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Development of a Portable Pyroelectric Accelerator - GOOGLE SCIENCE FAIR 2012
Development of a Portable Pyroelectric Accelerator - GOOGLE SCIENCE FAIR 2012
Published: 2012/03/25
Channel: gg459
Lithium Tantalate Crystal for Pyroelectric Fusion sales@dmphotonics.com
Lithium Tantalate Crystal for Pyroelectric Fusion sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2013/09/19
Channel: delmarphotonics
Pyroelectric Fusion Crystal LiTaO3 sales@dmphotonics.com
Pyroelectric Fusion Crystal LiTaO3 sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2014/11/01
Channel: delmarphotonics
Pyroelectricity- High voltage Generator
Pyroelectricity- High voltage Generator
Published: 2011/07/17
Channel: gilbondfac
Pyroelectric crystals for palm-sized neutron generator sales@dmphotonics.com
Pyroelectric crystals for palm-sized neutron generator sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: delmarphotonics
Fusion Energy Production by Deuterium Particle Injection
Fusion Energy Production by Deuterium Particle Injection
Published: 2014/05/17
Channel: Hear it cometh
Pyroelectric LiTaO3 sales@dmphotonics.com
Pyroelectric LiTaO3 sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2013/11/09
Channel: delmarphotonics
Pyroelectric Crystal/Frozen Magnet
Pyroelectric Crystal/Frozen Magnet
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: TheMTUDemoCrew
Cooling fan tracks humans.
Cooling fan tracks humans.
Published: 2012/02/02
Channel: Bruce Land
Crystal fusion result on phosphor screen image of ion beam
Crystal fusion result on phosphor screen image of ion beam
Published: 2012/03/25
Channel: Francis Villatoro
What does pyroelectric effect mean?
What does pyroelectric effect mean?
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: What Does That Mean?
Pyroelectric LiTaO3 crystals sales@dmphotonics.com
Pyroelectric LiTaO3 crystals sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: delmarphotonics
EDD Presentation 2012-13- Pyroelectric
EDD Presentation 2012-13- Pyroelectric
Published: 2013/05/29
Channel: Ryan McGee
Pyroelectric crystals sales@dmphotonics.com
Pyroelectric crystals sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2013/06/11
Channel: delmarphotonics
Pyroelectric Sensor Answering Machine Robot 2
Pyroelectric Sensor Answering Machine Robot 2
Published: 2006/12/26
Channel: RedR0b0t
Solution Growth of TGS Crystals on (IML-1) & Pyroelectric IR Detectors
Solution Growth of TGS Crystals on (IML-1) & Pyroelectric IR Detectors
Published: 2011/08/12
Channel: AAMUPhysics
Dielectric to pyroelectric phase transition induced by defect migration
Dielectric to pyroelectric phase transition induced by defect migration
Published: 2015/03/13
Channel: NewJournalofPhysics
MAS.863: week 10 - Input Devices - playing with pyroelectric sensor
MAS.863: week 10 - Input Devices - playing with pyroelectric sensor
Published: 2013/11/12
Channel: Amir Lazarovich
Axial Compression of  Lithium Liner
Axial Compression of Lithium Liner
Published: 2013/03/28
Channel: FusionDrivenRocket
Crystal fusion raw data including PMT traces of valid neutron hits
Crystal fusion raw data including PMT traces of valid neutron hits
Published: 2012/03/25
Channel: Francis Villatoro
IEEE 2013 EMBEDDED Environment monitoring  with Pyro electric Sensory Fusion System and device contr
IEEE 2013 EMBEDDED Environment monitoring with Pyro electric Sensory Fusion System and device contr
Published: 2013/10/19
Channel: ganesh pg
Electro-optic, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, terahertz crystals @sales@dmphotonics.com
Electro-optic, piezoelectric, pyroelectric, terahertz crystals @sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2013/04/14
Channel: delmarphotonics
Pyro Fusion Entertainment - Port Salermo SeaFood Festival 2013 fire show
Pyro Fusion Entertainment - Port Salermo SeaFood Festival 2013 fire show
Published: 2013/03/08
Channel: Pyro Fusion Entertainment
promotional video Pyro Fusion demo
promotional video Pyro Fusion demo
Published: 2007/09/18
Channel: SteveVazquez
Lisa   Pyro Fusion Entertainment
Lisa Pyro Fusion Entertainment
Published: 2013/06/07
Channel: FERNANDO HIDALGO
2005 - UCLA-UIUC Faulty Bubble Fusion Replication
2005 - UCLA-UIUC Faulty Bubble Fusion Replication
Published: 2009/11/19
Channel: StevenKrivit
Pyro Fusion Entertainment
Pyro Fusion Entertainment
Published: 2013/04/29
Channel: FERNANDO HIDALGO
THE DANCE
THE DANCE's FUSION ENTERTAINMENT & QUIETSTORM
