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Reformism and Revolution - Hans Heinz Holz
Reformism and Revolution - Hans Heinz Holz
Published: 2011/08/31
Channel: Communist Party
Chomsky on market anarchism, Keynesianism & reformism
Chomsky on market anarchism, Keynesianism & reformism
Published: 2008/09/21
Channel: mr1001nights
Revolution debatterar med Daniel Suhonen - Revolution eller reformism?
Revolution debatterar med Daniel Suhonen - Revolution eller reformism?
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: Revolution
Debate: left reformism, the state and socialist politics today - Paul Blackledge & Ed Rooksby
Debate: left reformism, the state and socialist politics today - Paul Blackledge & Ed Rooksby
Published: 2014/08/10
Channel: swpTvUk
Difference between Muslim moderates and real reformists: Irshad to The Guardian (UK)
Difference between Muslim moderates and real reformists: Irshad to The Guardian (UK)
Published: 2014/06/10
Channel: Irshad Manji
An Illusive Phantom of Hope: A Critique of Reformism Audiobook
An Illusive Phantom of Hope: A Critique of Reformism Audiobook
Published: 2015/07/19
Channel: Liberty Under Attack
Condorcet: 2. Social Reformism and Analysis
Condorcet: 2. Social Reformism and Analysis
Published: 2013/05/20
Channel: Peter Smith
Reform or Revolution by Rosa Luxemburg Audiobook [English] | Audible Socialism
Reform or Revolution by Rosa Luxemburg Audiobook [English] | Audible Socialism
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Audible Socialism
Reihan Salam: Lower-middle class reformism is the way to go
Reihan Salam: Lower-middle class reformism is the way to go
Published: 2012/11/16
Channel: American Enterprise Institute
WTF I
WTF I'm A Reformist Now
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Socialism Or Barbarism!
Islamic extremism, reformism, and the war on terror
Islamic extremism, reformism, and the war on terror
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: American Enterprise Institute
Hassan Abbasi pounds Sex Slave Trade by Reformists [فارسی]
Hassan Abbasi pounds Sex Slave Trade by Reformists [فارسی]
Published: 2011/01/08
Channel: zelzalosolh
Left reformism, the state and the question of organisation - Paul Blackledge
Left reformism, the state and the question of organisation - Paul Blackledge
Published: 2013/08/13
Channel: swpTvUk
Wilayat al-Faqih: The workings of Reformism
Wilayat al-Faqih: The workings of Reformism
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: Qom TV
What are Reformism & Insurrectionism
What are Reformism & Insurrectionism
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: Political Sextant
Adriano Mannino - Abolitionism, Reformism and Effective Animal Activism
Adriano Mannino - Abolitionism, Reformism and Effective Animal Activism
Published: 2013/05/22
Channel: Jean Pierre Froud
New Generation Reformists Party Video
New Generation Reformists Party Video
Published: 2014/10/24
Channel: Mac Hagler
Reformism Meaning
Reformism Meaning
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: ADictionary
Is the Saudi crown prince a reformist or power hungry
Is the Saudi crown prince a reformist or power hungry
Published: 2017/11/08
Channel: Long Live Pakistan
European Reformism, Nazism and Traditionalism  Economic Thought in Imperial Japan, 1930 1945
European Reformism, Nazism and Traditionalism Economic Thought in Imperial Japan, 1930 1945
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: Benjamin Holt
Iran’s Reformists: Who are they, who they support?
Iran’s Reformists: Who are they, who they support?
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: PressTV News Videos
Iranians Vote for Reformists
Iranians Vote for Reformists
Published: 2016/03/05
Channel: Thom Hartmann Program
Luxemburg - Reform or Revolution - The Consequences of Social Reformism (6/11)
Luxemburg - Reform or Revolution - The Consequences of Social Reformism (6/11)
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: Leftist Theory Audiobooks
Criticizing reformist papers and journalist Mohamad Ghouchani decision
Criticizing reformist papers and journalist Mohamad Ghouchani decision
Published: 2016/10/16
Channel: Manuchehr lenziran
UNIQLO Reformism reform it yourself
UNIQLO Reformism reform it yourself
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: Mo
Middle East Report: What Reformists
