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MI RUTINA DE NOCHE SALUDABLE y VEGANA ✨🌙
MI RUTINA DE NOCHE SALUDABLE y VEGANA ✨🌙
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Rawvana
SMITE - God Reveal - Ravana, The Demon King of Lanka
SMITE - God Reveal - Ravana, The Demon King of Lanka
Published: 2015/07/01
Channel: SMITE by Hi-Rez Studios
FFXIV OST - Ravana
FFXIV OST - Ravana's Theme
Published: 2015/06/20
Channel: dudewhereismyspoon
Smite: UNKILLABLE!- (Buffed) Ravana Solo PTS Gameplay
Smite: UNKILLABLE!- (Buffed) Ravana Solo PTS Gameplay
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: theSmagann
Sri Lankan Great King Ravana Full Documentary මහා රාවණ පුරාණය
Sri Lankan Great King Ravana Full Documentary මහා රාවණ පුරාණය
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: Mate
Ravana Facts Secrets and Truth रावण का हिला देने वाला सच जिसे सुन आप भी रावण का सम्मान करेंगे
Ravana Facts Secrets and Truth रावण का हिला देने वाला सच जिसे सुन आप भी रावण का सम्मान करेंगे
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: MyIndia
PLAN ALIMENTICIO CRUDIVEGANO PARA BAJAR DE PESO🥑
PLAN ALIMENTICIO CRUDIVEGANO PARA BAJAR DE PESO🥑
Published: 2017/08/01
Channel: Rawvana
SMITE - God Reveal: Ravana, The Demon King of Lanka
SMITE - God Reveal: Ravana, The Demon King of Lanka
Published: 2015/07/01
Channel: GameSpot Trailers
මැණික්දෙන කැලේදී මිරැන්ඩෝ ඔබේසේකර රාවණ රජුව සියැසින් දකියි - Kingdom of King Ravana
මැණික්දෙන කැලේදී මිරැන්ඩෝ ඔබේසේකර රාවණ රජුව සියැසින් දකියි - Kingdom of King Ravana
Published: 2017/05/13
Channel: Vishwa Karma
RAVANA RANKED SUPPORT: CARRYING A QUALIFIER AS SUPPORT! - Incon - Smite
RAVANA RANKED SUPPORT: CARRYING A QUALIFIER AS SUPPORT! - Incon - Smite
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Incon
5 - Incredible & Unknown Facts about Ravana PART 2 | INDIAN MYTHOLOGY SERIES | SC#194
5 - Incredible & Unknown Facts about Ravana PART 2 | INDIAN MYTHOLOGY SERIES | SC#194
Published: 2017/02/07
Channel: Simbly Chumma
SMITE: RAVANA BUFF! | New Build for Jungle & Solo
SMITE: RAVANA BUFF! | New Build for Jungle & Solo
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: DukeSloth
Smite: Assassin Ravana Build - I
Smite: Assassin Ravana Build - I'M GOING TO CARRY YOU PLEBS!
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: soloDoubleJ
Why Rama Did Penance After Killing Ravana
Why Rama Did Penance After Killing Ravana
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: Sadhguru
COMIENDO VEGANO CON 25 PESOS AL DÍA | FACIL y SALUDABLE
COMIENDO VEGANO CON 25 PESOS AL DÍA | FACIL y SALUDABLE
Published: 2017/06/06
Channel: Rawvana
Ravana Kumbhkaran Conversation
Ravana Kumbhkaran Conversation
Published: 2013/10/23
Channel: Sita Ram
King Ravana`s Palace at Sri Lanka
King Ravana`s Palace at Sri Lanka
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: san an
About Ravana
About Ravana
Published: 2015/10/05
Channel: choniltv
Srilanka real evidence of ravana dead
Srilanka real evidence of ravana dead
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: kadari Ramprasad
රාවණ රජුගේ මෘත දේහය තිබෙන පෙට්ටිගල - Ravana   The Legendary Emperor of Sri Lanka
රාවණ රජුගේ මෘත දේහය තිබෙන පෙට්ටිගල - Ravana The Legendary Emperor of Sri Lanka
Published: 2016/12/25
Channel: Vishwa Karma
Ravana Ranked: THIS DAMAGE IS INSANE - Smite
Ravana Ranked: THIS DAMAGE IS INSANE - Smite
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: Weak3n
Woman Goes In Search Of King Ravana
Woman Goes In Search Of King Ravana
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: Hiru News
Smite: BRUTALITY!- Eliminator (Removed Skin) Ravana Solo Gameplay
Smite: BRUTALITY!- Eliminator (Removed Skin) Ravana Solo Gameplay
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: theSmagann
Untold story of Ravana!
Untold story of Ravana!
Published: 2013/10/13
Channel: Zee News
FFXIV OST Ravana Theme  Final Phase ( Unbending Steel )
FFXIV OST Ravana Theme Final Phase ( Unbending Steel )
Published: 2015/06/19
Channel: Mekkah Dee
One of the Underground Kingdoms of King Ravana - with english subtitles
One of the Underground Kingdoms of King Ravana - with english subtitles
Published: 2012/12/22
Channel: Sidath Sameera
SMITE - Ravana, The Dank King of Bitchslap
SMITE - Ravana, The Dank King of Bitchslap
Published: 2015/08/15
