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Real Time Graphics in Pixar Film Production
Real Time Graphics in Pixar Film Production
Published: 2016/09/05
Channel: FX HIVE SUITE
Real-Time VS Non Real-Time [Computer Graphics]
Real-Time VS Non Real-Time [Computer Graphics]
Published: 2016/09/24
Channel: Syakir Zufayri
CGI Animated Short Film HD: "Adam Short Film" by Unity Technologies
CGI Animated Short Film HD: "Adam Short Film" by Unity Technologies
Published: 2016/06/21
Channel: CGMeetup
The Evolution Of Real Time PC Graphics
The Evolution Of Real Time PC Graphics
Published: 2013/01/28
Channel: TheSchiitShow
Proceedural Geometry for Real Time Graphics
Proceedural Geometry for Real Time Graphics
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: Microsoft Research
Unity 5 vs Unreal Engine 4 in Real Time Computer Graphics (RTCG)
Unity 5 vs Unreal Engine 4 in Real Time Computer Graphics (RTCG)
Published: 2016/10/09
Channel: atikahayy0208
G3(B): Real-Time vs Non Real-Time Computer Graphics
G3(B): Real-Time vs Non Real-Time Computer Graphics
Published: 2016/09/30
Channel: Shookery
Real Time Cinematography: Siggraph 2016 Reveal | News | Unreal Engine
Real Time Cinematography: Siggraph 2016 Reveal | News | Unreal Engine
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Unreal Engine
BundleFusion: Real-time Globally Consistent 3D Reconstruction using On-the-fly Surface Reintegration
BundleFusion: Real-time Globally Consistent 3D Reconstruction using On-the-fly Surface Reintegration
Published: 2016/04/05
Channel: Matthias Niessner
Face2Face: Real-time Face Capture and Reenactment of RGB Videos (CVPR 2016 Oral)
Face2Face: Real-time Face Capture and Reenactment of RGB Videos (CVPR 2016 Oral)
Published: 2016/03/17
Channel: Matthias Niessner
Review : Real time Graphics VS. Non-Real time Graphics
Review : Real time Graphics VS. Non-Real time Graphics
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: Nur Affendy
The slides: Real Time 3D Tracking and Reconstruction
The slides: Real Time 3D Tracking and Reconstruction
Published: 2014/05/15
Channel: Carl Yuheng Ren
Unlimited Detail Real-Time Rendering Technology Preview 2011 [HD]
Unlimited Detail Real-Time Rendering Technology Preview 2011 [HD]
Published: 2011/08/01
Channel: EuclideonOfficial
The Evolution Of Real Time PC Graphics - Part 2
The Evolution Of Real Time PC Graphics - Part 2
Published: 2013/02/17
Channel: TheSchiitShow
Nvidia FaceWorks 2016 Virtual Reality Using Real Time Graphics
Nvidia FaceWorks 2016 Virtual Reality Using Real Time Graphics
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: Reality Check VR
Real Time Rendering in Sketchup! Enscape 3D
Real Time Rendering in Sketchup! Enscape 3D
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Show It Better
Real Time Rendering and VR for BIM
Real Time Rendering and VR for BIM
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: Joe Banks
Ancient Real Time Computer Graphics Demonstrations
Ancient Real Time Computer Graphics Demonstrations
Published: 2012/09/24
Channel: David Bremner
Motion Path: Advancing real-time 3D graphics
Motion Path: Advancing real-time 3D graphics
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Avid
real time graphics
real time graphics
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: Stefanos Papadas
Armory Real Time 3D Engine in Blender
Armory Real Time 3D Engine in Blender
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Blender Foundation
CGI Animated Short Film HD: "Adam Real-Time Rendered Short Film" Trailer by Unity Technologies
CGI Animated Short Film HD: "Adam Real-Time Rendered Short Film" Trailer by Unity Technologies
Published: 2016/03/28
Channel: CGMeetup
Real time 3D Live - iClone 5.5 SPECIAL
Real time 3D Live - iClone 5.5 SPECIAL
Published: 2013/08/08
Channel: Reallusion
Real Time vs Non Real Time in Computer Graphics
Real Time vs Non Real Time in Computer Graphics
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: atikahayy0208
Fin Textures for Real-Time Painterly Aesthetics (SIGGRAPH 2015)
Fin Textures for Real-Time Painterly Aesthetics (SIGGRAPH 2015)
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: Computer Graphics Laboratory
