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1
Punjabis (Sikhs) of Punjab, northern India
Punjabis (Sikhs) of Punjab, northern India
::2013/04/11::
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Indian dance - Punjab region (India)
Indian dance - Punjab region (India)
::2014/01/29::
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Election Special: Know your Candidates, Malwa region, Punjab
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Pastors- Punjab Region
Pastors- Punjab Region
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India, The Punjab region in 1940.
India, The Punjab region in 1940.
::2014/07/30::
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70 % Punjab in Drugs (New Documentary, Read description below)
70 % Punjab in Drugs (New Documentary, Read description below)
::2011/09/16::
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Dances of India - Part 4 - Bhangra from Punjab region
Dances of India - Part 4 - Bhangra from Punjab region
::2011/08/21::
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Sulghade Siveya Da Sek-documentary on cancer in malwa region of Punjab
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Ultimate Battles_King( Raja ) Porus vs Alexander_Present Day Upper Punjab Pakistan
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DOCUMENTARY FILM PUNJAB VS PESTISIDE A FILM ON THE CANCER DISEASE IN PUNJAB SIMRAN KALER RBF
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Zee News: Earthquake rocks Jammu region, tremors felt in Himachal, Punjab
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Election Special: Know your Candidates, Majha region, Punjab
Election Special: Know your Candidates, Majha region, Punjab
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Election Special: Know your Candidates, Doaba region, Punjab
Election Special: Know your Candidates, Doaba region, Punjab
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Majha Region of Punjab - Pakhand vaad da centre - Anti Sikh
Majha Region of Punjab - Pakhand vaad da centre - Anti Sikh
::2013/05/04::
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The Punjab Region
The Punjab Region
::2008/03/30::
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India - The Punjab, 1940
India - The Punjab, 1940
::2011/06/05::
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Dairy farm in Punjab
Dairy farm in Punjab
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Loading silage for Cattle feeding at Adayana Dairy, Punjab
Loading silage for Cattle feeding at Adayana Dairy, Punjab
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Gatka-Punjab Region
Gatka-Punjab Region
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Travelling through the roads of Punjab
Travelling through the roads of Punjab
::2014/05/24::
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Lahore - The Capital of Punjab (1930)
Lahore - The Capital of Punjab (1930)
::2012/12/17::
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Border fence damaging livelihoods for Punjab farmers - Australia Network News
Border fence damaging livelihoods for Punjab farmers - Australia Network News
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Punjab in grip of cancer | Doaba region
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Milking Parlour with a man tending the cattle - Punjab
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Punjab folks perform Bhangra dance to the beats of dhol
Punjab folks perform Bhangra dance to the beats of dhol
::2014/07/08::
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Raja Porus of North Punjab ( Now Pakistani Punjab former North India ) and Alexander Encounter
Raja Porus of North Punjab ( Now Pakistani Punjab former North India ) and Alexander Encounter
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Rural Punjab
Rural Punjab
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Dance of Punjab - Bhangra Dance of Punjab
Dance of Punjab - Bhangra Dance of Punjab
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Cattle milking parlour in Punjab, India
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Tourism in Punjab  :: Patiala - City of Kings :: Documentary Video
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Cross-border smuggling of drugs in Punjab - a headache for BSF
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::2013/05/05::
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Houses in rural Punjab
Houses in rural Punjab
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Archbishop of Birmingham to visit Amritsar, Punjab, India
Archbishop of Birmingham to visit Amritsar, Punjab, India
::2014/10/20::
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Punjabi Boliyan, Gidha,Bhangra | Nai Reesan Punjab deeyan, Punjabi superhit songs
Punjabi Boliyan, Gidha,Bhangra | Nai Reesan Punjab deeyan, Punjabi superhit songs
::2014/04/02::
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Bhangra dancers from Punjab
Bhangra dancers from Punjab
::2014/07/08::
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41
Gurbhajan Gill Punjab History and Culture.wmv
Gurbhajan Gill Punjab History and Culture.wmv
::2012/04/30::
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Battle of Hydaspes ( Jhelum Punjab)_Alexander vs Porus ( Local King in Punjab, Former North India)
Battle of Hydaspes ( Jhelum Punjab)_Alexander vs Porus ( Local King in Punjab, Former North India)
::2012/04/04::
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Addressing a rally on Tuesday in Punjab
Addressing a rally on Tuesday in Punjab's Renala Khurd region
::2014/08/26::
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44
Sada Virsa - Episode 18 - Sher-E-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh - Part 1
Sada Virsa - Episode 18 - Sher-E-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh - Part 1
::2012/09/26::
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Nobody can stop creation of  South Punjab province: Farooq Sattar speak to a big gathering in Multan
Nobody can stop creation of South Punjab province: Farooq Sattar speak to a big gathering in Multan
::2012/05/05::
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46
Punjab, Pakistan: Millions Affected by Floods, Reluctant to Evacuate
Punjab, Pakistan: Millions Affected by Floods, Reluctant to Evacuate
::2010/08/10::
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Prime Time: Has Dalit politics failed to achieve lustre in Punjab?
Prime Time: Has Dalit politics failed to achieve lustre in Punjab?
::2014/03/28::
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India: Punjab
India: Punjab
::2007/11/01::
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Making and packing tandoori rotis at a Dhaba: Punjab
Making and packing tandoori rotis at a Dhaba: Punjab
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punjab people and culture.wmv
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This article is about the geographical region in South Asia. For other uses of the name, see Punjab (disambiguation).
Punjab Region
Punjab map (topographic) with cities.png
Largest Cities Lahore
Faisalabad
Countries

