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Austraila
Austraila's Great Barrier Reef || Full Documentary with subtitles
Published: 2015/11/19
Channel: Superb Documentaries
Reef of Riches (Documentary)
Reef of Riches (Documentary)
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Space Age Productions
LEO
LEO's REEF ROOM: 500 GALLON REEFS, AQUARIUM LIGHTING, FRAG TANKS and MORE!
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: the JaYoe Nation
Moray Eel vs. Whitetip Reef Shark | Shark vs. Predator
Moray Eel vs. Whitetip Reef Shark | Shark vs. Predator
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: Nat Geo WILD
#Viña2017: Así fue la presentación de las finalistas de Miss Reef
#Viña2017: Así fue la presentación de las finalistas de Miss Reef
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: La Tercera
Mike
Mike's Killer Nano Reef Tank
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: Reef Builders
My
My 'Zero' Maintenance Reef Tank
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Reef Builders
CORAL REEF AQUARIUM COLLECTION • 12 HOURS • BEST RELAX MUSIC • SLEEP MUSIC • 1080p HD #2
CORAL REEF AQUARIUM COLLECTION • 12 HOURS • BEST RELAX MUSIC • SLEEP MUSIC • 1080p HD #2
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Cat Trumpet
How dead is the Great Barrier Reef?
How dead is the Great Barrier Reef?
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: Vox
Reef Fishing And Diving With Fred And Ben
Reef Fishing And Diving With Fred And Ben
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: Key West Kayak Fishing
Great Barrier Reef | Exploring Oceans
Great Barrier Reef | Exploring Oceans
Published: 2009/03/30
Channel: National Geographic
► Adventure Ocean Quest - 24 Hours on the Reef (FULL Documentary)
► Adventure Ocean Quest - 24 Hours on the Reef (FULL Documentary)
Published: 2015/11/13
Channel: Free Documentary
Life On The Coral Reef [HD]
Life On The Coral Reef [HD]
Published: 2014/01/20
Channel: Beyond The Water Surface
205g Reef Build - Aquascape - Sand - E16
205g Reef Build - Aquascape - Sand - E16
Published: 2016/08/29
Channel: Mofros Reef
Featured Tank: Garry’s 280 Gallon Reef is PACKED with Gorgeous SPS Corals!
Featured Tank: Garry’s 280 Gallon Reef is PACKED with Gorgeous SPS Corals!
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Marine Depot Aquarium Supplies
Reef - Consideration
Reef - Consideration
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: ReefVEVO
Reef Life of the Andaman (full marine biology documentary)
Reef Life of the Andaman (full marine biology documentary)
Published: 2012/11/01
Channel: Bubble Vision
Cayman Reef Cam powered by EXPLORE.org
Cayman Reef Cam powered by EXPLORE.org
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: Explore Oceans
LA SENSUAL COLITA DE BELEN CABEZAS LA NUEVA MISS REEF CHILE 2017
LA SENSUAL COLITA DE BELEN CABEZAS LA NUEVA MISS REEF CHILE 2017
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: regionvisual
REEF | STOP
REEF | STOP
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: Orfèvre Label
The Reef (2010) – Great White Shark
The Reef (2010) – Great White Shark
Published: 2015/07/20
Channel: Shudder
Sanjay Joshi
Sanjay Joshi's Nano Reef Tank is 23 YRS OLD, No Skimmer, No Water Changes!
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Reef Builders
I NEVER thought this would happen! Now I want a REEF AQUARIUM!
I NEVER thought this would happen! Now I want a REEF AQUARIUM!
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: The king of DIY
Key West Reef Fishing + What
Key West Reef Fishing + What's For Lunch - Catch And Cook
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: Key West Kayak Fishing
Aquascaping  the 700 Gallon Phoenix reef  tank
Aquascaping the 700 Gallon Phoenix reef tank