Published: 2012/12/13
Channel: BONEPICKER88
Pyro Fusion Entertainment  - Glow Duet 2013
Pyro Fusion Entertainment - Glow Duet 2013
Published: 2013/03/09
Channel: Pyro Fusion Entertainment
Wireless and Pyroelectric Sensory Fusion System for Indoor Human or Robot Localization and Monitorin
Wireless and Pyroelectric Sensory Fusion System for Indoor Human or Robot Localization and Monitorin
Published: 2013/06/29
Channel: ranjith kumar
Pyro Fusion Entertainment offers shadow dancing.
Pyro Fusion Entertainment offers shadow dancing.
Published: 2013/03/08
Channel: Pyro Fusion Entertainment
The Smart Model Theoretical Fusion Reactor Plant Part 2
The Smart Model Theoretical Fusion Reactor Plant Part 2
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Jayolucus
Pyro Fusion @ the Relay for Life 2009
Pyro Fusion @ the Relay for Life 2009
Published: 2011/07/08
Channel: Pyro Fusion Entertainment
Pyro Fusion Entertainment - Bendy Shadow Dance
Pyro Fusion Entertainment - Bendy Shadow Dance
Published: 2013/03/09
Channel: Pyro Fusion Entertainment
IRS-B -- World
IRS-B -- World's Smallest Pyroelectric Infrared ...
Published: 2012/03/31
Channel: ChipDipvideo
The Smart Model Theoretical Fusion Reactor Plant Part1
The Smart Model Theoretical Fusion Reactor Plant Part1
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Jayolucus
Pyro Fusion @ Amelia Earhart Park in Hia 12/21/12
Pyro Fusion @ Amelia Earhart Park in Hia 12/21/12
Published: 2012/12/22
Channel: cheyon22
Pyro Fusion
Pyro Fusion
Published: 2011/11/11
Channel: Joal Fischer
Check out PyRo Fusion our newest member
Check out PyRo Fusion our newest member
Published: 2017/02/18
Channel: PyRo Hexz
LiTaO3 Pyroelectric Sensors uncoated and with Chromium and Gold Coatings - sales@dmphotonics.com
LiTaO3 Pyroelectric Sensors uncoated and with Chromium and Gold Coatings - sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: delmarphotonics
Another video finally
Another video finally
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: PyRo Hexz
Materials@Kasetsart 2013 : Pyroelectric ("Passive") Infrared Sensors (PIR)
Materials@Kasetsart 2013 : Pyroelectric ("Passive") Infrared Sensors (PIR)
Published: 2013/10/16
Channel: Materials Engineering Kasetsart
WIGTV Pyrofusion June 13th, 2012
WIGTV Pyrofusion June 13th, 2012
Published: 2012/06/18
Channel: Rev. Jamie Grace
WIGTV: PyroFusion 2, July 19 2012
WIGTV: PyroFusion 2, July 19 2012
Published: 2012/07/20
Channel: Rev. Jamie Grace
WIGTV: PyroFusion 1, July 19 2012
WIGTV: PyroFusion 1, July 19 2012
Published: 2012/07/20
Channel: Rev. Jamie Grace
LiTaO3 crystal substrates for pyroelectric sensors sales@dmphotonics.com
LiTaO3 crystal substrates for pyroelectric sensors sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2013/02/27
Channel: delmarphotonics
Lithium Tantalate LiTaO3 crystals and wafers sales@dmphotonics.com
Lithium Tantalate LiTaO3 crystals and wafers sales@dmphotonics.com
Published: 2013/04/14
Channel: delmarphotonics
WIGTV PyroFusion (2) June 13, 2012
WIGTV PyroFusion (2) June 13, 2012
Published: 2012/06/17
Channel: Rev. Jamie Grace
Pyrofusion   Luanas art show   Dadas Delray   5 2 10   3
Pyrofusion Luanas art show Dadas Delray 5 2 10 3
Published: 2010/05/03
Channel: Viva Sigal Sahar
Pyrofusion - My Life
Pyrofusion - My Life
Published: 2010/07/05
Channel: PyrofusionOfficial
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Pyroelectric fusion refers to the technique of using pyroelectric crystals to generate high strength electrostatic fields to accelerate deuterium ions (tritium might also be used someday) into a metal hydride target also containing deuterium (or tritium) with sufficient kinetic energy to cause these ions to undergo nuclear fusion. It was reported in April 2005 by a team at UCLA. The scientists used a pyroelectric crystal heated from −34 to 7 °C (−29 to 45 °F), combined with a tungsten needle to produce an electric field of about 25 gigavolts per meter to ionize and accelerate deuterium nuclei into an erbium deuteride target. Though the energy of the deuterium ions generated by the crystal has not been directly measured, the authors used 100 keV (a temperature of about 109 K) as an estimate in their modeling.[1] At these energy levels, two deuterium nuclei can fuse together to produce a helium-3 nucleus, a 2.45 MeV neutron and bremsstrahlung. Although it makes a useful neutron generator, the apparatus is not intended for power generation since it requires far more energy than it produces.[2][3][4][5]