India

Pakistan

Official languages Punjabi, Urdu/Hindi, English
Area 355,705 km2 (137,338 sq mi)
Population (2001) 152,000,000
Density 430/km2
Religions
Demonym Punjabi

The Punjab (Listeni/ˈpʌnɑːb/ or /ˈpʌnæb/), also spelled Panjab, panj-āb, "five rivers"[1] (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); پنجاب (Shahmukhi); पंजाब (Devanagari) ), is a geographical region in South Asia comprising vast territories of eastern Pakistan and northern India. In Pakistan, it includes the Punjab province and parts of the Islamabad Capital Territory, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Azad Kashmir. In India, it includes Punjab state and Chandigarh union territory, Haryana, parts of Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu Division and Rajasthan.[2][3][4][5]

The name of the region is a compound of two Persian words [6] and was introduced to the region by the Turkic Muslim conquerors of India and more formally popularized during the Mughal empire. Punjab literally means "(The Land of) Five Waters" referring to the following rivers: the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.[7] All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Chenab being the largest.

The region has a long history. It has been inhabited by Harappans, proto-Dravidians and Indo-Aryans and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Afghans, British and others. The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis and their principal language is called Punjabi. The main religions of the Punjab region are Islam, Hinduism, and Sikhism. Other religious groups are Christians, Jains and Buddhists.

In 1947, with the dissolution of British India, the region was partitioned between India and Pakistan.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Punjab

The Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a historical and cultural link to Indo-Aryan heritage identity as well as partially to the Dravidic indigenous communities. As a result of numerous invasions, many ethnic groups and religions make up the cultural heritage of Punjab.

Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site

In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of South Asia, the Harappa civilisation, was located in Punjab.

The epic battles described in the Mahabharata were fought in modern-day Harayana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of Punjab), Yaudheyas and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra.[8] According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab".[9]

In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded the tip of Punjab from the north (modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan) and defeated King Porus. His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kush in northwest Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala (modern-day Sialkot in northeast Pakistan). In 305 BCE the area was ruled by the Maurya Empire. In a long line of succeeding rulers of the area, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka the Great stand out as the most renowned. The Maurya presence in the area was then consolidated in the Indo-Greek Kingdom in 180 BCE. Menander I Soter "The Saviour" (known as Milinda in Indian sources) is the most renowned leader of the era. Neighbouring Seleucid rule came to an end around 12 BCE, after several invasions by the Yuezhi and the Scythian people.