Published: 2017/04/22
Channel: FARM BOY REEF
Live Coral Reef Cam | California Academy of Sciences
Live Coral Reef Cam | California Academy of Sciences
Published: 2016/11/25
Channel: California Academy of Sciences
Compassing // a film by cyrus sutton x reef // free download at Reef.com
Compassing // a film by cyrus sutton x reef // free download at Reef.com
Published: 2013/09/03
Channel: Reef
Coral Reef Aquarium & The Best Relax Music - 2 Hours - Sleep Music - HD 1080P
Coral Reef Aquarium & The Best Relax Music - 2 Hours - Sleep Music - HD 1080P
Published: 2016/03/07
Channel: BaLu - Relaxing Nature
180G REEF SALTWATER | 20G LONG NANO |GLASS-HOLES.COM OVERFLOW BOX
180G REEF SALTWATER | 20G LONG NANO |GLASS-HOLES.COM OVERFLOW BOX
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: 915Mang
Así fue la presentación de las candidatas Miss Reef 2016
Así fue la presentación de las candidatas Miss Reef 2016
Published: 2016/02/15
Channel: CooperativaFM
Coral Reef Aquarium & The Best Relax Music - 2 Hours - Sleep Music - HD 1080P
Coral Reef Aquarium & The Best Relax Music - 2 Hours - Sleep Music - HD 1080P
Published: 2016/02/15
Channel: BaLu - Relaxing Nature
Valen
Valen's Reef (360 video) | Conservation International (CI)
Published: 2016/07/12
Channel: Conservation International
What Are Coral Reefs And What
What Are Coral Reefs And What's Their Purpose?
Published: 2014/07/06
Channel: Seeker
Climate Change and Conspiracy Theories at the Great Barrier Reef - Uncensored
Climate Change and Conspiracy Theories at the Great Barrier Reef - Uncensored
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Comedy Central
Conoce a la nueva reina del Miss Reef 2016
Conoce a la nueva reina del Miss Reef 2016
Published: 2016/02/21
Channel: La Tercera
The Deep Dive into Reef Aquarium Lighting
The Deep Dive into Reef Aquarium Lighting
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: Tidal Gardens Inc.
Old 97
Old 97's - Barrier Reef
Published: 2012/10/02
Channel: Wicky2k6
Tropical Reef Camera powered by EXPLORE.org
Tropical Reef Camera powered by EXPLORE.org
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: Explore Oceans
Surfing Pipeline
Surfing Pipeline's Outer Reef Bombs
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: SurfCityHawaii
reef *new album* Lucky #5
reef *new album* Lucky #5
Published: 2013/01/23
Channel: Greg Saveall
Miss Reef 2017 | Sesión fotográfica Ritoque
Miss Reef 2017 | Sesión fotográfica Ritoque
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Felipe
A Tour of Aquarius Reef Base
A Tour of Aquarius Reef Base
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: BlueWorldTV
Reef  - Set the Record Straight
Reef - Set the Record Straight
Published: 2009/12/27
Channel: total13
A Breakthrough for Coral Reef Restoration
A Breakthrough for Coral Reef Restoration
Published: 2016/02/22
Channel: The Atlantic
Minecraft PC - The-Reef.EU - Cloudy Combat
Minecraft PC - The-Reef.EU - Cloudy Combat
Published: 2014/05/11
Channel: iBallisticSquid
BREATHTAKING Reef Aquarium! HD -104 Gallons
BREATHTAKING Reef Aquarium! HD -104 Gallons
Published: 2015/02/01
Channel: CoralFish12g
We May Have Killed the Great Barrier Reef for Good
We May Have Killed the Great Barrier Reef for Good
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Complex News
REEF - The Path of the Modern Gypsy
REEF - The Path of the Modern Gypsy
Published: 2011/05/28
Channel: Luciano Gusmão
The Reef (2010) - Official Trailer
The Reef (2010) - Official Trailer
Published: 2011/01/10
Channel: horrornymphs
Conoce a las candidatas a Miss Reef 2016
Conoce a las candidatas a Miss Reef 2016
Published: 2016/02/16
Channel: Revista XY
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Pamalican island with surrounding reef, Sulu Sea, Philippines.
A reef surrounding an islet.