Channel: Sharkey
සිහිමුර්ජාවෙන් අවදිවන රාවණා | One of the Underground Kingdoms of King Ravana
සිහිමුර්ජාවෙන් අවදිවන රාවණා | One of the Underground Kingdoms of King Ravana
Published: 2017/01/04
Channel: ලොව වටා - Around the world
Lord Ravana King
Lord Ravana King's Dead body found in srilanka with Full gold || 2016
Published: 2016/02/25
Channel: Mr.India Creative Works
Ravana - Full Movie In 15 Mins - Hindi Animation Movies
Ravana - Full Movie In 15 Mins - Hindi Animation Movies
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Shemaroo
Ravana - Erandi Madushika (Derana eTunes)
Ravana - Erandi Madushika (Derana eTunes)
Published: 2017/07/04
Channel: eTunes
ELIMINATOR RAVANA REMOVED FROM SMITE! Mortal Kombat Scorpion Copyright
ELIMINATOR RAVANA REMOVED FROM SMITE! Mortal Kombat Scorpion Copyright
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: DukeSloth
Secrets Behind The Ravana Historicity (The King Of Ravana)|రావణు గురించి మీకు తెలియని నిజాలు
Secrets Behind The Ravana Historicity (The King Of Ravana)|రావణు గురించి మీకు తెలియని నిజాలు
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: Planet Leaf
RAVANA MID: BUFFED RAVANA ULT CARRIES GAMES - Incon - Smite
RAVANA MID: BUFFED RAVANA ULT CARRIES GAMES - Incon - Smite
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: Incon
Smite: Fists of Fury- Ravana Solo Gameplay
Smite: Fists of Fury- Ravana Solo Gameplay
Published: 2017/07/31
Channel: theSmagann
Real Proof Of King Ravana`s Palace At Sri Lanka
Real Proof Of King Ravana`s Palace At Sri Lanka
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: LOGICAL INDIANS
Palace of King Ravana...Ramayan is a true story.
Palace of King Ravana...Ramayan is a true story.
Published: 2013/06/15
Channel: Harish Matabonu
King Ravana`s Body Found
King Ravana`s Body Found
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: ding dong
PALACE OF RAVANA IN SRILANKA MUST WATCH DONT MISS IT
PALACE OF RAVANA IN SRILANKA MUST WATCH DONT MISS IT
Published: 2014/11/16
Channel: comedy
RAVANA, ESTO PEGA DEMASIADO! El mejor dios en la jungla?  | Liga Conquest
RAVANA, ESTO PEGA DEMASIADO! El mejor dios en la jungla? | Liga Conquest
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: Dheylo
SMITE! Ravana, Mostrando todo su potencial! Siege #37
SMITE! Ravana, Mostrando todo su potencial! Siege #37
Published: 2015/07/25
Channel: Warchiwar
MAHA RAVANA | SIYATHA FM - EPISODE 90
MAHA RAVANA | SIYATHA FM - EPISODE 90
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: Siyatha FM
RAVANA MID: RAVANA WORKS AS A MID LANE?!? - Incon - Smite
RAVANA MID: RAVANA WORKS AS A MID LANE?!? - Incon - Smite
Published: 2017/02/04
Channel: Incon
Ravana, por fin una partida con gente buena! | Liga Conquest
Ravana, por fin una partida con gente buena! | Liga Conquest
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Dheylo
ravana song- Song for king Ravana by Ravana Brothers
ravana song- Song for king Ravana by Ravana Brothers
Published: 2012/06/17
Channel: Ravana Brothers
SMITE! Ravana, Cuando crees que no y si! GM Conquest #44
SMITE! Ravana, Cuando crees que no y si! GM Conquest #44
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Warchiwar
आज भी मौजूद है रावण का शव, इस जगह हर रात होता है ऐसा | ‘Ravana’ Body Still Present, Evidence Found
आज भी मौजूद है रावण का शव, इस जगह हर रात होता है ऐसा | ‘Ravana’ Body Still Present, Evidence Found
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: NEXT9NEWS हर खबर आप तक
parumaka ravana
parumaka ravana
Published: 2013/06/21
Channel: Ravana Brothers
Bahubali Vs Bhallaladeva as Rama and Ravana Finger Family Baahubali Songs for Kids Bad Baby Crying
Bahubali Vs Bhallaladeva as Rama and Ravana Finger Family Baahubali Songs for Kids Bad Baby Crying
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: SmileWorld
කොත්මලයේ පිහිටි රාවණා රජුගේ මෘතදේහය - Mysterious Evidence Of Ravana In Sri Lanka
කොත්මලයේ පිහිටි රාවණා රජුගේ මෘතදේහය - Mysterious Evidence Of Ravana In Sri Lanka
Published: 2016/07/12
Channel: Vishwa Karma
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Ravana
रावण
இராவணன்
Ravana British Museum.jpg
Statue of Ravana from 18th century CE
Other names Dashagriva or Dashanana (Ten-headed)
Predecessor Kubera
Successor Vibhishana
Personal Information
Spouse
Children
Parents
Siblings

