1
Primates-the Prosimians and Monkeys
Primates-the Prosimians and Monkeys
DATE: 2011/12/30::
2
Prosimian (acoustic) - Hailey Wojcik
Prosimian (acoustic) - Hailey Wojcik
DATE: 2015/03/03::
3
All About - Prosimian
All About - Prosimian
DATE: 2014/11/07::
4
Piano Improvisation #5 - "Ape Roar in Prosimian Dimension"
Piano Improvisation #5 - "Ape Roar in Prosimian Dimension"
DATE: 2015/05/07::
5
LEMURS OF MADAGASCAR from the 5th Prosimian Congress
LEMURS OF MADAGASCAR from the 5th Prosimian Congress
DATE: 2013/09/02::
6
PROSIMIAN TONGUE TWISTER
PROSIMIAN TONGUE TWISTER
DATE: 2014/10/18::
7
Safari Shirl 8 Prosimian
Safari Shirl 8 Prosimian
DATE: 2014/06/26::
8
Save The Lemurs of Madagascar - 2013 Prosimian Congress Video
Save The Lemurs of Madagascar - 2013 Prosimian Congress Video
DATE: 2013/08/19::
9
Prosimian
Prosimian
DATE: 2015/05/11::
10
PL3: PRIMATE FOSSILS: PROSIMIANS.avi
PL3: PRIMATE FOSSILS: PROSIMIANS.avi
DATE: 2012/11/30::
11
prosimians on jeopardy
prosimians on jeopardy
DATE: 2006/03/01::
12
Prehistoric Species of Man- Introduction
Prehistoric Species of Man- Introduction
DATE: 2012/11/30::
13
How to Pronounce Prosimian
How to Pronounce Prosimian
DATE: 2015/05/31::
14
Dramatic Lemur - Actually a Tarsier!
Dramatic Lemur - Actually a Tarsier!
DATE: 2008/01/31::
15
Primate Patterns II - PREVIEW
Primate Patterns II - PREVIEW
DATE: 2008/09/11::
16
Ringstaartmaki - ring-tailed lemur - Lemur catta #07
Ringstaartmaki - ring-tailed lemur - Lemur catta #07
DATE: 2013/12/07::
17
kalotaszegi tancok ezustperje ersemjen
kalotaszegi tancok ezustperje ersemjen
DATE: 2011/02/10::
18
Slow Loris endangered by viral videos
Slow Loris endangered by viral videos
DATE: 2013/07/31::
19
RAINFOREST PYRAMID® UPDATE: Pygmy Slow Loris
RAINFOREST PYRAMID® UPDATE: Pygmy Slow Loris
DATE: 2011/03/31::
20
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - bucsuztatok
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - bucsuztatok
DATE: 2011/09/01::
21
Lorand Frater Kraszna Horka
Lorand Frater Kraszna Horka
DATE: 2009/03/04::
22
Venkli Istvan.avi
Venkli Istvan.avi
DATE: 2010/05/19::
23
Lorand Frater Szaz szal gyertyat
Lorand Frater Szaz szal gyertyat
DATE: 2009/03/04::
24
Lorand Frater varlak varlak karom reszket
Lorand Frater varlak varlak karom reszket
DATE: 2009/02/20::
25
Duke Lemur Center
Duke Lemur Center
DATE: 2011/02/16::
26
Lorand Frater Tele van a varos akacfaviraggal
Lorand Frater Tele van a varos akacfaviraggal
DATE: 2009/02/23::
27
ZooZappers - Ring-tailed Lemur Family - Ringstaartmaki  #05
ZooZappers - Ring-tailed Lemur Family - Ringstaartmaki #05
DATE: 2012/01/13::
28
lemurs in the trees at the duke lemur center
lemurs in the trees at the duke lemur center
DATE: 2013/05/25::
29
Geszti Laszlo.avi
Geszti Laszlo.avi
DATE: 2010/05/19::
30
SAVE OUR LUMURS MADAGASCAR( cartoon)
SAVE OUR LUMURS MADAGASCAR( cartoon)
DATE: 2013/10/02::
31
Sempliċiment Tat-Triq #RRR Feat.Venomous2000 - Kappa-O - Slumson - SickBoySimon - DjMac.
Sempliċiment Tat-Triq #RRR Feat.Venomous2000 - Kappa-O - Slumson - SickBoySimon - DjMac.
DATE: 2014/06/02::
32
All About - Evolutionary history of lemurs
All About - Evolutionary history of lemurs
DATE: 2014/06/16::
33
ZooZappers -  Ringstaartmaki
ZooZappers - Ringstaartmaki's - Lemur Catta #02
DATE: 2011/09/02::
34
Lorand Frater az kit en szeretek
Lorand Frater az kit en szeretek
DATE: 2009/02/20::
35
Our Primate Cousins
Our Primate Cousins
DATE: 2007/05/05::
36
lemur rides bike
lemur rides bike
DATE: 2010/12/15::
37
Fejes Imrene.avi
Fejes Imrene.avi
DATE: 2010/05/19::
38
ZooZappers - Ringstaartmaki &  baby
ZooZappers - Ringstaartmaki & baby's - Lemur catta
DATE: 2011/10/02::
39
Creationist cat is a bad Kitteh
Creationist cat is a bad Kitteh
DATE: 2012/05/20::
40
Szarka Tibor.avi
Szarka Tibor.avi
DATE: 2010/05/19::
41
Lorand Frater Turi Balog Marcsa
Lorand Frater Turi Balog Marcsa
DATE: 2009/02/23::
42
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - leves talalasa
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - leves talalasa
DATE: 2011/09/01::
43
Beyond the Red Line Gameplay
Beyond the Red Line Gameplay
DATE: 2009/08/28::
44
ZooZappers - Ringstaartmaki
ZooZappers - Ringstaartmaki's - Lemur Catta #03
DATE: 2011/09/09::
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Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 7
Kazinczy szavaloverseny V VII osztaly 7
DATE: 2009/11/10::
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Lorand Frater Koporsomra
Lorand Frater Koporsomra
DATE: 2009/03/04::
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Ozsvath-Csuri.avi
Ozsvath-Csuri.avi
DATE: 2010/05/19::
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Sheenah Performing live Carnival of Calle Ocho 8 2015 Telemundo Stage
Sheenah Performing live Carnival of Calle Ocho 8 2015 Telemundo Stage
DATE: 2015/03/16::
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Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - zenekar
Lakodalom van a mi falunkban - zenekar
DATE: 2011/09/01::
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Molnar Albert- Pacsika Laszlo.avi
Molnar Albert- Pacsika Laszlo.avi
DATE: 2010/05/19::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Prosimian
Fossil range: Early Eocene–Present
Tarsiers are prosimian primates, but more closely related to monkeys, apes, and humans (simians) than to other prosimians.
Tarsiers are prosimian primates, but more closely related to monkeys, apes, and humans (simians) than to other prosimians.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Prosimii (defunct)[a]
Illiger, 1811
Included groups
Adapiformes
Lemuriformes[b]
Omomyiformes
Tarsiiformes
Excluded groups
Simiiformes