Real-time 3D Reconstruction using Graphics Hardware
Real-time 3D Reconstruction using Graphics Hardware
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: Christian Nitschke
Introduction to Real-Time Rendering in Autodesk Showcase (Part 3/4)
Introduction to Real-Time Rendering in Autodesk Showcase (Part 3/4)
Published: 2013/09/30
Channel: HP Z Workstations
Real-time Rendering of Animated Light Fields
Real-time Rendering of Animated Light Fields
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: DisneyResearchHub
Realtime Graphics - Particle System (CUDA)
Realtime Graphics - Particle System (CUDA)
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Markus Höll
REAL-TIME GRAPHICS
REAL-TIME GRAPHICS
Published: 2010/08/05
Channel: Theodosis Nikola
Real Time Graphics - OpenGL Renderer
Real Time Graphics - OpenGL Renderer
Published: 2015/05/26
Channel: Aidan Riley
MATLAB: Real-time, interactive 3D animation (without Simulink)
MATLAB: Real-time, interactive 3D animation (without Simulink)
Published: 2015/06/19
Channel: Matthew Sheen
Dense 3D Face Alignment from 2D Videos in Real-Time (ZFace tracker)
Dense 3D Face Alignment from 2D Videos in Real-Time (ZFace tracker)
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: Laszlo A. Jeni
Real-Time Graphics Project
Real-Time Graphics Project
Published: 2015/11/26
Channel: Adam Riečický
Real time tracking using SURF algorithm on CPU
Real time tracking using SURF algorithm on CPU
Published: 2013/01/07
Channel: Mauricio Ferreira
Unity - Real Time Graphics
Unity - Real Time Graphics
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: MuckuzZ
Real Time Graphics Sponza Deferred Renderer
Real Time Graphics Sponza Deferred Renderer
Published: 2016/06/07
Channel: Sean Richardson
SIGGRAPH 2016 - Real-Time Live!
SIGGRAPH 2016 - Real-Time Live!
Published: 2016/09/18
Channel: ACMSIGGRAPH
Euclideon Makes World’s Most Realistic Graphics
Euclideon Makes World’s Most Realistic Graphics
Published: 2014/09/19
Channel: EuclideonOfficial
Real Time Graphics - Showreel - DrDoctumDoces
Real Time Graphics - Showreel - DrDoctumDoces
Published: 2016/10/10
Channel: Beatrice Marini
Real Time Graphics for Games Semester 2 Assignment
Real Time Graphics for Games Semester 2 Assignment
Published: 2017/01/04
Channel: Chris Phillips
Real Time Graphics Application C++
Real Time Graphics Application C++
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: Anusha Dasari
Stargazer [Real-Time Graphics Demo] [HD]
Stargazer [Real-Time Graphics Demo] [HD]
Published: 2009/12/20
Channel: Soma1509
Blacksmith - Unity 5 - Real Time Rendering - 1440p
Blacksmith - Unity 5 - Real Time Rendering - 1440p
Published: 2015/10/11
Channel: Dude18594
Unreal Paris - Photorealistic Techdemo (Real-Time rendered - Unreal Engine 4)
Unreal Paris - Photorealistic Techdemo (Real-Time rendered - Unreal Engine 4)
Published: 2015/01/27
Channel: Dominik Briongloid
Face Plus: Real Time 3D Facial Animation
Face Plus: Real Time 3D Facial Animation
Published: 2013/08/28
Channel: Mixamo
Holoportation: Virtual 3D Teleportation in Real-time
Holoportation: Virtual 3D Teleportation in Real-time
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: ACM SIGCHI
Real-Time 3D Mapping and Localization with Stencil™ by Kaarta
Real-Time 3D Mapping and Localization with Stencil™ by Kaarta
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Kaarta
FACE HACKING REAL TIME FACE TRACKING & 3D PROJECTION MAPPING
FACE HACKING REAL TIME FACE TRACKING & 3D PROJECTION MAPPING
Published: 2016/09/19
Channel: 임회열
IBC 2014: Real-time graphics for News, Election and Social
IBC 2014: Real-time graphics for News, Election and Social
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: ClassX
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Real-time computer graphics or real-time rendering is the subfield of computer graphics focused on producing and analyzing images in real time. The term is most often used in reference to interactive 3D computer graphics, typically using a GPU, with video games the most noticeable users (see video game graphics). The term can also refer to anything from rendering an application's GUI to real-time image processing and image analysis.

