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Advancing Real Time Graphics
Advancing Real Time Graphics
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: Art by Rens
Unity Engine Demo - Full Real Time Rendered "Adam" Short Film (Realistic Graphics)
Unity Engine Demo - Full Real Time Rendered "Adam" Short Film (Realistic Graphics)
Published: 2016/07/25
Channel: Punish
The best of real-time GPU rendering
The best of real-time GPU rendering
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: GinBlog82
Real Time Graphics in Pixar Film Production
Real Time Graphics in Pixar Film Production
Published: 2016/09/05
Channel: FX HIVE EVOLUTION
Motion Path: Advancing real-time 3D graphics
Motion Path: Advancing real-time 3D graphics
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Avid
Nvidia FaceWorks 2016 Virtual Reality Using Real Time Graphics
Nvidia FaceWorks 2016 Virtual Reality Using Real Time Graphics
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: Reality Check VR
The Evolution Of Real Time PC Graphics
The Evolution Of Real Time PC Graphics
Published: 2013/01/28
Channel: TheSchiitShow
Euclideon Makes World’s Most Realistic Graphics
Euclideon Makes World’s Most Realistic Graphics
Published: 2014/09/19
Channel: EuclideonOfficial
Real Time 3D Fluid and Particle Simulation and Rendering
Real Time 3D Fluid and Particle Simulation and Rendering
Published: 2009/03/21
Channel: nvidiacuda
Unlimited Detail Real-Time Rendering Technology Preview 2011 [HD]
Unlimited Detail Real-Time Rendering Technology Preview 2011 [HD]
Published: 2011/08/01
Channel: EuclideonOfficial
Blender Eevee - Rendering Fluid Simulation in Real-Time
Blender Eevee - Rendering Fluid Simulation in Real-Time
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: VFX Mastro
Real-time computer graphics
Real-time computer graphics
Published: 2017/08/09
Channel: Search Engine
First Look at Eevee: Blender
First Look at Eevee: Blender's Realtime Rendering Engine
Published: 2017/06/03
Channel: Remington Graphics
BundleFusion: Real-time Globally Consistent 3D Reconstruction using On-the-fly Surface Reintegration
BundleFusion: Real-time Globally Consistent 3D Reconstruction using On-the-fly Surface Reintegration
Published: 2016/04/05
Channel: Matthias Niessner
Real-Time VS Non Real-Time [Computer Graphics]
Real-Time VS Non Real-Time [Computer Graphics]
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Syakir Zufayri
Jules Urbach explains OTOY
Jules Urbach explains OTOY's real-time graphics rendering
Published: 2008/07/09
Channel: TechCrunch
Proceedural Geometry for Real Time Graphics
Proceedural Geometry for Real Time Graphics
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: Microsoft Research
CppCon 2017: Nicolas Guillemot “Design Patterns for Low-Level Real-Time Rendering”
CppCon 2017: Nicolas Guillemot “Design Patterns for Low-Level Real-Time Rendering”
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: CppCon
Real Time Rendering in Sketchup! Enscape 3D
Real Time Rendering in Sketchup! Enscape 3D
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Show It Better
Ancient Real Time Computer Graphics Demonstrations
Ancient Real Time Computer Graphics Demonstrations
Published: 2012/09/24
Channel: David Bremner
real time graphics
real time graphics
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: Stefanos Papadas
A Real-Time Rendered Future: McLaren, NASA, Disney | GDC 2016 Event Coverage | Unreal Engine
A Real-Time Rendered Future: McLaren, NASA, Disney | GDC 2016 Event Coverage | Unreal Engine
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: Unreal Engine
Unity 5 vs Unreal Engine 4 in Real Time Computer Graphics (RTCG)
Unity 5 vs Unreal Engine 4 in Real Time Computer Graphics (RTCG)
Published: 2016/10/09
Channel: atikahayy0208
OpenGL realtime graphics
OpenGL realtime graphics
Published: 2014/05/11
Channel: Martin Jambor
Opel GT | Real time rendering on Titan
Opel GT | Real time rendering on Titan
Published: 2014/01/04
Channel: Rogério Perdiz
Jules Urbach explains OTOY
Jules Urbach explains OTOY's real-time graphics rendering