Prosimians are a type of primate that includes all living and extinct strepsirrhines (lemurs, lorisoids, and adapiforms),[5] as well as the haplorhine tarsiers and their extinct relatives, the omomyiforms. They are considered to have characteristics that are more "primitive" (ancestral or plesiomorphic) than those of simians (monkeys, apes, and humans).[5]

Prosimians are a paraphyletic group and not a clade (a group consisting of an ancestor and all its descendants), since tarsiers share a more recent common ancestor with all simians than with the strepsirrhines. Consequently, the term "prosimian" is no longer widely used in a taxonomic sense, but is still used to illustrate the behavioral ecology of tarsiers relative to the other primates.

Prosimians are the only primates native to Madagascar, but are also found throughout Africa and in Asia.

Traits[edit]

The tapetum lucidum of a galago, typical of prosimians, reflects the light of the photographer's flash.

Being an evolutionary grade rather than a clade, the prosimians are united by being primates with traits otherwise found in non-primate mammals. Their diets typically are less dominated by fruit than those of the simians, and many are active arboreal predators, hunting for insects and other small animals in the trees.[5] All prosimians outside Madagascar are nocturnal, meaning that no prosimian competes directly with simian primates (the only nocturnal simians are New World monkeys of genus Aotus[6]).

Related to their frequently nocturnal lifestyle, prosimians lack the colour vision of higher primates. Like most placental mammals, they are in effect red–green colour blind. This allows for more rod cells in the retina, which may enhance vision under low-light conditions.[7] Except in tarsiers, the nocturnal vision is further augmented by a reflective tapetum lucidum behind the retina, similar to that found in other nocturnal mammals. This layer reflects the light that passes through the retina, increasing the photoreceptors exposure to the light. It is however not well developed in diurnal forms like many lemurs.[8]

All prosimians possess two laterally flattened toilet claws, used for grooming. These can be found on the second toe in lemurs and lorises, and the second and third in tarsiers. Aye-ayes have functional claws on all other digits except the hallux, including a toilet claw on the second toe. Clawlike nails are however also found in the small-bodied callitrichids, a group of New World monkeys, though none of them have a toilet claw.[9]

The prosimians have retained the primitive mammalian condition of a bicornuate uterus, with two separate uterus chambers. In the simians, the uterus chambers have fused, an otherwise rare condition among mammals. Prosimians usually have litters rather than single offspring, which is the norm in higher primates.[10]