In 711–713 CE, 18-year-old Arab Sultan Muhammad bin Qasim of Taif, a city in Saudi Arabia, came by way of the Arabian Sea with Arab troops to defeat Raja Dahir. The Sultan then led his troops to conquer Sindh and Punjab regions for the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate. Qasim was the first to bring Islam to the region.

A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar.

During the establishment and consolidation of the Muslim Turkic Mughal Empire prosperity, growth, and relative peace were established. Particularly under the reign of Jahangir. Muslim empires ruled Punjab for approximately 1000 years. The period was also notable for the emergence of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism.

In 1758, Punjab came under the rule of Marathas who captured the region by defeating Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Abdali's Indian invasion weakened the Maratha influence, but he could not defeat the Sikhs. At the formation of the Dal Khalsa in 1748 at Amritsar, the Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities, called misl. From this point onward, the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh Empire emerged. Out of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The other 14 accepted British sovereignty. After Ranjit Singh's death, assassinations and internal divisions severely weakened the empire. Six years later the British East India Company was given an excuse to declare war and in 1849, after two Anglo-Sikh wars, the Punjab was annexed by the British.

The Panjab 1880

In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Sikh rulers backed the East India Company, providing troops and support,[10] but in Jhelum 35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance and in Ludhiana a rebellion was crushed with the assistance of the Punjab chiefs of Nabha and Malerkotla.

The British Raj had political, cultural, philosophical and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Muhammad Iqbal, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai.

At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (about 35%) became part of India, while West Punjab (65%) became part of Pakistan.[11] The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following the end of the British Raj, with casualties estimated in the millions.

Physical geography[edit]

At the time of the Sikh Empire the Punjab covered a large territory – the entire Indus basin and the watershed between the Indus and Gangetic plains. It could be divided into four natural areas:[12]

  • the eastern mountainous region including Jammu and Kashmir;
  • the central plain with its five rivers;
  • the north-western region, separated from the central plain by the Salt Range between the Jhelum and the Indus rivers;
  • the semi-desert to the south of the Sutlej river.
The snow covered Himalayas

The formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, and the Himalayas are rising by about 5mm per year.

The upper regions are snow covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains. The Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi though Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are relatively young, and are eroding rapidly. The Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam, minerals and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which consequently are very fertile.[13]

Climate[edit]

The climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance.[14]

There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the Hot Season, from about mid April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49˚C. The Monsoon Season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the Winter Season, when the temperature in January falls to 5˚C at night and 12˚C by day. During the transitional period from Winter to the Hot Season sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.[15]

People of the Punjab[edit]

Main article: Punjabi people

Ethnic background[edit]

Ethnic ancestries of modern Punjabis include a mixture of Indo-Aryan and Indo-Scythian, Semitic ancestries can also be found in lesser numbers. With the advent of Islam, settlers from Mongolia, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Arabia, and Uzbekistan have also integrated into the Muslim Punjabi society. However the majority of Punjab is still made up of the Ahirs, Arains, Dalits (mostly Chamars), Gujjars, Jatts, Khatris, Maliks, and Rajputs.

Languages[edit]

Dialects of Punjabi
Main article: Punjabi language

The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi. In the Indian Punjab this is written in the Gurmukhi script. Pakistan uses the Shahmukhi script, that is closer to Urdu script. Hindi, written in the Devanagri script, is used widely in the Indian states of Himanchal Pradesh and Haryana. Several dialects of Punjabi are spoken in the different regions. The Majhi dialect is considered to be textbook Punjabi and is shared by both countries.

Religions[edit]

The vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis are Sunni Muslim by faith, but also include large minority faiths mostly Shia Muslim, Ahmadi Muslim and Christians. In Indian Punjab, Sikhs and Hindus are the vast majority. Sikhism, a religion founded in the late 15th century, is the main religion practised in Indian Punjab. About 60% of the population of Indian Punjab is Sikh, 37% is Hindu, and the rest are Muslims, Christians, and Jains.[16] However, due to large scale migration from Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar, Bengal and Odisha demographics of Indian Punjab state have become more skewed than reported earlier. Indian Punjab contains the holy Sikh city of Amritsar. The states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, formerly constituents of the British province of Punjab, are mostly Hindu-majority.