A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water. Reefs may be up to 261 feet (80 m) below the surface.[citation needed]

Many reefs result from abiotic processes—deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcrops, and other natural processes—but the best-known reefs are the coral reefs of tropical waters developed through biotic processes dominated by corals and calcareous algae. Artificial reefs such as shipwrecks are sometimes created to enhance physical complexity on generally featureless sand bottoms in order to attract a diverse assemblage of organisms, especially fish.

Biotic reef[edit]

There is a variety of biotic reef types, including oyster reefs, but the most massive and widely distributed are tropical coral reefs. Although corals are major contributors to the framework and bulk material comprising a coral reef, the organisms most responsible for reef growth against the constant assault from ocean waves are calcareous algae, especially, although not entirely, species of coralline algae.

These biotic reef types take on additional names depending upon how the reef lies in relation to the land, if any. Reef types include fringing reef, barrier reefs, as well as atolls. A fringing reef is a reef that is attached to an island. A barrier reef forms a calcareous barrier around an island resulting in a lagoon between the shore and the reef. An atoll is a ring reef with no land present. The reef front (ocean side) is a high energy locale whereas the internal lagoon will be at a lower energy with fine grained sediments.

Geologic reef[edit]

One useful definition distinguishes reefs from mounds as follows. Both are considered to be varieties of organosedimentary buildups: sedimentary features, built by the interaction of organisms and their environment, that have synoptic relief and whose biotic composition differs from that found on and beneath the surrounding sea floor. Reefs are held up by a macroscopic skeletal framework. Coral reefs are an excellent example of this kind. Corals and calcareous algae grow on top of one another and form a three-dimensional framework that is modified in various ways by other organisms and inorganic processes. By contrast, mounds lack a macroscopic skeletal framework. Mounds are built by microorganisms or by organisms that don't grow a skeletal framework. A microbial mound might be built exclusively or primarily by cyanobacteria. Excellent examples of biostromes formed by cyanobacteria occur in the Great Salt Lake of Utah (USA), and in Shark Bay, Western Australia.

Cyanobacteria do not have skeletons and individuals are microscopic. Cyanobacteria encourage the precipitation or accumulation of calcium carbonate and can produce distinct sediment bodies in composition that have relief on the seafloor. Cyanobacterial mounds were most abundant before the evolution of shelly macroscopic organisms, but they still exist today (stromatolites are microbial mounds with a laminated internal structure). Bryozoans and crinoids, common contributors to marine sediments during the Mississippian (for example), produced a very different kind of mound. Bryozoans are small and the skeletons of crinoids disintegrate. However, bryozoan and crinoid meadows can persist over time and produce compositionally distinct bodies of sediment with depositional relief.

The Proterozoic Belt Supergroup contains evidence of possible microbial mat and dome structures similar to stromatolite reef complexes.[1]

Geologic reef structures[edit]

Reefs off Vanatinai in the Louisiade Archipelago.

Ancient reefs buried within stratigraphic sections are of considerable interest to geologists because they provide paleo-environmental information about the location in Earth's history. In addition, reef structures within a sequence of sedimentary rocks provide a discontinuity which may serve as a trap or conduit for fossil fuels or mineralizing fluids to form petroleum or ore deposits.

Corals, including some major extinct groups Rugosa and Tabulata, have been important reef builders through much of the Phanerozoic since the Ordovician Period. However, other organism groups, such as calcifying algae, especially members of the red algae Rhodophyta, and molluscs (especially the rudist bivalves during the Cretaceous Period) have created massive structures at various times. During the Cambrian Period, the conical or tubular skeletons of Archaeocyatha, an extinct group of uncertain affinities (possibly sponges), built reefs. Other groups, such as the Bryozoa have been important interstitial organisms, living between the framework builders. The corals which build reefs today, the Scleractinia, arose after the Permian–Triassic extinction event that wiped out the earlier rugose corals (as well as many other groups), and became increasingly important reef builders throughout the Mesozoic Era. They may have arisen from a rugose coral ancestor. Rugose corals built their skeletons of calcite and have a different symmetry from that of the scleractinian corals, whose skeletons are aragonite. However, there are some unusual examples of well-preserved aragonitic rugose corals in the late Permian. In addition, calcite has been reported in the initial post-larval calcification in a few scleractinian corals. Nevertheless, scleractinian corals (which arose in the middle Triassic) may have arisen from a non-calcifying ancestor independent of the rugosan corals (which disappeared in the late Permian).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Shears N.T. (2007) Biogeography, community structure and biological habitat types of subtidal reefs on the South Island West Coast, New Zealand. Science for Conservation 281. p 53. Department of Conservation, New Zealand. [1]

External links[edit]

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