RAND Corporation ( Research ANd Development ) is a [2 ] nonprofit global policy think tank formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces by Douglas Aircraft Company. It is financed by the U.S. government and private endowment, corporations [3 ] including the [4 ] health care industry, universities and private individuals. [5 ] The organization has expanded to work with other governments, private foundations, international organizations, and commercial organizations on a host of non-defense issues. RAND aims for interdisciplinary and quantitative problem solving via translating [6 ] theoretical concepts from formal economics and the physical sciences into novel applications in other areas, that is, via applied science and operations research. Michael D. Rich is president and chief executive officer of the RAND Corporation.
RAND has approximately 1,700 employees and three principal American locations:
Santa Monica, California (headquarters); Arlington, Virginia; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The RAND Gulf States Policy Institute has offices in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Jackson, Mississippi. RAND Europe is located in [7 ] Cambridge, United Kingdom, and Brussels, Belgium. The RAND-Qatar Policy Institute [8 ] is in [9 ] Doha, Qatar. RAND's newest office is in Boston, Massachusetts.
RAND is home to the
Frederick S. Pardee RAND Graduate School, one of the eight original graduate programs in public policy and the first to offer a Ph.D. The program aims to have practical value in that students work with RAND analysts on real-world problems. The campus is at RAND's Santa Monica research facility. The Pardee RAND School is the world's largest Ph.D.-granting program in policy analysis. Upon completion of their education, students receive an M.Phil. in public policy analysis - equivalent to a master's degree in public policy. Unlike many other universities, all Pardee RAND Graduate School students receive fellowships to cover their education costs. This allows them to dedicate their time to engage in research projects and provides them on-the-job training. [10 ] RAND also offers a number of internship and fellowship programs allowing students and outsiders to assist in conducting research for RAND projects. Most of these projects are short-term and are worked on independently with the mentoring of a RAND staff member. [11 ] [12 ]
RAND publishes the
, a RAND Journal of Economics peer-reviewed journal of economics.
Thirty-two recipients of the
Nobel Prize, primarily in the fields of economics and physics, have been involved or associated with RAND at some point in their career. [2 ] [13 ] [14 ]
Project RAND [ edit ]
Henry H. Arnold, commander of the United States Army Air Forces, established Project RAND with the objective of looking into long-range planning of future weapons. [15 ] [15 ] In March 1946 [16 ] Douglas Aircraft Company was granted the contract to research on intercontinental warfare by adopting operations research. In May 1946 the [15 ] was released. In May 1948, Project RAND separated from Douglas and became an independent Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship non-profit organization as Douglas Aircraft feared it would create conflicts of interest jeopardizing future hardware contracts. Initial capital for the split was provided by the [15 ] Ford Foundation.
History [ edit ]
Since the 1950s, RAND research has helped inform United States policy decisions on a wide variety of issues, including the space race, the U.S.-Soviet nuclear arms confrontation, the creation of the Great Society social welfare programs, the digital revolution, and national health care.
Its most visible contribution may be the doctrine of [17 ] nuclear deterrence by mutually assured destruction (MAD), developed under the guidance of then-Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and based upon their work with game theory. Chief strategist [18 ] Herman Kahn also posited the idea of a "winnable" nuclear exchange in his 1960 book . This led to Kahn being one of the models for the titular character of the film On Thermonuclear War . Dr. Strangelove [19 ] [20 ]
Mission statement [ edit ]
RAND was incorporated as a non-profit organization to "further promote scientific, educational, and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare and security of the United States of America". Its self-declared mission is "to help improve policy and decision making through research and analysis", using its "core values of quality and objectivity".
Achievements and expertise [ edit ]
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The achievements of RAND stem from its development of
systems analysis. Important contributions are claimed in space systems and the United States' space program, in computing and in artificial intelligence. RAND researchers developed many of the principles that were used to build the Internet. RAND also contributed to the development and use of wargaming.
Current areas of expertise include: child policy,
civil and criminal justice, education, health, international policy, labor markets, national security, infrastructure, energy, environment, corporate governance, economic development, intelligence policy, long-range planning, crisis management and disaster preparation, population and regional studies, science and technology, social welfare, terrorism, arts policy, and transportation.
RAND designed and conducted one of the largest and most important studies of health insurance between 1974 and 1982. The
RAND Health Insurance Experiment, funded by the then-U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established an insurance corporation to compare demand for health services with their cost to the patient.
