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Austraila
Austraila's Great Barrier Reef || Full Documentary with subtitles
Published: 2015/11/19
Channel: Superb Documentaries
Reef of Riches (Documentary)
Reef of Riches (Documentary)
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Space Age Productions
LEO
LEO's REEF ROOM: 500 GALLON REEFS, AQUARIUM LIGHTING, FRAG TANKS and MORE!
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: the JaYoe Nation
CORAL REEF AQUARIUM COLLECTION • 12 HOURS • BEST RELAX MUSIC • SLEEP MUSIC • 1080p HD
CORAL REEF AQUARIUM COLLECTION • 12 HOURS • BEST RELAX MUSIC • SLEEP MUSIC • 1080p HD
Published: 2016/07/31
Channel: Cat Trumpet
Great Barrier Reef | Exploring Oceans
Great Barrier Reef | Exploring Oceans
Published: 2009/03/30
Channel: National Geographic
#Viña2017: Así fue la presentación de las finalistas de Miss Reef
#Viña2017: Así fue la presentación de las finalistas de Miss Reef
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: La Tercera
Sanjay 500 Gallon Mega Reef
Sanjay 500 Gallon Mega Reef
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: Reef Builders
Cities Skylines: Seenu — EP 20 — Artificial Reef
Cities Skylines: Seenu — EP 20 — Artificial Reef
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: Strictoaster
Mike
Mike's Killer Nano Reef Tank
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: Reef Builders
How dead is the Great Barrier Reef?
How dead is the Great Barrier Reef?
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: Vox
My
My 'Zero' Maintenance Reef Tank
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Reef Builders
Reef - Consideration
Reef - Consideration
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: ReefVEVO
VISITING EXOTIC REEF IMPORTS (Also, I
VISITING EXOTIC REEF IMPORTS (Also, I'm Now A Nature Vlogger)
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: Taylor Nicole Dean
David Attenborough - Great Barrier Reef - 1/3 [HD]
David Attenborough - Great Barrier Reef - 1/3 [HD]
Published: 2017/04/20
Channel: Stuart J. Fonseca
Cycling the 700 gallon phoenix reef tank Part #2 with Genesis
Cycling the 700 gallon phoenix reef tank Part #2 with Genesis
Published: 2017/09/17
Channel: FARM BOY REEF
Life On The Coral Reef [HD]
Life On The Coral Reef [HD]
Published: 2014/01/20
Channel: Beyond The Water Surface
Miss Reef 2016 Full HD 1080p
Miss Reef 2016 Full HD 1080p
Published: 2016/01/11
Channel: SweetGirlsChannel
Reef Life of the Andaman (full marine biology documentary)
Reef Life of the Andaman (full marine biology documentary)
Published: 2012/11/01
Channel: Bubble Vision
Lava Reef Zone Act 2 - Sonic Mania - Music Extended
Lava Reef Zone Act 2 - Sonic Mania - Music Extended
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Crunchii [Music Extensions]
LA SENSUAL COLITA DE BELEN CABEZAS LA NUEVA MISS REEF CHILE 2017
LA SENSUAL COLITA DE BELEN CABEZAS LA NUEVA MISS REEF CHILE 2017
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: regionvisual
205g Reef Build - Aquascape - Sand - E16
205g Reef Build - Aquascape - Sand - E16
Published: 2016/08/29
Channel: Mofros Reef
Coral Reef Aquarium & The Best Relax Music - 2 Hours - Sleep Music - HD 1080P
Coral Reef Aquarium & The Best Relax Music - 2 Hours - Sleep Music - HD 1080P
Published: 2016/03/07
Channel: BaLu - Relaxing Nature
Krusty Reef Pizza Zone
Krusty Reef Pizza Zone
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: KingDux
Así fue la presentación de las candidatas Miss Reef 2016
Así fue la presentación de las candidatas Miss Reef 2016
Published: 2016/02/15
Channel: CooperativaFM
700 Gallon Reef tank cycle using Genesis Part #1
700 Gallon Reef tank cycle using Genesis Part #1
Published: 2017/09/15
Channel: FARM BOY REEF