Ravana (IAST: Rāvaṇa; /ˈrɑːvənə/;[1] Sanskrit: रावण) is the primary antagonist in the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana where he is depicted as Rakshasa (demon) the Great king of Lanka.[a][2][3] Ramayana is considered by the Indian traditions to be the itihasa or the history along with Mahabharata. Ravana is the son of Vishrava and Kaikesi and grandson of Pulastya.

Ravana, a devotee of Lord Shiva, is depicted and described as a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the veena (plucked stringed instrument). He is also described as extremely powerful and has ten heads. His paramount ambition was to overpower and dominate the devas. His ten heads represent his knowledge of the six shastras and the four Vedas. In the Ramayana, Ravana kidnaps Rama's wife Sita to exact vengeance on Rama and his brother Lakshmana for having cut off the ears and nose of his sister Shurpanakha.[4]

Ravana, as a practitioner of Buddhism, is a major character in Buddhist texts such as the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra and the Gathering of Intentions, a text of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.[5]

Ravana is worshipped by Hindus in some parts of India, Sri Lanka and Bali (in Indonesia.)[6][7][8] He is considered to be the most revered devotee of Shiva. Images of Ravana are seen associated with Shiva at some places.

Etymology[edit]

Statue of Ravana at Koneswaram Temple, Sri Lanka.