According to the 2005 annual report, "about one-half of RAND's research involves national security issues". Many of the events in which RAND plays a part are based on assumptions which are hard to verify because of the lack of detail on RAND's highly classified work for defense and intelligence agencies. The RAND Corporation posts all of its unclassified reports in full on its website.
Notable participants [ edit ]
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Henry H. "Hap" Arnold: General, United States Air Force
Kenneth Arrow: economist, won the Nobel Prize in Economics, developed the impossibility theorem in social choice theory
Bruno Augenstein: V.P., physicist, mathematician and space scientist
Robert Aumann: mathematician, game theorist, won the Nobel Prize in Economics.
J. Paul Austin: Chairman of the Board, 1972–1981
Paul Baran: one of the developers of packet switching which was used in Arpanet and later networks like the Internet
Richard Bellman: Mathematician known for his work on dynamic programming
Barry Boehm: worked in interactive computer graphics with the RAND Corporation in the 1960s and had helped define the Arpanet in the early phases of that program [22 ]
Harold L. Brode: physicist, leading nuclear weapons effects expert
Bernard Brodie: Military strategist and nuclear architect
Samuel Cohen: inventor of the neutron bomb in 1958 [23 ]
Franklin R. Collbohm: Aviation engineer, Douglas Aircraft Company, RAND founder and former director and trustee. [24 ]
Walter Cunningham: astronaut
George Dantzig: mathematician, creator of the simplex algorithm for linear programming
Linda Darling-Hammond: co-director, School Redesign Network
James F. Digby: American military strategist, author of first treatise on precision guided munitions 1949–2007 [25 ]
Stephen H. Dole: Author of the book Habitable Planets for Man [26 ] [27 ]
Donald Wills Douglas, Sr.: President, Douglas Aircraft Company, RAND founder
Hubert Dreyfus: philosopher and critic of artificial intelligence
Daniel Ellsberg: economist and leaker of the Pentagon Papers
Francis Fukuyama: academic and author of The End of History and the Last Man
Horace Rowan Gaither: Chairman of the Board, 1949–1959, 1960–1961; known for the Gaither Report.
David Galula, French officer and scholar
James J. Gillogly: cryptographer and computer scientist
Cecil Hastings: Wrote "Approximations for Digital Computers" It has been estimated that this research saved enough machine time and memory (measured in dollar value) to have financed Project RAND for 15 years.
Karen Elliott House: Chairman of the Board, 2009–present, former publisher, The ; Former Senior Vice President, Wall Street Journal Dow Jones & Company, Inc.
Brian Michael Jenkins: terrorism expert, Senior Advisor to the President of the RAND Corporation, and author of Unconquerable Nation
Herman Kahn: theorist on nuclear war and one of the founders of scenario planning
Konrad Kellen: research analyst and author, co-wrote open letter to U.S. government in 1969 recommending withdrawal from Vietnam war [28 ]
Zalmay Khalilzad: U.S. ambassador to United Nations
Henry Kissinger: United States Secretary of State (1973–1977); National Security Advisor (1969–1975); Nobel Peace Prize Winner (1973)
Ann McLaughlin Korologos: Chairman of the Board, April 2004 – 2009; Chairman Emeritus, The Aspen Institute
Lewis "Scooter" Libby: United States Vice-President Dick Cheney's former Chief of Staff
Ray Mabus: Former ambassador, governor
Harry Markowitz: economist, greatly advanced financial portfolio theory by devising mean variance analysis, Nobel Prize in Economics
Andrew W. Marshall: military strategist, director of the U.S. DoD Office of Net Assessment
Margaret Mead: U.S. anthropologist
Douglas Merrill: former Google CIO & President of EMI's digital music division
Newton N. Minow: Chairman of the board, 1970–1972
Lloyd N. Morrisett: Chairman of the board, 1986–1995
John Forbes Nash, Jr.: mathematician, won the Nobel Prize in Economics
John von Neumann: mathematician, pioneer of the modern digital computer
Allen Newell: artificial intelligence
Paul O'Neill: Chairman of the board, 1997–2000
Edmund Phelps: winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Economics
Arthur E. Raymond: Chief engineer, Douglas Aircraft Company, RAND founder
Condoleezza Rice: former intern, former trustee (1991–1997), and former Secretary of State for the United States
Michael D. Rich: RAND President and Chief Executive Officer, Nov. 1, 2011–present
Leo Rosten: academic and humorist, helped set up the social sciences division of RAND [29 ]
Donald Rumsfeld: Chairman of board from 1981 to 1986; 1995–1996 and secretary of defense for the United States from 1975 to 1977 and 2001 to 2006.