Although computers have been known from the beginning to be capable of generating 2D images involving simple lines, images and polygons in real-time (e.g. Bresenham's line drawing algorithm), the creation of 3D computer graphics and the speed necessary for generating fast, good quality 3D images onto a display screen has always been a daunting task for traditional Von Neumann architecture-based systems. The rest of this article concentrates on this widely accepted aspect of real-time graphics rather than expanding on the principles of real-time 2D computer graphics.

Overview[edit]

This article refers to doing the rendering-computation fast enough, so that the series of rendered images induce the illusion of movement in the human brain of the user. This illusion allows for the interaction with the software doing the calculations taking into account user input. The unit used for measuring the frame rate in a series of images is frames per second (fps). Different techniques for rendering exist, e.g. ray-tracing and rasterizing.

Principles of real-time 3D computer graphics[edit]

The goal of computer graphics is to generate a computer generated image using certain desired metrics. This image is often called a frame. How fast these images or frames are generated in a given second determines the method's real-timeliness.

One interesting aspect of real-time computer graphics is the way in which it differs from traditional off-line rendering systems (and hence, these are the non-real-time graphics systems); non-real-time graphics typically rely on ray-tracing where the expensive operation of tracing rays from the camera to the world is allowed and can take as much as hours or even days for a single frame. On the other hand, in the case of real-time graphics, the system has less than 1/30th of a second per image. In order to do that, the current systems cannot afford shooting millions or even billions of rays; instead, they rely on the technique of z-buffer triangle rasterization. In this technique, every object is decomposed into individual primitives—the most popular and common one is the triangle. These triangles are then 'drawn' or rendered onto the screen one by one. Each of these triangles get positioned, rotated and scaled on the screen and a special hardware (or in the case of an emulator, the software rasterizer) called rasterizer generates the pixels inside each of these triangles. These triangles are then decomposed into further smaller atomic units called pixels (or in computer graphics terminology, aptly called fragments) that are suitable for displaying on a display screen. The pixels are then drawn on the screen using a certain color; current systems are capable of deciding the color that results in these triangles—for e.g. a texture can be used to 'paint' onto a triangle, which is simply deciding what color to output at each pixel based on a stored picture; or in a more complex case, at each pixel, one can compute if a certain light is being seen or not resulting in very good shadows (using a technique called shadow mapping).

Thus, real-time graphics is oriented toward providing as much quality as possible for the lowest performance cost possible for a given class of hardware. Most video-games and simulators fall in this category of real-time graphics. As mentioned above, real-time graphics is currently possible due to the significant recent advancements in these special hardware components called graphics processing units (GPUs). These GPUs are capable of handling millions of triangles per frame and within each such triangle capable of handling millions or even billions of pixels (i.e. generating these pixel colors). Current DirectX 11/OpenGL 4.x class hardware is capable of generating complex effects on the fly (i.e. in real-time) such as shadow volumes, motion blurring, real-time triangle generation among many others. Although the gap in quality between real-time graphics and traditional off-line graphics is narrowing[citation needed], the accuracy is still far below the accuracy of offline rendering[citation needed].

Advantages[edit]

Another interesting difference between real-time and non-real-time graphics is the interactivity desired in real-time graphics. Feedback is typically the main motivation for pushing real-time graphics to its furore. In cases like films, the director has the complete control and determinism of what has to be drawn on each frame, typically involving weeks or even years of decision-making involving a number of people.

