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1
how to speak kichwa lesson 1
how to speak kichwa lesson 1
::2009/04/22::
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2
help save our languages (kichwa)
help save our languages (kichwa)
::2009/04/07::
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3
Kichwa Woman talking about Socio Bosque
Kichwa Woman talking about Socio Bosque
::2012/04/25::
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4
how to speak kichwa lesson 5
how to speak kichwa lesson 5
::2009/08/04::
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5
Students singing Kichwa song in Quito
Students singing Kichwa song in Quito
::2008/03/27::
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curso de  kichwa 6 al 10
curso de kichwa 6 al 10
::2012/02/18::
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curso kichwa parte 1 al 5 (audio only)
curso kichwa parte 1 al 5 (audio only)
::2012/02/17::
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KICHWA RIMAK - ANAKO DE PAÑO
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::2014/04/16::
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curso de kichwa interactivo
curso de kichwa interactivo
::2013/10/19::
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10
Canción Kichwa
Canción Kichwa
::2013/10/28::
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Trent in Ecuador 2010-2011 Kichwa Singalong
Trent in Ecuador 2010-2011 Kichwa Singalong
::2011/05/05::
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MEGA MIXER 2014 NANCY ESTRELLITA DE LA MUSICA KICHWA   (BY DUVER DJ)
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::2014/05/18::
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Ujsha Rock Kichwa 2014 .-  Inty Raimy
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::2014/06/26::
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Internetpi kichwata yachakushun - Aprende kichwa en internet - 1
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Matrimonio Kichwa. "La historia del Fandango y su legado"
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::2014/02/10::
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KICHWA YACHAY 2014
KICHWA YACHAY 2014
::2014/01/09::
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how to speak kichwa lesson 2
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Lengua Materna kichwa
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::2013/04/06::
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Internetpi kichwata yachakushun - Aprende kichwa en internet - 2
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Bensnburner - Kichwa Chako
Bensnburner - Kichwa Chako
::2014/04/09::
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Fiestas Del Yamor 2014- Pueblo Kichwa Otavalo, Ecuador. Parte 1.
Fiestas Del Yamor 2014- Pueblo Kichwa Otavalo, Ecuador. Parte 1.
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Territorio kichwa contaminado, abril 2014
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::2014/05/23::
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Nacionalidad Kichwa de Pastaza
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::2013/08/12::
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Pista Instrumental KICHWA 001
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::2014/07/01::
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Curso Básico de Kichwa
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::2010/05/08::
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Marcela aprende de Kichwa - Los colores
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::2013/12/26::
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Inty Raymi otavalo   Grupo Cultural Yarick & kichwa America
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Kichwa Anangu Community Music & Dance at Napo Wildlife Center @ Yasuni National Park
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::2014/07/06::
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Historia el kichwa
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::2014/02/06::
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Look in my heart - Shafy Kichwa
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::2014/02/16::
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Testimonio de madre indígena kichwa: "Hasta cuando..."
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::2014/09/06::
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Matrimonio Kichwa. "La historia del Fandango y su legado" 1
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::2014/07/29::
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Marcha Indigenas Kichwa Sarayaku en Quito
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::2013/10/17::
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kichwa Nivel Básico 1
kichwa Nivel Básico 1
::2014/08/05::
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Marcela aprende de Kichwa - Un plan en la cascada
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::2013/12/26::
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Wawas - Crianças Kichwa e Palavra Cantada
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Shiripuno Comunidad Kichwa
Shiripuno Comunidad Kichwa
::2013/12/17::
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DANZA KICHWA
DANZA KICHWA
::2014/06/20::
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Tea, Trees, and Me: Life Lessons I learned from Kichwa Shamans | Dan MacCombie | TEDxFargo
Tea, Trees, and Me: Life Lessons I learned from Kichwa Shamans | Dan MacCombie | TEDxFargo
::2014/08/27::
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41
Amazonian Kichwa wedding ceremony
Amazonian Kichwa wedding ceremony
::2014/03/09::
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Kichwa 2 Kathy Down the Bank, Back to the Boat
Kichwa 2 Kathy Down the Bank, Back to the Boat
::2014/06/25::
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43
Asociación Cultural Kichwa Otavalo
Asociación Cultural Kichwa Otavalo
::2013/11/02::
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Comunidad Kichwa de Añangu, un ejemplo de turismo comunitario
Comunidad Kichwa de Añangu, un ejemplo de turismo comunitario
::2014/07/08::
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Runashimi Online Clase 2 de 5 Variante Kichwa de Otavalo - Ecuador
Runashimi Online Clase 2 de 5 Variante Kichwa de Otavalo - Ecuador
::2014/09/06::
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46
Swahili: Kichwa cha panzi
Swahili: Kichwa cha panzi
::2009/08/12::
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47
Conoce a tu autoridad electa Kichwa
Conoce a tu autoridad electa Kichwa
::2013/04/26::
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48
Pitt in Educador Summer Program
Pitt in Educador Summer Program
::2014/07/31::
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49
Marcela aprende de Kichwa - Amigos de viaje
Marcela aprende de Kichwa - Amigos de viaje
::2013/12/26::
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50
Runasimi Online clase 2 - 14 de febrero 2014 - ( Aprender Quechua , kichwa)
Runasimi Online clase 2 - 14 de febrero 2014 - ( Aprender Quechua , kichwa)
::2014/03/02::
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Kichwa
Native to Ecuador, Colombia, Peru
Native speakers
unknown (undated figure of 2–3 million)[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Variously:
inb – Inga
inj – Jungle Inga
qvo – Napo Lowland
qup – Southern Pastaza
qud – Calderón Highland
qxr – Cañar Highland
qug – Chimborazo Highland
qvi – Imbabura Highland
qvj – Loja Highland
qvz – Northern Pastaza
qxl – Salasaca Highland
quw – Tena Lowland
Glottolog colo1257[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
Distribution of Quechua sub-groups. Kichwa is shown in blue.
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Kichwa (Kichwa shimi, Runashimi, also Spanish Quichua) is a Quechuan language which includes all Quechua varieties of Ecuador and Colombia (Inga), as well as extensions into Peru, and is spoken by 2.5 million people. The most widely spoken dialects are Chimborazo and Imbabura Highland Kichwa, with one to two million and half a million to one million speakers, respectively. Cañar Highland Quecha has 100,000–200,000 speakers; the others in the range of ten to twenty thousand. Kichwa belongs to the Northern Quechua group of Quechua II (according to Alfredo Torero).