Major cities[edit]

An Open-Air Restaurant, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
List of major cities in the Punjab
Rank City State/Province Country
1 Lahore Punjab Pakistan
2 Faisalabad Punjab Pakistan
3 Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan
4 Rawalpindi Punjab Pakistan
5 Multan Punjab Pakistan
6 Gujranwala Punjab Pakistan
7 Ludhiana Punjab India
8 Faridabad Haryana India
9 Amritsar Punjab India
10 Islamabad Islamabad Capital Territory Pakistan
11 Sialkot Punjab Pakistan
12 Chandigarh Chandigarh India
13 Gurgaon Haryana India
14 Jalandhar Punjab India
15 Gujrat Punjab Pakistan
16 Sargodha Punjab Pakistan
17 Bahawalpur Punjab Pakistan
18 Patiala Punjab India

Economy[edit]

Phulkari embroidery from Patiala

The historical region of Punjab is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab produce a relatively high proportion of India and Pakistan's food output respectively.

The region has been used for extensive wheat farming, in addition rice, cotton, sugarcane, fruit and vegetables are also grown.

The agricultural output of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab are considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. Indian Punjab has been estimated to be the second richest state in India.[17] Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's food grain production.[18] Its share of Pakistan's GDP has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%.[19]

Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India", Indian Punjab produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton.[20] In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce.

Timeline[edit]

Photo gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. London; New York: Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 0-415-45666-5. 
  2. ^ The Times Atlas of the World, Concise Edition. London: Times Books. 1995. p. 36. ISBN 0 7230 0718 7. 
  3. ^ Grewal, J S (2004). Historical Geography of the Punjab. Punjab Research Group, Volume 11, No 1. Journal of Punjab Studies. pp. 4, 7, 11. 
  4. ^ see the Punjab Doabs
  5. ^ Pritam Singh and Shinder S. Thandi, ed. (1996). Globalisation and the region: explorations in Punjabi identity. Coventry Association for Punjab Studies, Coventry University. p. 361. 
  6. ^ H K Manmohan Siṅgh. "The Punjab". The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh. Punjabi University, Patiala. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  7. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., vol.20, Punjab,p.107
  8. ^ Buddha Parkash, Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, p 36.
  9. ^ History of Panjab, Vol I, p 4, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh.
  10. ^ Ganda Singh (August 2004). "The Truth about the Indian Mutiny". Sikh Spectrum. Retrieved 13 March 2013. 
  11. ^ Leading News Resource of Pakistan. Daily Times (2012-05-10). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  12. ^ The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism, section Punjab.
  13. ^ G. S. Gosal. "Physical Geography of the Punjab". University of California, Santa Barbara. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  14. ^ Maps of India, Climate of Punjab
  15. ^ Royal Geographical Society Climate and Landscape of the Punjab
  16. ^ "Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities". Census of India. 2001. Retrieved 2010-07-25. 
  17. ^ "Punjab second richest state in country: CII", Times of India, 8 April 2004.
  18. ^ Pakistani government statistics, retrieved 14 April 2007.
  19. ^ Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973-2000[dead link]
  20. ^ Yadav, Kiran (11 Feb 2013). "Punjab". Agropedia. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Narang, K.S.; Gupta, Dr H.R. (1969). History of the Punjab 1500-1858. U. C. Kapur & Sons, Delhi. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  • [Quraishee 73] Punjabi Adab De Kahani, Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973.
  • [Chopra 77] Punjab as a Sovereign State, Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni, Lahore, 1977.
  • Patwant Singh. 1999. The Sikhs. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50206-0.
  • The Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, Buddha Parkash.
  • Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab, Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash.
  • History of Porus, Patiala, Buddha Parkash.
  • History of the Panjab, Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi (Ed).
  • The Legacy of the Punjab, 1997, R M Chopra.
  • The Rise Growth and Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, R M Chopra, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd revised edition published in 2013.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°N 74°E / 31°N 74°E / 31; 74

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