Middle East Report: What Reformists' Gains in Iran Mean for Iraq
Published: 2016/03/04
Channel: United News International
Reformists win big in Iran election
Reformists win big in Iran election
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: CNN
Red North Scott-Reformism
Red North Scott-Reformism
Published: 2014/10/11
Channel: RedScare TV
How To Pronounce Reformism
How To Pronounce Reformism
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: Emma Saying
UNIQLO - Reformism
UNIQLO - Reformism
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: Big Ant Academy
Reformism and Revivalisation Among Indian Muslims
Reformism and Revivalisation Among Indian Muslims
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: Ch-02 Humanities-II [Arts, History, Philosophy]
Ask Nikolai #9: Reformism, Theories, Socialism, and More!
Ask Nikolai #9: Reformism, Theories, Socialism, and More!
Published: 2015/05/15
Channel: CommunistGamer
Reformists and moderates drawing votes in Iran
Reformists and moderates drawing votes in Iran
Published: 2016/02/27
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Reformists and moderate conservatives constitute a majority
Reformists and moderate conservatives constitute a majority
Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: CCTV English
LUA Radio 7.19.2015: Reformism Does Not Work
LUA Radio 7.19.2015: Reformism Does Not Work
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: Liberty Under Attack
Hardliner Abbas Salimi Namin debate with reformist Najafgholi Habibi
Hardliner Abbas Salimi Namin debate with reformist Najafgholi Habibi
Published: 2016/06/04
Channel: Manuchehr lenziran
How to say "reformism"! (High Quality Voices)
How to say "reformism"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: WordBox
SEA 20121115 MD reformism 2245
SEA 20121115 MD reformism 2245
Published: 2012/11/16
Channel: sepideh ea
Dispute between conservative and reformist create tension  in Majlis
Dispute between conservative and reformist create tension in Majlis
Published: 2011/06/23
Channel: Agaahi
Discursive Frame of Indian Nationalism : Reformism V/s Revivalism
Discursive Frame of Indian Nationalism : Reformism V/s Revivalism
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: Cec Ugc
How to say "reformism
How to say "reformism's"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/01/18
Channel: WordBox
Muslim Ethiopia The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics, and Islamic Reformism
Muslim Ethiopia The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics, and Islamic Reformism
Published: 2016/04/03
Channel: John Yang
Iran Votes: Reformists win all parliament seats in Tehran, Sally Ayhan reports
Iran Votes: Reformists win all parliament seats in Tehran, Sally Ayhan reports
Published: 2016/02/28
Channel: TRT World
Results of Iran
Results of Iran's Election Paves Way for Reformists
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: United News International
Reformists heading to clean win in Iran
Reformists heading to clean win in Iran
Published: 2016/02/28
Channel: PressTV News Videos
The Role of Reformist Muslims - "The True Heros"
The Role of Reformist Muslims - "The True Heros"
Published: 2012/12/09
Channel: AustralianNeoCon1
Gayatri Spivak: The General Strike Is Not Reformist
Gayatri Spivak: The General Strike Is Not Reformist
Published: 2012/04/27
Channel: The Nation
Mahakavi Bharati:Social Reformist for Indian Women Rights
Mahakavi Bharati:Social Reformist for Indian Women Rights
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: Harish Srinivasan
A Talk with Reformist Micere Mugo
A Talk with Reformist Micere Mugo
Published: 2012/04/16
Channel: Kenya CitizenTV
Weiying Zhang: China
Weiying Zhang: China's Anti-Keynesian Reformist
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: Chicago Council on Global Affairs
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.[1] Within the socialist movement, reformism is the view that gradual changes through existing institutions can eventually lead to fundamental changes in a society’s political and economic systems. Reformism as a political tendency and hypothesis of social change grew out of opposition to revolutionary socialism, which contends that revolutionary upheaval is a necessary precondition for the structural changes necessary to transform a capitalist system to a qualitatively different socialist economic system.