The word Rāvaṇa means roaring opposite of Vaiśravaṇa meaning "hear distinctly" (passive).[9] Both Ravana and Vaiśravaṇa, who is popularly known as Kubera, are considered to be patronymics derived as sons of Vishrava.[10]

According to F. E. Pargiter, the word may originally have been a Sanskritisation of Iraivan, the Tamil name for a lord or king.[11][12]

Iconography[edit]

Ravana was capable of ten things.People showed these things by giving 10 heads for his memories. But Ravana is depicted as having ten heads, although sometimes he is shown with only nine heads because he has sacrificed a head to convince Shiva. However, in some stories in Java told that every year, Ravana cuts one of his heads every year and presents it to Shiva as representative of his devotion. Each head was reflecting his desire. By cutting it and presenting it, he was sacrificing one of his many desires to appease Shiva. He kept doing it every year until the last one. Turned out the last head was considered as the true head of Ravana and Shiva considered his devoutness is a worthy one and his sacrifices were accepted.[citation needed] He is described as a devout follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the Veena. Ravana is also depicted as the author of the Ravana Samhita, a book on Hindu astrology, and of the Arka Prakasham, a book on Siddha medicine and treatment. Ravana possessed a thorough knowledge of Siddha and political science. He is said to have possessed the nectar of immortality, which was stored inside his belly, thanks to a celestial boon by Brahma.[13][page needed]

Depiction in the Ramayana[edit]

Ravana fights Jatayu as he carries off the kidnapped Sita. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma.

Ravana was born to a great sage, Vishrava (or Vesamuni) and his wife, the daitya princess Kaikesi. People of Bisrakh village in Uttar Pradesh claim that their village was named after Vishrava and that Ravana was born there.[14]

Ravana in Sanskrit drama of Kerala, India- Kutiyattam. Artist: Guru Nātyāchārya Māni Mādhava Chākyār[15]

In Buddhism[edit]

Ravana, as a practitioner of Buddhism, is a major character in Buddhist texts such as the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra and the Gathering of Intentions, a text of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.[16]

Historicity[edit]

According to Uttara Kanda section of Ramayana, the Rakshasa (also known as Raksha) clan were the inhabitants of Lanka. The Raksha vanish from history after their mention in the Ramayana, except in Sri Lankan folk stories. European scholars[which?] consider the story of Ravana and the Raksha to have been made in historic times, due to knowledge of Sri Lankan locations mentioned in the stories and therefore the story is considered not to be based on fact.[17]

Temples Related With Ravana[edit]

Thotsakan(Ravana)'s sculpture as a guardian of Wat Phra Kaew, Thailand

There are some Shiva temples where Ravana is worshipped.[18][19][20]

Koneswaram temple, Dhen-Dakshina Kailasam is a classical-medieval Hindu temple complex in Trincomalee, a Hindu religious pilgrimage centre in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. This temples is associated with Ravana and his mother. They had worshiped Shiva at the shrine.[citation needed]

Kanniya Hot water spring in Sri Lanka has the history from King Ravana era. It says that King Ravana stuck the earth with his sword in several spots for his mother's funeral event and several fountains were started on those places. The water was hot and it is now a tourist attraction in Sri Lanka.[citation needed]

The Sachora Brahmins of Gujarat claim descent from Ravana and sometimes have Ravan as their surname.[21]

There is also reference to the Ravani lineage of Upadhyaya Yasastrata II, who was of Gautama gotra and was a son of Acharya Vasudatta, and described as born of Ravani.[22][full citation needed]

Alternate Ramayanas[edit]

The Battle at Lanka, Ramayana by Sahibdin. It depicts monkey army of the protagonist Rama(top left, blue figure) fighting Ravana—the demon-king of Lanka—to save Rama's kidnapped wife Sita. The painting depicts multiple events in the battle against the three-headed demon general Trishira, in bottom left. Trishira is beheaded by Hanuman, monkey-companion of Rama.

Thai Versions[edit]

In Thai text, Ramakien, an epic influenced by the Ramayana, Ravana is a yaksa or a rakshasa.[23][need quotation to verify]. In the same text sometimes Ravana is also considered an asura. The Thai names for Ravana, among others, are Rapanasur ("the Asura Ravana"), Totsapak ("One with ten faces") or., more popularly, Totsakan ("One with ten necks").