Lucila Vit - Cola Reef 2017 de Chile - Fox Fit
Lucila Vit - Cola Reef 2017 de Chile - Fox Fit
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Juli A todo o nada
Miss Reef 2017 | Sesión fotográfica Ritoque
Miss Reef 2017 | Sesión fotográfica Ritoque
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Felipe
Estas son las candidatas a Miss Reef 2016 - La Mañana de CHV
Estas son las candidatas a Miss Reef 2016 - La Mañana de CHV
Published: 2016/02/15
Channel: Chilevisión
Sanjay 500 Gallon Mega Reef - Extended
Sanjay 500 Gallon Mega Reef - Extended 'Reef Nerd' Edition +10 Minutes
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: Reef Builders
Tropical Reef Camera powered by EXPLORE.org
Tropical Reef Camera powered by EXPLORE.org
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: Explore Oceans
RALPH
RALPH'S REEF - EPIC REEF TANK IN AMSTERDAM!!
Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: George Farmer
Sonic Mania (PC) - Lava Reef 1 Sonic: 1
Sonic Mania (PC) - Lava Reef 1 Sonic: 1'37"92 (Speed Run)
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: Werster
MACNA 2017 : Reef Kinetics
MACNA 2017 : Reef Kinetics
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: reefs
Reef - How I Got Over
Reef - How I Got Over
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: Reef Band
Live Coral Reef Cam | California Academy of Sciences
Live Coral Reef Cam | California Academy of Sciences
Published: 2016/11/25
Channel: California Academy of Sciences
Reef - Glow
Reef - Glow
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: AMBER
► Adventure Ocean Quest - 24 Hours on the Reef (FULL Documentary)
► Adventure Ocean Quest - 24 Hours on the Reef (FULL Documentary)
Published: 2015/11/13
Channel: Free Documentary
Reef - Place Your Hands (Seaweed Sessions X LFTGR)
Reef - Place Your Hands (Seaweed Sessions X LFTGR)
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Live From The Green Room
The Reef (2010) – Great White Shark
The Reef (2010) – Great White Shark
Published: 2015/07/20
Channel: Shudder
Conoce a la nueva reina del Miss Reef 2016
Conoce a la nueva reina del Miss Reef 2016
Published: 2016/02/21
Channel: La Tercera
Rising tide reef tank at macna 2017 it
Rising tide reef tank at macna 2017 it's amazing !
Published: 2017/09/17
Channel: FARM BOY REEF
Nessun Dorma (03-03-2017) - Las finalistas de "Miss Reef" revolucionan el estudio de "Nessun Dorma"
Nessun Dorma (03-03-2017) - Las finalistas de "Miss Reef" revolucionan el estudio de "Nessun Dorma"
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: UCVTVONLINE
reef *new album* Lucky #5
reef *new album* Lucky #5
Published: 2013/01/23
Channel: Greg Saveall
Cayman Reef Cam powered by EXPLORE.org
Cayman Reef Cam powered by EXPLORE.org
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: Explore Oceans
Joe Yaiullo: Bonsai Reef Keeping in a 20,000 Gallon Box | MACNA 2017
Joe Yaiullo: Bonsai Reef Keeping in a 20,000 Gallon Box | MACNA 2017
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: BulkReefSupplyCom
Conoce a las candidatas a Miss Reef 2016
Conoce a las candidatas a Miss Reef 2016
Published: 2016/02/16
Channel: Revista XY
Great Barrier Reef Facts
Great Barrier Reef Facts
Published: 2013/09/17
Channel: Queensland, Australia
Reef The Lost Cauze - I Wonder (Prod. By Marco Polo)
Reef The Lost Cauze - I Wonder (Prod. By Marco Polo)
Published: 2009/10/06
Channel: HipHopLivesToday
Pipe to Outer Reef
Pipe to Outer Reef
Published: 2012/02/28
Channel: SurfingXtreme
Reef Welcomes Tia Blanco
Reef Welcomes Tia Blanco
Published: 2014/02/11
Channel: Reef
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Pamalican island with surrounding reef, Sulu Sea, Philippines.
A reef surrounding an islet.