In the case of real-time interactive computer graphics, usually a user is in control of what is about to be drawn on the display screen; the user typically uses an input device to provide feedback to the system—for example, wanting to move a character on the screen—and the system decides the next frame based on this particular instance of action. Usually the display is far slower (in terms of the number of frames per second) in responsiveness than the input device (in terms of the input device's response time measured in ms). In a way this is justified due to the immense difference between the infinitesimal response time generated by a human-being's motion and the very slow perspective speed of the human-visual system; this results in significant advancements in computer graphics, whereas the advancements in input devices typically take a much longer time to achieve the same state of fundamental advancement (e.g., the current Wii Remote), as these input devices have to be extremely fast in order to be usable.

Another important factor controlling real-time computer graphics is the combination of physics and animation. These techniques largely dictate what is to be drawn on the screen—or more precisely, where to draw certain objects (deciding their position) on the screen. These techniques imitate the behavior (the temporal dimension, not the spatial dimensions) seen in real-world to a degree that is far more realistic than and compensating computer-graphics' degree of realism.

The graphics rendering pipeline[edit]

Graphics rendering pipeline is known as the rendering pipeline or simply the pipeline. It is the foundation of real-time graphics. Its main function is to generate, or render, a two-dimensional image, given a virtual camera, three-dimensional objects (an object that has width, length, and depth), light sources, lighting models, textures, and more.

Architecture[edit]

The architecture of the real-time rendering pipeline can be divided into three conceptual stages as shown as in the figure below. These stages include application, geometry, and rasterizer. This structure is the core which is used in real-time computer graphics applications.

Application stage[edit]

The application stage is driven by the application where "it begins the image generation process that results in the final scene of frame of animation. Therefore creating a base filled with simple images, that then later on build up into a bigger, more clear image". The application is implemented in the software thus giving the developers total control over the implementation in order to change the performance. This stage may, for example, contain collision detection, speed-up techniques, animations, force feedback, etc. One of the processes that is usually implemented in this stage is collision detection. Collision detection is usually includes algorithms that detects whether two objects collide. After a collision is detected between two objects, a response may be generated and sent back to the colliding objects as well as to a force feedback device. Other processes implemented in this stage included texture animation, animations via transforms, geometry morphing, or any kind of calculations that are not performed in any other stages. At the end of the application stage, which is also the most important part of this stage, the geometry to be rendered is fed to the next stage in the rendering pipeline. These are the rendering primitives that might eventually end up on the output device, such as points, lines, and triangles, etc.

Geometry stage[edit]

The geometry stage is responsible for the majority of the per-polygon operations or per-vertex operation; it means that this stage computes what is to be drawn, how it should be drawn, and where it should be drawn. In some case, this stage might be defined as one pipeline stage or several different stages, mainly due to the different implementation of this stage. However, in this case, this stage is further divided into different functional group.

Model and view transform[edit]

Before the final model is shown on the output device, the model is transformed into several different spaces or coordinate systems. That is, when an object is being moved or manipulated, the object's vertices are what are being transformed.

Lighting[edit]

In order to give the model a more realistic appearance, one or more light sources are usually equipped during the scene of transforming the model. However, this stage cannot be reached without completing the 3D scene being transformed into the view space; the view space is where the camera is placed at the origin and aimed in a way that the camera is looking in the direction of the negative z-axis, with the y-axis pointing upwards and the x-axis pointing to the right.

Projection[edit]

There are two types of projection, orthographic (also called parallel) and perspective projection. Orthographic projection is used to represent a 3D model in a two dimensional (2D) space. The main characteristic of orthographic projection is that the parallel lines remain parallel even after the transformation without distorting them. Perspective projection is when a camera is farther away from the model, the smaller the model it appears. Essentially, perspective projection is the way that we see things from our eyes.

Clipping[edit]

Clipping is the process of removing primitives that are outside of the view box in order to continue on to the rasterizer stage. Primitives that are outside of the view box are removed or "clipped" away. Once the primitives that are outside of the view box are removed, the primitives that are still inside of the view box will be drawn into new triangles to be proceeded to the next stage.

Screen mapping[edit]

The purpose of screen mapping, as the name implies, is to find out the coordinates of the primitives that were determined to be on the inside of the view box in the clipping stage.

Rasterizer stage[edit]

Once all of the necessary steps are completed from the two previous stages, all the elements, including the lines that have been drawn and the models that have been transformed, are ready to enter the rasterizer stages. Rasterizer stage means turning all of those elements into pixels, or picture elements, and adding color onto them.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

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