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Intro to Historical Linguistics: Reconstruction of Lost Proto-Languages (lesson 4 of 4)
Intro to Historical Linguistics: Reconstruction of Lost Proto-Languages (lesson 4 of 4)
Published: 2012/06/21
Channel: NativLang
Polynesian Problem by J^2 Plus
Polynesian Problem by J^2 Plus
Published: 2010/10/20
Channel: Chrisdayo
Proto-Polynesian Meaning
Proto-Polynesian Meaning
Published: 2015/04/27
Channel: ADictionary
Moana`s Voice in Austronesian Languages [My Choices] - Samoan, Tokelauan, Hawaiian, etc.
Moana`s Voice in Austronesian Languages [My Choices] - Samoan, Tokelauan, Hawaiian, etc.
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: Frozen ao D.M.
What does Proto-Polynesian mean?
What does Proto-Polynesian mean?
Published: 2015/05/22
Channel: What Does That Mean?
Maori the Native indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand
Maori the Native indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: 1 Mega Videos Channel
Austronesian-speaking countries
Austronesian-speaking countries
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: zhan_rand
Austronesian languages (Bahasa-bahasa Austronesia)
Austronesian languages (Bahasa-bahasa Austronesia)
Published: 2017/10/17
Channel: ababil13
POLYNESIAN - HOW TO PRONOUNCE IT!?
POLYNESIAN - HOW TO PRONOUNCE IT!?
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: WordBox
Geneticist clarifies role of Proto-Malays in human origin
Geneticist clarifies role of Proto-Malays in human origin
Published: 2012/01/25
Channel: KiniTV
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Published: 2014/11/07
Channel: Audiopedia
A Spoken Sample of Old Malay
A Spoken Sample of Old Malay
Published: 2016/09/10
Channel: Glenssuos
Austronesian Language Family
Austronesian Language Family
Published: 2013/06/08
Channel: Prasanna Patange
How far i
How far i'll go Austronesian Multi language
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: Skydra Rezarex
A Spoken Sample of Proto-Austronesian
A Spoken Sample of Proto-Austronesian
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: Glenssuos
Oceanic languages
Oceanic languages
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: Century Old
A Spoken Sample of Moriori
A Spoken Sample of Moriori
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: Glenssuos
Melayu-Polynesian ties reaffirmed at Waitangi conference
Melayu-Polynesian ties reaffirmed at Waitangi conference
Published: 2014/03/28
Channel: Te Karere TVNZ
The Dispersion of Austronesian Languages
The Dispersion of Austronesian Languages
Published: 2014/12/21
Channel: Vivian Chuan-hsin Lin
Samos esti ("It is summer" - Proto-Celtic poem)
Samos esti ("It is summer" - Proto-Celtic poem)
Published: 2016/12/26
Channel: nimmedios
Māori oral traditions translated to Malay
Māori oral traditions translated to Malay
Published: 2014/10/15
Channel: Te Karere TVNZ
Language Families of the World
Language Families of the World
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: zhan_rand
Origins of The Fino
Origins of The Fino' Håya (Full version with sign language)
Published: 2012/01/24
Channel: Finohaya GCC
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Malayo-Polynesian languages
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: WikiWikiup
Polynesian mythology - Wiki Videos
Polynesian mythology - Wiki Videos
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: Wiki Videos
The Austronesian Migratory Dispersal
The Austronesian Migratory Dispersal
Published: 2011/06/18
Channel: John Wasko
He Kani Ko Luna: A Sky Above: Kālepa Baybayan at TEDxMaui
He Kani Ko Luna: A Sky Above: Kālepa Baybayan at TEDxMaui
Published: 2013/06/13
Channel: TEDx Talks
Tongan Bible West Old Version / Koe Tohi Tabu Katoa / Black Hardback 53W
Tongan Bible West Old Version / Koe Tohi Tabu Katoa / Black Hardback 53W
Published: 2015/08/04
Channel: BibleInMyLanguage
The Malay Language (Bahasa Melayu)
The Malay Language (Bahasa Melayu)
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Langfocus
Borneo–Philippine languages
Borneo–Philippine languages
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: WikiWikiup
Austronesian Migration (Crossroads - Civilizations)
Austronesian Migration (Crossroads - Civilizations)
Published: 2012/01/31
Channel: Nusantau
Austronesian People
Austronesian People
Published: 2009/12/25
Channel: lagodaxnian
Hawaii, USA 2 Collage Video - youtube.com/tanvideo11
Hawaii, USA 2 Collage Video - youtube.com/tanvideo11
Published: 2013/12/24
Channel: tanvideo11
Proto-Semitic Meaning
Proto-Semitic Meaning
Published: 2015/05/01
Channel: ADictionary
C. Ramchandra & Lata - Shola Jo Bhadkeh - Albela [1951]Aloha in  Hawaii !"hello"
C. Ramchandra & Lata - Shola Jo Bhadkeh - Albela [1951]Aloha in Hawaii !"hello"
Published: 2012/12/02
Channel: *29 INDIAN MILITARY INTELLIGENCE 29*
Crossing the Wallace Line - languages, genes and a forgotten history
Crossing the Wallace Line - languages, genes and a forgotten history
Published: 2016/06/19
Channel: Murray Cox
Polynesian Cultures of the South Pacific. Part III Features of the Polynesians
Polynesian Cultures of the South Pacific. Part III Features of the Polynesians
Published: 2016/06/19
Channel: Cultural Education
What Is The Meaning Of The Word Hawaii?
What Is The Meaning Of The Word Hawaii?
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Trix Trix
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
Proto-Oceanic Meaning
Published: 2015/04/30
Channel: ADictionary
Maori VS Malay Song Perform by Ray.wmv
Maori VS Malay Song Perform by Ray.wmv
Published: 2010/10/10
Channel: 81sunnyrain
Linguistic Divergence in Timor
Linguistic Divergence in Timor
Published: 2014/10/02
Channel: Santa Fe Institute
Proto-Turkic Meaning
Proto-Turkic Meaning
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: ADictionary
How to say "I love you" in Rapanui.mov
How to say "I love you" in Rapanui.mov
Published: 2012/02/20
Channel: AZ Starwatcher
The Ancient Seamasters
The Ancient Seamasters
Published: 2014/12/07
Channel: Iqbal Putra
Tongan Bible New Version / Ko E Tohitapu Katoa / Reprinted from 1966 Text Edition
Tongan Bible New Version / Ko E Tohitapu Katoa / Reprinted from 1966 Text Edition
Published: 2015/07/24
Channel: BibleInMyLanguage
Proto-Uralic Meaning
Proto-Uralic Meaning
Published: 2015/04/21
Channel: SDictionary
Polynesian Cultures of the South Pacific. Part IV Sacred Temples of Polynesia
Polynesian Cultures of the South Pacific. Part IV Sacred Temples of Polynesia
Published: 2016/06/19
Channel: Cultural Education
What Does WAI Mean In Hawaii?
What Does WAI Mean In Hawaii?
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Trix Trix
Mangarevan Meaning
Mangarevan Meaning
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: ADictionary
Yökee | Samoan Language Lesson 6 - a língua do havai fácil e objetiva para iniciantes - Hawaiian
Yökee | Samoan Language Lesson 6 - a língua do havai fácil e objetiva para iniciantes - Hawaiian
Published: 2012/06/03
Channel: Marciofrancisco123 - IDIOMAS E LIVROS
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Proto-Polynesian (abbreviated PPn) is the hypothetical proto-language from which all the modern Polynesian languages descend. Historical linguists have reconstructed the language using the comparative method, in much the same manner as with Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Uralic. This same method has also been used to support the archaeological and ethnographic evidence which indicates that the ancestral homeland of the people who spoke Proto-Polynesian was in the vicinity of Tonga, Samoa, and nearby islands.[1]