Published: 2008/07/08
Channel: TechCrunch
G3(B): Real-Time vs Non Real-Time Computer Graphics
G3(B): Real-Time vs Non Real-Time Computer Graphics
Published: 2016/09/30
Channel: Shukri Manaf
Real time 3D Live - iClone 5.5 SPECIAL
Real time 3D Live - iClone 5.5 SPECIAL
Published: 2013/08/08
Channel: Reallusion
Free real time rendering with SimLab Composer Lite
Free real time rendering with SimLab Composer Lite
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: SimLab Soft
Real-time Rendering of Animated Light Fields
Real-time Rendering of Animated Light Fields
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: DisneyResearchHub
3d Game Engine Design A Practical Approach To Real Time Computer Graphics
3d Game Engine Design A Practical Approach To Real Time Computer Graphics
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Zhao Benshan
Real Time Graphics - OpenGL Renderer
Real Time Graphics - OpenGL Renderer
Published: 2015/05/26
Channel: Aidan Riley
Avatar Digitization From a Single Image For Real-Time Rendering (SIGGRAPH Asia 2017)
Avatar Digitization From a Single Image For Real-Time Rendering (SIGGRAPH Asia 2017)
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: Hao Li
SIGGRAPH 2017 - Real-Time Live!
SIGGRAPH 2017 - Real-Time Live!
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: ACMSIGGRAPH
3D Game Engine Design A Practical Approach to Real Time Computer Graphics Morgan Kaufmann Series in
3D Game Engine Design A Practical Approach to Real Time Computer Graphics Morgan Kaufmann Series in
Published: 2017/05/08
Channel: Jennette Dasilva
Real Time vs Non Real Time in Computer Graphics
Real Time vs Non Real Time in Computer Graphics
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: atikahayy0208
Real-Time Graphics Project
Real-Time Graphics Project
Published: 2015/11/26
Channel: Adam Riečický
Real Time Graphics Application C++
Real Time Graphics Application C++
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: Anusha Dasari
Real Time Rendering and VR for BIM
Real Time Rendering and VR for BIM
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: Joe Banks
Stargazer [Real-Time Graphics Demo] [HD]
Stargazer [Real-Time Graphics Demo] [HD]
Published: 2009/12/20
Channel: Soma1509
Advanced Graphics and Real-Time Rendering - DirectX11
Advanced Graphics and Real-Time Rendering - DirectX11
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: CrohnsAndMe
real time 3d laser graphics II
real time 3d laser graphics II
Published: 2008/10/25
Channel: ZoofTv
Fin Textures for Real-Time Painterly Aesthetics (SIGGRAPH 2015)
Fin Textures for Real-Time Painterly Aesthetics (SIGGRAPH 2015)
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: Computer Graphics Laboratory
Still Life, Realtime Graphics - John O
Still Life, Realtime Graphics - John O'Kane
Published: 2008/03/18
Channel: ietvids
NVIDIA Iray REALTIME RENDERING IN DAZ Studio with 2 X TITAN X 12GB SC
NVIDIA Iray REALTIME RENDERING IN DAZ Studio with 2 X TITAN X 12GB SC
Published: 2015/06/11
Channel: MEC4D
Unreal Paris - Photorealistic Techdemo (Real-Time rendered - Unreal Engine 4)
Unreal Paris - Photorealistic Techdemo (Real-Time rendered - Unreal Engine 4)
Published: 2015/01/27
Channel: Dominik Briongloid
3D Game Engine Design A Practical Approach to Real Time Computer Graphics Morgan Kaufmann Series in
3D Game Engine Design A Practical Approach to Real Time Computer Graphics Morgan Kaufmann Series in
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Risdon J.
Face2Face: Real-time Face Capture and Reenactment of RGB Videos (CVPR 2016 Oral)
Face2Face: Real-time Face Capture and Reenactment of RGB Videos (CVPR 2016 Oral)
Published: 2016/03/17
Channel: Matthias Niessner
Realtime Rendering
Realtime Rendering
Published: 2017/10/24
Channel: RealVisuals
Real-Time Graphics OpenGL Snowglobe
Real-Time Graphics OpenGL Snowglobe
Published: 2011/12/18
Channel: Cisco
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Virtual reality render of a river from 2000
Virtual environment at University of Illinois, 2001
Music visualizations are generated in real-time