While primates are often thought of as fairly intelligent animals, the prosimians are not very large-brained compared to other placental mammals. Their brain-cases are markedly smaller than those of simians of comparable sizes. In the large-eyed tarsiers, the weight of the brain is about the same as that of a single eye.[11] Prosimians generally show lower cognitive ability and live in simpler social settings than the simians. The prosimians with the most complex social systems are the diurnal lemurs, which may live in social groups of 20 individuals. The nocturnal prosimians are mainly solitary.[12]

Classification[edit]

Primate phylogeny[13]
 Primates 
 Haplorhini 
 Simiiformes 
 Catarrhini 

 Apes & humans 



 Old World monkeys 



 Platyrrhini 

 New World monkeys 



 Tarsiiformes 

 Tarsiers 


 Omomyiformes 

 Omomyiforms 



 Strepsirrhini 
 Adapiformes 

 Adapiforms 


 Lemuriformes 

 Lemurs 



 Lorisoids 





simians
prosimians
Prosimians (in green brackets) are a paraphyletic group by including the tarsiers and omomyiforms to the exclusion of the simians (in red brackets).

The prosimians were once a group considered a suborder of the primate order (suborder Prosimii - Gr. pro, before, + Latin simius/simia, ape), which was named in 1811 by Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger. They have been shown, however, to be paraphyletic - that is, their most recent common ancestor was a prosimian but it has some non-prosimian descendents (i.e. monkeys and apes). This relationship is shown by the ranks (prosimians in bold) in the list below of the current primate classification between the order and infraorder level. The term "prosimian" is considered taxonomically obsolete,[14] although it is used to emphasize similarities between strepsirrhines, tarsiers, and the early primates.[15]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The division of the order Primates into two evolutionary grades, Prosimii ("lower primates") and Anthropoidea ("higher primates") is sometimes used, but has been shown through morphological and genetic evidence to be incorrect. Alternatively, a three-way split in the order Primates—Prosimii, Tarsiiformes, and Anthropoidea—has also been suggested.[1]
  2. ^ a b Although the monophyletic relationship between lemurs and lorisoids is widely accepted, their clade name is not. The term "lemuriform" is used here because it derives from one popular taxonomy that clumps the clade of toothcombed primates into one infraorder and the extinct, non-toothcombed adapiforms into another, both within the suborder Strepsirrhini.[2][3] However, another popular alternative taxonomy places the lorisoids in their own infraorder, Lorisiformes.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rose 2006, p. 166.
  2. ^ Szalay & Delson 1980, p. 149.
  3. ^ Cartmill 2010, p. 15.
  4. ^ Hartwig 2011, pp. 20–21.
  5. ^ a b c Whitten, P. L.; Brockman, D. K. (2001). "Chapter 14: Strepsirrhine reproductive ecology". In Ellison, P. T. Reproductive Ecology and Human Evolution. Transaction Publishers. pp. 321–350. ISBN 978-0-202-30658-2. 
  6. ^ Cawthon Lang KA. 2005 July 18. Primate Factsheets: Owl monkey (Aotus) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology. Accessed 2012 July 25.
  7. ^ Ali, Mohamed Ather; Klyne, M.A. (1985). Vision in Vertebrates. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 174–175. ISBN 0-306-42065-1. 
  8. ^ Pariente, GF (1976). "[Different aspects of the limit of the tapetum lucidum in prosimians]". Vision research 16 (4): 387–91. doi:10.1016/0042-6989(76)90201-7. PMID 821249. 
  9. ^ Soligo, C., Müller, A.E. (1999). "Nails and claws in primate evolution". Journal of Human Evolution 36 (1): 97–114. doi:10.1006/jhev.1998.0263. PMID 9924135. 
  10. ^ Mittermeier, Ronald M. Nowak ; introduction by Russell A.; Rylands,, Anthony B.; Konstant, William R. (1999). Walker's primates of the world. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 25. ISBN 0801862515. 
  11. ^ Rosenberger, Alfred L. (16 October 2010). "The Skull of Tarsius: Functional Morphology, Eyeballs, and the Nonpursuit Predatory Lifestyle". International Journal of Primatology 31 (6): 1032–1054. doi:10.1007/s10764-010-9447-x. 
  12. ^ Reader, S. M.; Hager, Y.; Laland, K. N. (2011-04-12). "The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence" (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366 (1567): 1017–1027. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0342. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  13. ^ Rose, K. D. (2006). The Beginning of the Age of Mammals. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8472-6. 
  14. ^ Groves, C. P. (1998). "Systematics of tarsiers and lorises". Primates 39 (1): 13–27. doi:10.1007/BF02557740.  edit
  15. ^ Hartwig 2011, p. 28.

Literature cited[edit]

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