Phonology[edit]

The phonology of Proto-Polynesian is very simple, with 13 consonants and 5 vowels. Note that *q in Proto-Polynesian most probably was a glottal stop [ʔ].

Consonants[edit]

Bilabial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Voiceless stop *p *t *k *q
Nasal *m *n
Fricative *s *h
Trill *r
Lateral *l
Glide *w

Vowels[edit]

Proto-Polynesian had five simple vowels, /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/, with no length distinction. In a number of daughter languages, successive sequences of vowels came together to produce long vowels and diphthongs, and in some languages these sounds later became phonemic.[2]

Sound correspondences[edit]

Proto-Polynesian *p *t *k *q *m *n *w *s *h *l *r
Tongan p t k ʔ m n ŋ v f h l Ø
Niuean Ø
Niuafoʻou?? ʔ/Ø h h/Ø l/Ø
Proto-Nuclear-Polynesian *p *t *k *m *n *w *f *s *l
Sāmoan p t ʔ Ø m n ŋ v f s Ø l
East Futunan k ʔ/Ø
Tikopian Ø ɾ
Nukuoroan h l
Proto-Eastern-Polynesian *p *t *k *ʔ/Ø *m *n *w *f *h *l
Rapa Nui p t k ʔ/Ø m n ŋ v v/h h Ø ɾ
MVA, Rarotongan Ø ?/v ʔ
Tuamotuan f/h/v h
Māori w ɸ/h
Tahitian ʔ ʔ v f/v/h
N. Marquesan k k h ʔ
S. Marquesan ʔ n f/h
Hawaiian k w h/w l

Vocabulary[edit]

The following is a table of some sample vocabulary as it is represented orthographically in various languages.[3] All instances of <ʻ> represent a glottal stop, IPA /ʔ/. All instances of 'ng' and Samoan 'g' represent the single phoneme /ŋ/. The letters 'r' in all cases represents voiced alveolar tap /ɾ/, not /r/.

Polynesian vocabulary
Proto-Polynesian Tongan Niuean Sāmoan Rapa Nui Tahitian Māori Rarotongan S. Marquesan Hawaiian English
*taŋata tangata tangata tagata tangata ta'ata tangata tangata ʻenata kanaka man
*sina hina hina sina hina hinahina hina ʻina hina grey-haired
*kanahe kanahe kanahe ʻanae 'anae kanae kanae ʻanae mullet
*tiale siale tiale tiale tiare tiare tīare tiare kiele flower
*waka vaka vaka vaʻa vaka va'a waka vaka vaka waʻa canoe
*ɸaɸine fafine fifine fafine vi'e/vahine vahine wahine vaʻine vehine wahine woman
*matuqa mātu'a motua matua matuʻa metua matua metua, matua motua makua parent
*rua ua ua lua rua rua [4] rua rua ʻua lua two
*tolu tolu tolu tolu toru toru toru toru toʻu kolu three

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kirch, Patrick Vinton; Roger Green (2001). Hawaiki, Ancestral Polynesia: An Essay in Historical Anthropology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 99–119. ISBN 978-0-521-78309-5. 
  2. ^ Rolle, Nicholas (2009). "The Phonetic Nature of Niuean Vowel Length". Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics (TWPL): 31. 
  3. ^ Hockett, C.K. (May 1976), "The Reconstruction of Proto Central Pacific", Anthropological Linguistics, 18 (5): 187–235 
  4. ^ Archaic: the modern Tahitian word for two is piti, due to the practice of pi'i among Tahitians, a form of linguistic taboo. However, the cognate remains in the second-person dual pronounʻōrua, roughly translated you two.

External links[edit]

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