A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water. Reefs may go as deep as 261 feet (80 m) below the surface.[citation needed]

Many reefs result from abiotic processes (i.e. deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcrops, and other natural processes), but the best known reefs are the coral reefs of tropical waters developed through biotic processes dominated by corals and calcareous algae.

Artificial reefs (e.g. shipwrecks) sometimes have a role in enhancing the physical complexity of featureless sand bottoms, in order to attract a diverse assemblage of organisms, especially algae, and fish.

Biotic reef[edit]

There is a variety of biotic reef types, including oyster reefs, but the most massive and widely distributed are tropical coral reefs. Although corals are major contributors to the framework and bulk material comprising a coral reef, the organisms most responsible for reef growth against the constant assault from ocean waves are calcareous algae, especially, although not entirely, species of coralline algae.

These biotic reef types take on additional names depending upon how the reef lies in relation to the land, if any. Reef types include fringing reef, barrier reefs, as well as atolls. A fringing reef is a reef that is attached to an island. A barrier reef forms a calcareous barrier around an island resulting in a lagoon between the shore and the reef. An atoll is a ring reef with no land present. The reef front (ocean side) is a high energy locale whereas the internal lagoon will be at a lower energy with fine grained sediments.

Geologic reef[edit]

One useful definition distinguishes reefs from mounds as follows. Both are considered to be varieties of organosedimentary buildups: sedimentary features, built by the interaction of organisms and their environment, that have synoptic relief and whose biotic composition differs from that found on and beneath the surrounding sea floor. Reefs are held up by a macroscopic skeletal framework. Coral reefs are an excellent example of this kind. Corals and calcareous algae grow on top of one another and form a three-dimensional framework that is modified in various ways by other organisms and inorganic processes. By contrast, mounds lack a macroscopic skeletal framework. Mounds are built by microorganisms or by organisms that don't grow a skeletal framework. A microbial mound might be built exclusively or primarily by cyanobacteria. Excellent examples of biostromes formed by cyanobacteria occur in the Great Salt Lake of Utah (USA), and in Shark Bay, Western Australia.

Cyanobacteria do not have skeletons and individuals are microscopic. Cyanobacteria encourage the precipitation or accumulation of calcium carbonate and can produce distinct sediment bodies in composition that have relief on the seafloor. Cyanobacterial mounds were most abundant before the evolution of shelly macroscopic organisms, but they still exist today (stromatolites are microbial mounds with a laminated internal structure). Bryozoans and crinoids, common contributors to marine sediments during the Mississippian (for example), produced a very different kind of mound. Bryozoans are small and the skeletons of crinoids disintegrate. However, bryozoan and crinoid meadows can persist over time and produce compositionally distinct bodies of sediment with depositional relief.

The Proterozoic Belt Supergroup contains evidence of possible microbial mat and dome structures similar to stromatolite reef complexes.[1]

Geologic reef structures[edit]

Reefs off Vanatinai in the Louisiade Archipelago.

Ancient reefs buried within stratigraphic sections are of considerable interest to geologists because they provide paleo-environmental information about the location in Earth's history. In addition, reef structures within a sequence of sedimentary rocks provide a discontinuity which may serve as a trap or conduit for fossil fuels or mineralizing fluids to form petroleum or ore deposits.

Corals, including some major extinct groups Rugosa and Tabulata, have been important reef builders through much of the Phanerozoic since the Ordovician Period. However, other organism groups, such as calcifying algae, especially members of the red algae Rhodophyta, and molluscs (especially the rudist bivalves during the Cretaceous Period) have created massive structures at various times. During the Cambrian Period, the conical or tubular skeletons of Archaeocyatha, an extinct group of uncertain affinities (possibly sponges), built reefs. Other groups, such as the Bryozoa have been important interstitial organisms, living between the framework builders. The corals which build reefs today, the Scleractinia, arose after the Permian–Triassic extinction event that wiped out the earlier rugose corals (as well as many other groups), and became increasingly important reef builders throughout the Mesozoic Era. They may have arisen from a rugose coral ancestor. Rugose corals built their skeletons of calcite and have a different symmetry from that of the scleractinian corals, whose skeletons are aragonite. However, there are some unusual examples of well-preserved aragonitic rugose corals in the late Permian. In addition, calcite has been reported in the initial post-larval calcification in a few scleractinian corals. Nevertheless, scleractinian corals (which arose in the middle Triassic) may have arisen from a non-calcifying ancestor independent of the rugosan corals (which disappeared in the late Permian).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Shears N.T. (2007) Biogeography, community structure and biological habitat types of subtidal reefs on the South Island West Coast, New Zealand. Science for Conservation 281. p 53. Department of Conservation, New Zealand. [1]

External links[edit]

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