Real-time computer graphics or real-time rendering is the sub-field of computer graphics focused on producing and analyzing images in real-time. The term can refer to anything from rendering an application's graphical user interface (GUI) to real-time image analysis, but is most often used in reference to interactive 3D computer graphics, typically using a graphics processing unit (GPU). One example of this concept is a video game, which rapidly renders changing 3D environments to produce an illusion of motion.

Computers have capable of generating 2D images (like simple lines, images, and polygons) in real time since their invention. However, quickly rendering detailed 3D objects has always been a daunting task for traditional Von Neumann architecture-based systems. An early workaround to this problem was use of sprites, 2D images that could imitate 3D graphics.

Different techniques for rendering now exist, such as ray-tracing and rasterization. Using these techniques and advanced hardware, computers can now render images quickly enough to induce an illusion of motion and simultaneously accept user input. This means that the user can respond to rendered images in real time, producing an interactive experience.

Principles of real-time 3D computer graphics[edit]

The goal of computer graphics is to generate computer generated images, or frames, using certain desired metrics. One such metric is the number of frames generated in a given second. Real-time computer graphics systems differ from traditional offline (i.e. non-real-time) rendering systems in that non-real-time graphics typically rely on ray-tracing. In this process, millions or even billions of rays are traced from the camera to the world for detailed rendering; this expensive operation can take hours or days to render a single frame.

Terrain rendering made in 2014

Real-time graphics systems, by contrast, must usually render each image in less than 1/30th of a second. Ray-tracing is far too slow for these systems; instead, they employ the technique of z-buffer triangle rasterization. In this technique, every object is decomposed into individual primitives, usually triangles. Each triangle gets positioned, rotated and scaled on the screen, and special hardware (or a software emulator) called the rasterizer generates pixels inside each of these triangles. These triangles are then decomposed into atomic units called fragments that are suitable for displaying on a display screen. The fragments are drawn on the screen using a color that is often computed in several steps. For example, a texture can be used to 'paint' a triangle based on a stored image, and then a technique called shadow mapping can alter that triangle's colors based on line-of-sight to light sources.

Video game graphics[edit]

Real-time graphics aims to optimize image quality subject to time constraints and hardware limitations. Significant recent advancements in hardware, particularly graphics processing units, have increased the image quality that real-time graphics can produce. Modern GPUs are capable of handling millions of triangles per frame, and current DirectX 11/OpenGL 4.x class hardware is capable of generating complex effects, such as shadow volumes, motion blurring, and real-time triangle generation, in real-time. The advancement of real-time graphics is evidenced in the progressive improvements between actual gameplay graphics and the pre-rendered cutscenes that are typically found in modern videogames.[1] As hardware and game engines have advanced, cutscenes are now typically rendered in real-time—and may be interactive.[2] Although the gap in quality between real-time graphics and traditional off-line graphics is narrowing, offline rendering remains much more accurate.

Advantages[edit]

Real time full body and face tracking

Real-time graphics are typically employed when interactivity (e.g. player feedback) is crucial. When real-time graphics are used in films, the director has complete control of what has to be drawn on each frame, which can sometimes take weeks or even years of decision-making. Teams of people are typically involved in the making of these decisions.

When real-time computer graphics are used, the user typically uses an input device to influence what is about to be drawn on the display. For example, when the user wants to move a character on the screen, the system updates the character's position before drawing the next frame. Usually the display's response-time is far slower than the input device; this is justified by the immense difference between the very fast response time of a human-being's motion and the very slow perspective speed of the human-visual system. This difference has other effects too; because input devices must be very fast to keep up with human motion response, advancements in input devices (e.g. the current Wii remote) typically take much longer to achieve than comparable advancements in display devices.

Another important factor controlling real-time computer graphics is the combination of physics and animation. These techniques largely dictate what is to be drawn on the screen—or more precisely, where to draw certain objects on the screen. These techniques help realistically imitate behavior seen in the real-world (the temporal dimension, not the spatial dimensions), compensating to computer-graphics' degree of realism.

Lastly, real-time previewing within a graphics software, especially when adjusting lighting effects, can increase work speed. [3] Some parameter adjustments in fractal generating software may be made while viewing changes to the image in real-time.

Graphics rendering pipeline[edit]

Flight simulator screenshot

The graphics rendering pipeline ('rendering pipeline',or simply 'pipeline') is the foundation of real-time graphics. [4] Its main function is to render a two-dimensional image given a virtual camera, three-dimensional objects (an object that has width, length, and depth), light sources, lighting models, textures, and more.

Architecture[edit]

The architecture of the real-time rendering pipeline can be divided into three conceptual stages: Application, Geometry, and Rasterization. This structure is the core of real-time computer graphics applications.