Kichwa syntax has undergone some grammatical simplification compared to Southern Quechua, perhaps due to partial creolization with the pre-Inca languages of Ecuador.

A standardized language with a unified orthography (Kichwa Unificado, Shukyachiska Kichwa) has been developed. It is similar to Chimborazo, less some of the phonological peculiarities of that dialect.

The earliest grammatical description of Kichwa was written in the 17th century by the Jesuit priest Hernando de Alcocer.[2]

Particularities[edit]

In contrast to other regional varieties of Quechua, Kichwa does not distinguish between original ("Proto Quechua") /k/ and /q/, which are both pronounced [k]. Therefore, [e] and [o], the allophones of the vowels /i/ and /u/ near /q/, do not exist, and kiru can mean both "tooth" (kiru in Southern Quechua) and "wood" (qiru [qero] in Southern Quechua), and killa can mean both "moon" (killa) and "lazy" (qilla [qeʎa]).

Additionally, Kichwa in both Ecuador and Colombia has lost possessive and bidirectional suffixes (i.e. verbal suffixes indicating both subject and object), as well as the distinction between the exclusive and inclusive first person plural.

Examples:

  • Instead of yayayku / taytayku ("Our Father", the Lord's Prayer) Kichwa people say ñukanchik yaya / ñukanchik tayta.
  • In Kichwa, you do not say suyayki ("I wait for you"), but kanta shuyani.

On the other hand, other particularities of Quechua have been preserved. As in all varieties of Quechua, the words for 'brother' and 'sister' differ depending on whom they refer to. There are four different words for siblings: ñaña (sister of a woman), turi (brother of a woman), pani (sister of a man), and wawki (brother of a man). A woman reading "Ñuka wawki Pedromi kan" would therefore read aloud Ñuka turi Pedromi kan.

Dialects[edit]

The missionary organization FEDEPI (2006) lists eight dialects of Quechua in Ecuador, which they illustrate with the clause "the men will come in two days". (Ethnologue 16 (2009) lists nine, distinguishing Cañar from Loja Highland Quechua.) Below are the comparisons, along with Standard (Ecuadorian) Kichwa and Standard (Southern) Quechua:

Dialect ISO code Speakers per SIL (FEDEPI) Pronunciation Orthography (SIL or official) Notes
Chimborazo [qug] 1,000,000 (2,500,000) Čay k'arikunaka iški punžažapimi šamunga. Chai c'aricunaca ishqui punllallapimi shamunga. ll = "ž"
Imbabura [qvi] 300,000 (1,000,000) Čay harikunaka iškay punžapižami šamunga. Chai jaricunaca ishcai punllapillami shamunga. ll = ž
Cañar–Loja [qxr]
[qvj]
(200,000) qxr: 100,000
qxl: 15,000
Čay k'arikunaka iškay punžallapimi šamunga. Chai c'aricunaca ishcai punzhallapimi shamunga.
Salasaca [qxl] 15,000 Či k'arigunaga iški p'unžažabimi šamunga. Chi c'arigunaga ishqui p'unllallabimi shamunga. ll = ž
Calderón (Pichincha) [qud] 25,000 Čay harikunaka iškay punžapižami šamunga. Chai jaricunaca ishcai punllapillami shamunga. ll = ž
Tena Lowland [quw] 5,000 (10,000) Či kariunaga iški punžallaimi šamunga. Chi cariunaga ishqui punzhallaimi shamunga.
Napo Lowland [qvo] 4,000 Ecu. & 8,000 Peru (15,000) Či karigunaga iškay punčallaimi šamunga. Chi carigunaga ishcai punchallaimi shamunga.
Northern Pastaza [qvz] 4,000 Ecu. & 2,000 Peru (10,000) Či karigunaga iškay punžallaimi šamunga. Chi carigunaga ishcai punzhallaimi shamunga.
Standard Kichwa Čay karikunaka iškay punllallapimi šamunka. Chay karikunaka ishkay punllallapimi shamunka.
Standard Quechua (Qhichwa) Čay qharikunaqa iskay p'unčawllapim hamunqa. Chay qharikunaqa iskay p'unchawllapim hamunqa.

Hip hop music in Kichwa[edit]

A band from Ecuador, "Los Nin", which raps in Kichwa and Spanish, has toured internationally. The band hails from the town of Otavalo, which is known for its traditional music.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kichwa". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Ciucci, Luca & Pieter C. Muysken 2011. Hernando de Alcocer y la Breve declaración del Arte de la lengua del Ynga. El más antiguo manuscrito de quichua de Ecuador. Indiana 28: 359-393.
  3. ^ Manuela Picq. "Hip-hop Kichwa: Sounds of indigenous modernity". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ciucci, Luca & Pieter C. Muysken 2011. Hernando de Alcocer y la Breve declaración del Arte de la lengua del Ynga. El más antiguo manuscrito de quichua de Ecuador. Indiana 28: 359-393.

External links[edit]

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