Robert M. Salter: advocate of the vactrain maglev train concept
Paul Samuelson: economist, Nobel Prize in Economics
Thomas C. Schelling: economist, won the 2005 Nobel Prize in Economics
James Schlesinger: former secretary of defense and former secretary of energy
Norman Shapiro: mathematician, co-author of the Rice–Shapiro theorem, MH Email and RAND-Abel co-designer
Lloyd Shapley: mathematician and game theorist, won the Nobel Prize in Economics
Cliff Shaw: inventor of the linked list and co-author of the first artificial intelligence program
Abram Shulsky: former Director of the Pentagon's Office of Special Plans [30 ]
Herbert Simon: Political scientist, psychologist, won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Economics
James P Smith: health economist
Frank Stanton: Chairman of the Board, 1961–1967 [31 ]
James Steinberg: Deputy National Security Advisor to Bill Clinton
Peter Szanton: policy analyst and former head of RAND operations in New York City [32 ]
Ratan Tata: Chairman Emeritus of Tata Sons [33 ]
James Thomson: RAND president and CEO, 1989 – Oct. 31, 2011
Willis Ware: JOHNNIAC co-designer, and early computer privacy pioneer
William H. Webster: Chairman of the Board, 1959–1960
Albert Wohlstetter: mathematician and Cold-War strategist
Roberta Wohlstetter: policy analyst and military historian
Oliver Williamson: economist, won the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economics
Over the last 60 years, more than 30
Nobel Prize winners have been involved or associated with the RAND Corporation at some point in their careers. [2 ]
Criticism [ edit ]
In 1958 Democratic Senator
Stuart Symington accused the RAND Corporation of defeatism for studying how the United States might strategically surrender to an enemy power. This led to the passage of a prohibition on the spending of tax dollars on the study of defeat or surrender of any kind. However, the senator had apparently misunderstood, as the report was a survey of past cases in which the United States had demanded unconditional surrender of its enemies, asking whether or not this had been a more favorable outcome to U.S. interests than an earlier, negotiated surrender would have been. In any case, research continued, except RAND carefully avoided using the word "surrender". [34 ] [35 ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ About the RAND Corporation — RAND at a Glance , retrieved 2012-06-06
^ a b c d The Rand Corporation. "History and Mission". RAND Corporation . Retrieved 2008-04-15.
^ RAND's private endowment
^ Corporate contributors on RAND's website
^ Major Clients and Grantors of RAND Research | RAND
^ for RAND's individual contributions see Finance
^ RAND Gulf States Policy Institute website
^ RAND Europe website
^ RAND-Qatar Policy Institute website
^ PRGS at a Glance | Pardee RAND Graduate School. Prgs.edu. Retrieved on 2014-02-21.
^ PRGS at a Glance | Pardee RAND Graduate School. Prgs.edu. Retrieved on 2014-02-21.
^ at a Glance. RAND (2013-12-31). Retrieved on 2014-02-21.
^ Brigette Sarabi, "Oregon: The Rand Report on Measure 11 is Finally Available", (formerly Partnership for Safety and Justice Western Prison Project), January 1, 2005. Retrieved on April 15, 2008.
^ Harvard University Institute of Politics. "Guide for Political Internships". Harvard University . Retrieved 2008-04-18.
^ a b c d Johnson, Stephen B. (2002). The United States Air Force and the Culture of Innovation 1945–1965. Diane Publishing Co. p. 32. ISBN 978-0756739966.
^ RAND History and Mission. Accessed 13 April 2009.
^ Jardini, David R. (2013). . p. 10. Thinking Through the Cold War: RAND, National Security and Domestic Policy, 1945-1975
^ Twing, Steven W. (1998). . Lynne Rienner Publishers. Myths, models & U.S. foreign policy ISBN 1-55587-766-4.
^ Hanks, Robert (19 December 2007). "The Week In Radio: The think tank for unthinkable thoughts". The Independent . Retrieved 2009-06-24.
^ Kaplan, Fred (10 October 2004). "Truth Stranger Than 'Strangelove. '" New York Times . Retrieved 2009-06-24.