History[edit]

The process of light ion acceleration using electrostatic fields and deuterium ions to produce fusion in solid deuterated targets was first demonstrated by Cockcroft and Walton in 1932 (see Cockcroft-Walton generator). Indeed, the process is used today in thousands of miniaturized versions of their original accelerator, in the form of small sealed tube neutron generators, in the petroleum exploration industry.

The process of pyroelectricity has been known from ancient times.[6] The first use of a pyroelectric field to accelerate deuterons was in 1997 in an experiment conducted by Drs. V.D. Dougar Jabon, G.V. Fedorovich, and N.V. Samsonenko.[7] This group was the first to utilize a lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) pyroelectric crystal in fusion experiments.

The novel idea with the pyroelectric approach to fusion is in its application of the pyroelectric effect to generate the accelerating electric fields. This is done by heating the crystal from −30°F to +45°F over a period of a few minutes.

Results since 2005[edit]

In April 2005, a UCLA team headed by chemistry professor James K. Gimzewski[8] and physics professor Seth Putterman utilized a tungsten probe attached to a pyroelectric crystal in order to increase the electric field strength.[9] Brian Naranjo, a graduate student working under Putterman, conducted the experiment demonstrating the use of a pyroelectric power source for producing fusion on a laboratory bench top device.[10] The device used a lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) pyroelectric crystal to ionize deuterium atoms and to accelerate the deuterons towards a stationary erbium dideuteride (ErD2) target. Around 1000 fusion reactions per second took place, each resulting in the production of an 820 keV helium-3 nucleus and a 2.45 MeV neutron. The team anticipates applications of the device as a neutron generator or possibly in microthrusters for space propulsion.

A team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, led by Yaron Danon and his graduate student Jeffrey Geuther, improved upon the UCLA experiments using a device with two pyroelectric crystals and capable of operating at non-cryogenic temperatures.[11][12]

Nuclear D-D fusion driven by pyroelectric crystals was proposed by Naranjo and Putterman in 2002.[13] It was also discussed by Brownridge and Shafroth in 2004.[14] The possibility of using pyroelectric crystals in a neutron production device (by D-D fusion) was proposed in a conference paper by Geuther and Danon in 2004[15] and later in a publication discussing electron and ion acceleration by pyroelectric crystals.[16] None of these later authors had prior knowledge of the earlier 1997 experimental work conducted by Dougar Jabon, Fedorovich, and Samsonenko which mistakenly believed that fusion occurred within the crystals.[7] The key ingredient of using a tungsten needle to produce sufficient ion beam current for use with a pyroelectric crystal power supply was first demonstrated in the 2005 Nature paper, although in a broader context tungsten emitter tips have been used as ion sources in other applications for many years. In 2010, it was found that tungsten emitter tips are not necessary to increase the acceleration potential of pyroelectric crystals; the acceleration potential can allow positive ions to reach kinetic energies between 300 and 310 keV.[17]

