomyiforms are another extinct group of prosimians, but they are believed to be haplorhines, closely related to the tarsiers, but an outgroup to the rest of the haplorhines.

The term "prosimian" is no longer used in official taxonomy, but is still used to illustrate the behavioral ecology of tarsiers relative to the other primates.

Traits[edit]

The tapetum lucidum of a galago, typical of prosimians, reflects the light of the photographer's flash.

Being an evolutionary grade rather than a clade, the prosimians are united by being primates with traits otherwise found in non-primate mammals. Their diets typically are less dominated by fruit than those of the simians, and many are active arboreal predators, hunting for insects and other small animals in the trees.[1] All prosimians outside Madagascar are nocturnal, meaning that no prosimian competes directly with simian primates (the only nocturnal simians are New World monkeys of genus Aotus[2]).

Related to their frequently nocturnal lifestyle, prosimians lack the colour vision of higher primates. Like most placental mammals, they are in effect red–green colour blind. This allows for more rod cells in the retina, which may increase vision under low-light condition.[3] Except in tarsiers, the nocturnal vision is further augmented by a reflective tapetum lucidum behind the retina, similar to that found in other nocturnal mammals. This layer reflects the light that passes through the retina, increasing the photoreceptors exposure to the light. It is however not well developed in diurnal forms like many lemurs.[4]

All prosimians possess two laterally flattened toilet claws, used for grooming. These can be found on the second toe in lemurs and lorises, and the second and third in tarsiers. Aye-ayes have functional claws on all other digits except the hallux, including a toilet claw on the second toe. Clawlike nails are however also found in the small-bodied callitrichids, a group of New World monkeys, though none of them have a toilet claw.[5]

The prosimians have retained the primitive mammalian condition of a bicornuate uterus, with two separate uterus chambers. In the simians, the uterus chambers have fused, an otherwise rare condition among mammals. Prosimians usually have litters rather than single offspring, which is the norm in higher primates.[6] They also have multiple sets of nipples, at least two pairs.

While primates are often thought of as fairly intelligent animals, the prosimians are not very large brained compared to other placental mammals. Their brain-cases are markedly smaller than those of simians of comparable sizes. In the large-eyed tarsiers, the weight of the brain is about the same as that of a single eye.[7] Prosimians generally show lower cognitive ability and live in simpler social settings than the simians. The prosimians with the most complex social systems are the diurnal lemurs, which may live in social groups of 20 individuals. The nocturnal prosimians are mainly solitary.[8]

Classification[edit]

Primate phylogeny[9]
 Primates 
 Haplorhini 
 Simiiformes 
 Catarrhini 

 Apes & humans 



 Old World monkeys 



 Platyrrhini 

 New World monkeys 



 Tarsiiformes 

 Tarsiers 


 Omomyiformes 

 †Omomyiforms 



 Strepsirrhini 
 Adapiformes 

 †Adapiforms 


 Lemuriformes 

 Lemurs 



 Lorisoids 





simians
prosimians
Prosimians (in green brackets) are a paraphyletic group by including the tarsiers and omomyiforms to the exclusion of the simians (in red brackets).

The prosimians were once a group considered a suborder of the primate order (suborder Prosimii - Gr. pro, before, + Latin simius/simia, ape), which was named in 1811 by Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger. They have been shown, however, to be paraphyletic - that is, their most recent common ancestor was a prosimian but it has some non-prosimian descendents (i.e. monkeys and apes). This relationship is shown by the ranks (prosimians in bold) in the list below of the current primate classification between the order and infraorder level. The term "prosimian" is considered taxonomically obsolete,[10] although it is used to emphasize similarities between strepsirrhines, tarsiers, and the early primates.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Whitten, P. L.; Brockman, D. K. (2001). "Chapter 14: Strepsirrhine reproductive ecology". In Ellison, P. T. Reproductive Ecology and Human Evolution. Transaction Publishers. pp. 321–350. ISBN 978-0-202-30658-2. 
  2. ^ Cawthon Lang KA. 2005 July 18. Primate Factsheets: Owl monkey (Aotus) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology. Accessed 2012 July 25.
  3. ^ Ali, Mohamed Ather; Klyne, M.A. (1985). Vision in Vertebrates. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 174–175. ISBN 0-306-42065-1. 
  4. ^ Pariente, GF (1976). "[Different aspects of the limit of the tapetum lucidum in prosimians]". Vision research 16 (4): 387–91. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(76)90201-7. PMID 821249. 
  5. ^ Soligo, C., Müller, A.E. (1999). "Nails and claws in primate evolution". Journal of Human Evolution 36 (1): 97–114. doi:10.1006/jhev.1998.0263. PMID 9924135. 
  6. ^ Mittermeier, Ronald M. Nowak ; introduction by Russell A.; Rylands,, Anthony B.; Konstant, William R. (1999). Walker's primates of the world. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 25. ISBN 0801862515. 
  7. ^ Rosenberger, Alfred L. (16 October 2010). "The Skull of Tarsius: Functional Morphology, Eyeballs, and the Nonpursuit Predatory Lifestyle". International Journal of Primatology 31 (6): 1032–1054. doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9447-x. 
  8. ^ Reader, S. M.; Hager, Y.; Laland, K. N. (2011-04-12). "The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366 (1567): 1017–1027. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0342. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  9. ^ Rose, K. D. (2006). The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8472-6. 
  10. ^ Groves, C. P. (1998). "Systematics of tarsiers and lorises". Primates 39 (1): 13–27. doi:10.1007/BF02557740.  edit
  11. ^ Hartwig, W. (2011). "Chapter 3: Primate evolution". pp. 19–31. 
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014