Application stage[edit]

The application stage of a real-time graphics application is responsible for generating "scenes", or 3D settings that are to be drawn to a 2D display. This stage is implemented in software that developers carefully optimize for performance. This stage may perform processing like collision, speed-up techniques, animation, and force feedback, in addition to handling user input.

Collision detection is an example of an operation that would be performed in the application stage. Collision detection uses algorithms to detect and respond to collisions between virtual objects. For example, the application may calculate new positions for the colliding objects and provide feedback via a force feedback device (like a vibrating game controller).

The application stage is also responsible for preparing graphics data for the next pipeline stage. This includes performing texture animation, animation of 3D models, animation via transforms, and geometry morphing. Finally, it produces primitives (like points, lines, and triangles) based on scene information and feeds those primitives into the geometry stage of the pipeline.

Geometry stage[edit]

The geometry stage manipulates polygons and vertices to compute what to draw, how to draw it, and where to draw it. Usually, these operations are performed by specialized hardware or graphics processing units.[5] Variations across graphics hardware mean that the "geometry stage" may actually be implemented as several consecutive stages.

Model and view transformation[edit]

Before the final model is shown on the output device, the model is transformed onto several different spaces or coordinate systems. Transformations move and manipulate objects by altering their vertices. Transformation is the general term for the four specific ways that allow one to manipulate the shape or position of a point, line, or shape.

Lighting[edit]

In order to give the model a more realistic appearance, one or more light sources are usually equipped during the transforming of the model. However, this stage cannot be reached without completing the 3-D scene that is being transformed into the view space. The view space is where the camera is placed at the origin and is aimed in a way that the camera is looking in the direction of the negative z-axis (where the y-axis is pointing upwards and the x-axis is pointing to the right).

Projection[edit]

Projection is a transformation used to represent a 3D model in a 2D space. The two main types of projection are orthographic(also called parallel) and perspective projection. The main characteristic of orthographic projection is that parallel lines remain parallel after the transformation. Perspective projection utilizes the concept that if the distance between a camera and model increases, the model will appear smaller than before. Essentially, perspective projection mimics the way human sight operates.

Clipping[edit]

Clipping is the process of removing primitives that are outside of the view box in order to continue on to the rasterizer stage. Once the primitives that are outside of the view box are removed, the primitives that are still inside of the view box will be drawn into new triangles that will proceed on to the next stage.

Screen mapping[edit]

The purpose of screen mapping is to find out the coordinates of the primitives that were determined to be on the inside of the view box during the clipping stage.

Rasterizer stage[edit]

Once all of the necessary steps are completed from the two previous stages, all the elements are ready to enter the rasterizer stage. This includes the lines that have been drawn and the models that have been transformed. During the rasterizer stage, color is applied and all of the elements previously stated are turned into pixels, or picture elements.

The beginnings of 3-D computer graphics[edit]

Computer animation has been around since the 1940s and 1950s, but it was not until the 1970s and 1980s that 3-D techniques were implemented [see the History of computer animation]. The first step towards 3-D graphics was taken in 1972 by Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke; both were students at the University of Utah at the time. Their implementation of 3-D technology featured a computer-generated hand and face that was created using wire-frame imagery. Up until 1975, wire-frame imagery was the only technology used to create 3-D images on computers and in films. Today, some 3-D graphics have advanced to the point where animated humans look almost entirely realistic. Eventually, humans may not be able to tell the difference between real human footage and animated human footage. One movie that got close to fooling the human eye is Beowulf. The film was created using 3-D motion capture technology.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spraul, V. Anton (2013). How Software Works: The Magic Behind Encryption, CGI, Search Engines and Other Everyday Technologies. No Starch Press. p. 86. ISBN 1593276664. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  2. ^ Wolf, Mark J. P. (2008). The Video Game Explosion: A History from PONG to Playstation and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. p. 86. ISBN 9780313338687. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  3. ^ Birn, Jeremy (2013). Digital Lighting and Rendering: Edition 3. New Riders. p. 442. ISBN 9780133439175. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  4. ^ Akenine-Möller, Tomas; Eric Haines; Naty Hoffman (2008). Real-Time Rendering, Third Edition: Edition 3. CRC Press. p. 11. ISBN 9781439865293. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  5. ^ Boreskov, Alexey; Evgeniy Shikin (2013). Computer Graphics: From Pixels to Programmable Graphics Hardware. CRC Press. p. 5. ISBN 9781482215571. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

  • RTR Portal – a trimmed-down "best of" set of links to resources

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