Pyroelectric fusion has been hyped in the news media,[18] which has overlooked the earlier experimental work of Dougar Jabon, Fedorovich and Samsonenko.[7] Pyroelectric fusion is not related to the earlier claims of fusion reactions, having been observed during sonoluminescence (bubble fusion) experiments conducted under the direction of Rusi Taleyarkhan of Purdue University.[19] In fact, Naranjo of the UCLA team has been one of the main critics of these earlier prospective fusion claims from Taleyarkhan.[20]

The first successful results with pyroelectric fusion using a tritiated target was reported in 2010.[21] The UCLA team of Putterman and Naranjo worked with T. Venhaus of Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure a 14.1 MeV neutron signal far above background. This was a natural extension of the earlier work with deuterated targets.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Supplementary methods for “Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal”
  2. ^ UCLA Crystal Fusion
  3. ^ Physics News Update 729
  4. ^ Coming in out of the cold: nuclear fusion, for real | csmonitor.com
  5. ^ Nuclear fusion on the desktop ... really! - Science – MSNBC.com
  6. ^ Sidney Lang, "Pyroelectricity: From Ancient Curiosity to Modern Imaging Tool", Physics Today, August, 2005, pp. 31-36, and Sidney B. Lang, "Sourcebook of Pyroelectricity", (London: Gordon & Breach, 1974)
  7. ^ a b c V. D. Dougar Jabon, G. V. Fedorovich, and N. V. Samsonenko, ""Catalitically Induced D-D Fusion in Ferroelectrics" (PDF). ", Brazilian Journal of Physics, Vol. 27, No. 4 (December, 1997), pp. 515-521
  8. ^ :: James K. Gimzewski ::. Chem.ucla.edu. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  9. ^ B. Naranjo, J. K. Gimzewski and S. Putterman (from UCLA), "Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystal". Nature, April 28, 2005. See also a news article on this.
  10. ^ Brian Naranjo, "Observation of Nuclear Fusion Driven by a Pyroelectric Crystal", A disssertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, 2006, 57 pages, Dr. Seth Putterman, Committee Chair. No reference to the earlier experimental work of Jabon, Fedorovich and Samsonenko [2] is found in Dr. Naranjo's dissertation.
  11. ^ Jeffrey A. Geuther, Yaron Danon “Electron and Positive Ion Acceleration with Pyroelectric Crystals”, Journal of Applied Physics 97, 074109 (April 1, 2005)
  12. ^ Jeffrey A. Geuther, "Radiation Generation with Pyroelectric Crystals", A Thesis submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Nuclear Engineering and Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, April 13, 2007, 176 pages, Dr. Yaron Danon, Thesis Adviser.
  13. ^ B. Naranjo and S. Putterman "Search for fusion from energy focusing phenomena in ferroelectric crystals". UCEI Proposal, February 1, 2002
  14. ^ James D. Brownridge and Stephen M. Shafroth, [1], 1 May 2004
  15. ^ Jeffrey A. Geuther, Yaron Danon, “Pyroelectric Electron Acceleration: Improvements and Future Applications”, ANS Winter Meeting Washington, D.C, November 14 – 18, 2004
  16. ^ "Double Crystal Fusion" Could Pave the Way for Portable Device, News Releases, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: 2005-2006: "NY Team Confirms UCLA Tabletop Fusion". www.scienceblog.com
  17. ^ W. Tornow, S. M. Lynam, and S. M. Shafroth, "Substantial increase in acceleration potential of pyroelectric crystals", Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 107, 063302 (2010)
  18. ^ Matin Durrani and Peter Rodgers "Fusion seen in table-top experiment". Physics Web, April 27, 2005
  19. ^ Rusi P. Taleyarkhan, C. D. West, R. T. Lahey, R. I. Nigmatulin, J. S. Cho, R. C. Block, and Y. Xu, "Nuclear Emissions During Self-Nucleated Acoustic Cavitation". Physical Review Letters, Vol. 96, 034301 (January 2006)
  20. ^ Brian Naranjo, "Comment on 'Nuclear Emissions During Self-Nucleated Acoustic Cavitation'", Physical Review Letters, Vol. 97, 149403 (3 October 2006)
  21. ^ B. Naranjo, S. Putterman and T. Venhaus, "Pyroelectric fusion using a tritiated target", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 632, Issue 1, (11 March 2011), pp. 43-46.

External links[edit]

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