Burmese Version[edit]

Yawana or Datha-giri, in the Burmese unofficial national epic Yama Zatdaw.

Jain Version[edit]

Jain accounts vary from the traditional Hindu accounts of Ramayana. The incidents are placed at the time of the 20th Tirthankara, Munisuvrata. According to Jain version, both Rama as well as Ravana were devout Jains.[24] Ravana was a Vidyadhara King having magical powers.[25] Also, as per the Jain accounts, Ravana was killed by Lakshmana and not Rama.[26]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Identified by many with modern-day Sri Lanka

Citations

  1. ^ "Ravana". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ Mani, Vettam (1975). Puranic Encyclopaedia: A Comprehensive Dictionary With Special Reference to the Epic and Puranic Literature. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 354. ISBN 0-8426-0822-2. 
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webster. 1999. p. 909. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0. 
  4. ^ Rao, Desiraju Hanumanta. "Valmiki Ramayana – Aranya Kanda – Sarga 18, Verse: 3-18-22". www.valmikiramayan.net. Retrieved 2016-10-27. 
  5. ^ Dalton, Jacob (2016). The Gathering of Intentions. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 20–21. 
  6. ^ "Only the elderly come to mourn Ravana in 'birthplace' Bisrakh". The Indian Express. 2014-10-04. Retrieved 2016-06-14. 
  7. ^ "Ravana in Noida: A book on Greater Noida". hindustantimes.com. 2014-03-15. Retrieved 2016-06-14. 
  8. ^ "Bisrakh seeks funds for Ravan temple – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2016-06-14. 
  9. ^ Aiyangar Narayan (1909) "Essays On Indo-Aryan Mythology-Vol.", p.413
  10. ^ MW Sanskrit Digital Dictionary p. 1026
  11. ^ Roy, Janmajit (2002-01-01). Theory of Avatāra and Divinity of Chaitanya. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 9788126901692. 
  12. ^ "Early Tamils of Ilangai". Scribd. Retrieved 2016-09-05. (ravana was not a Tamil king)
  13. ^ Ramayana By Valmiki; Ramcharitmas by Tulsidasa (Lanka Kanda Vibhishana & Rama Samvaad)
  14. ^ "?". IBN Live. Archived from the original on 12 September 2014. 
  15. ^ Māni Mādhava Chākyār (1996). Nātyakalpadrumam. Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi. p.6
  16. ^ Dalton, Jacob (2016). The Gathering of Intentions. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 20–21. 
  17. ^ H. Parker (1909). Ancient Ceylon. New Dehli: Asian Educational Services. 7.
  18. ^ Ravana has his temples, too. The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum. 21 October 2007.
  19. ^ Vachaspati.S, Ravana Brahma [in English], 2005, Rudrakavi Sahitya Peetham, Gandhi Nagar, Tenali, India.
  20. ^ Kamalesh Kumar Dave, Dashanan [in Hindi], 2008, Akshaya Jyotish Anusandan Kendra, Quila Road, Jodhpur, India.
  21. ^ People of India: A – G., Volume 4. Oxford Univ. Press. p. 3061. 
  22. ^ Indian Culture: Journal of the Indian Research Institute, Volume 15 By I.B. Corporation
  23. ^ Vyas, Lallan Prasad. Prachi Darshan. p. 98. 
  24. ^ Sharma, S.R. (1940), Jainism and Karnataka Culture, Dharwar: Karnatak Historical Research Society, p. 76 
  25. ^ Dalal, Roshen (2010), Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide, India: Penguin Books, p. 338, ISBN 978-0-14-341421-6 
  26. ^ Ramanujan, A.K. (1991). "Three hundred Rāmāyaṇas: Five examples and Three thoughts on Translation". In Paula Richman. Many Rāmāyaṇas: The Diversity of a Narrative Tradition in South Asia. University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-520-07589-4. 

Bibliography

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Kubera
Emperor of Lanka Succeeded by
Vibhisana

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