^ Life Magazine, 25 February 1957, "Passing of a Great Mind", by Clay Bair JR. pages 89–104
^ Alex Roland and Philip Shiman, Strategic Computing: DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983–1993, The MIT Press, 2002, p. 302
^ Nina Tannenwald, The Nuclear Taboo: The United States and the Non-Use of Nuclear Weapons Since 1945, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK), 2007, p. 138-139
^ APPublished: February 14, 1990 (1990-02-14). "F. R. Collbohm, 83, Ex-Head of Rand, Dies - New York Times". Nytimes.com . Retrieved 2013-06-14.
^ By WILLIAM J. BROADPublished: January 21, 1991 (1991-01-21). "WAR IN THE GULF: HIGH TECH; War Hero Status Possible for the Computer Chip - New York Times". Nytimes.com . Retrieved 2013-06-14.
^ "Habitable Planets for man (6.4 MB PDF)". RAND Corporation (free PDFs).
^ Noland, Claire (April 12, 2007). "Konrad Kellen, 93; Rand researcher studied Vietnam War and urged withdrawal of troops". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 11, 2013 . Retrieved July 13, 2013.
^ "The Wizards of Armageddon - Fred M. Kaplan - Google Boeken". Books.google.nl . Retrieved 2013-06-14.
^ Seymour M. Hersh (12 May 2003). "Selective Intelligence — Donald Rumsfeld has his own special sources. Are they reliable?". . The New Yorker
^ "RAND and the Information Evolution: A History in Essays and Vignettes - Willis H. Ware, Peter Chalk, Richard Warnes, Lindsay Clutterbuck, Aidan Kirby Winn, Sheila Nataraj Kirby - Google Boeken". Books.google.nl . Retrieved 2013-06-14.
^ Jennifer S. Light, From Warfare to Welfare: Defense Intellectuals and Urban Problems in Cold War America, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003, p. 69-70
^ Ratan Tata is chairman emeritus of Tata Sons - The Times of India. Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-18.
^ Poundstone, W. (1992). Prisoner's Dilemma. Doubleday.
^ Wired 9.03: Founding Father. Wired.com. Retrieved on 2014-02-21.
Further reading [ edit ]
Alex Abella. Soldiers of Reason: The RAND Corporation and the Rise of the American Empire (2008, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt hardcover; ISBN 0-15-101081-1 / 2009, Mariner Books paperback reprint edition; ISBN 0-15-603344-5).
S.M. Amadae. Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy: The Cold War Origins of Rational Choice Liberalism (2003, University Of Chicago Press paperback; ISBN 0-226-01654-4 / hardcover; ISBN 0-226-01653-6).
Martin J. Collins. Cold War Laboratory: RAND, the Air Force, and the American State, 1945–1950 (2002, Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press hardcover, part of the Smithsonian History of Aviation and Spaceflight Series; ISBN 1-58834-086-4)
Agatha C. Hughes and Thomas P. Hughes (editors). Systems, Experts, and Computers: The Systems Approach in Management and Engineering, World War II and After (2000, The MIT Press hardcover, part of the Dibner Institute Studies in the History of Science and Technology; ISBN 0-262-08285-3 / 2011, paperback reprint edition; ISBN 0-262-51604-7). David Jardini.
Thinking Through the Cold War: RAND, National Security and Domestic Policy, 1945-1975 (2013, Smashwords; Amazon Kindle; ISBN 9781301158515).
Fred Kaplan. The Wizards of Armageddon (1983, Simon and Schuster hardcover, first printing; ISBN 0-671-42444-0 / 1991, Stanford University Press paperback, part of the Stanford Nuclear Age Series; ISBN 0-8047-1884-9).
Edward S. Quade and Wayne I. Boucher (editors), Systems Analysis and Policy Planning: Applications in Defense (1968, American Elsevier hardcover).
Bruce L.R. Smith. The RAND Corporation: Case Study of a Nonprofit Advisory Corporation (1966, Harvard University Press / 1969; ISBN 0-674-74850-6).
Mark Trachtenberg. History and Strategy (1991, Princeton University Press paperback; ISBN 0-691-02343-3 / hardcover; ISBN 0-691-07881-5).
Jean Loup Samaan. La Rand Corporation (2013, Cestudec Press Amazon Kindle ;
Articles [ edit ]
Clifford, Peggy, ed.
"RAND and The City: Part One". , October 27, 1999 – November 2, 1999. Five-part series includes: Santa Monica Mirror 1; 2; 3; 4; & 5. Accessed 15 April 2008. Specht, R.D. "Rand: A Personal View of Its History,"
Operations Research, vol. 8, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1960), pp. 825-839. In JSTOR
External links [ edit ]