As a doctrine, reformism is distinguished from the act of pragmatic reform: pragmatic reform aims to safeguard and permeate the status quo by preventing fundamental structural changes to it, whereas reformism posits that an accumulation of reforms can eventually lead to the emergence of entirely different economic and political systems than those of present day capitalism and democracy.[2]

Overview[edit]

There are two types of reformism. One has no intention of bringing about socialism or fundamental economic change to society and is used to oppose such structural changes. The other is based on the assumption that while reforms are not socialist in themselves, they can help rally supporters to the cause of revolution by popularizing the cause of socialism to the working class. [3]

The debate on the ability for social democratic reformism to lead to a socialist transformation of society is over a century old.

Reformism is criticized for being paradoxical: it seeks to overcome the existing economic system of capitalism, but it tries to improve the conditions of capitalism thereby making it appear more tolerable to society. According to Rosa Luxemburg, under reformism, "(capitalism) is not overthrown, but is on the contrary strengthened by the development of social reforms."[4] In a similar vein, Stan Parker of the Socialist Party of Great Britain argues that reforms are a diversion of energy for socialists and are limited because they must adhere to the logic of capitalism.[5]

The French social theorist Andre Gorz criticized reformism by advocating a third alternative to reformism and social revolution that he called "non-reformist reforms". "Non-reformist reforms" are reforms specifically focused on structural changes to capitalism, as opposed to reforms for improve living conditions within capitalism or to prop it up through economic interventions.[6]

History[edit]

In 1875 German Social Democratic Party (SPD) adopted a Gotha Program that proposed "every lawful means" on a way to a "socialist society" and was criticized by Karl Marx who considered the communist revolution a required step. One of the delegates to the SPD congress, Eduard Bernstein, expanded on the concept, proposing evolutionary socialism. Bernstein was a leading social democrat in Germany. Reformism was quickly targeted by revolutionary socialists, with Rosa Luxemburg condemning Bernstein's Evolutionary Socialism in her 1900 essay Reform or Revolution?.[7] While Luxemburg died in the German Revolution, the reformists soon found themselves contending with the Bolsheviks and their satellite communist parties for the support of intellectuals and the working class.

In 1959, the Godesberg Program (signed at a party convention in the West German capital of Bad Godesberg) marked the shift of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from a Marxist program espousing an end to capitalism to a reformist one focused on social reform.

After Joseph Stalin consolidated power in the Soviet Union, the Comintern launched a campaign against the Reformist movement by denouncing them as "social fascists". According to The God that Failed by Arthur Koestler, a former member of the Communist Party of Germany, the largest communist party in Western Europe in the Interwar period, communists, aligned with the Soviet Union, continued to consider the "social fascist" Social Democratic Party of Germany to be the real enemy in Germany, even after the Nazi Party had gotten into power.[8]

In modern times, reformists are seen as centre-left. Some social democratic parties, such as the Canadian NDP and the Social Democratic Party of Germany, are still considered to be reformist.[citation needed]

Reformism in the British Labour Party[edit]

The term was applied to elements within the British Labour Party in the 1950s and subsequently, on the party's right. Anthony Crosland wrote The Future of Socialism (1956) as a personal manifesto arguing for a reformulation of the term. For Crosland, the relevance of nationalization (or public ownership) for socialists was much reduced as a consequence of contemporary full employment, Keynesian management of the economy and reduced capitalist exploitation. In 1960, after the third successive defeat of his party in the 1959 General Election Hugh Gaitskell attempted to reformulate the original wording of Clause IV in the party's constitution, but proved unsuccessful.

Some of the younger followers of Gaitskell, principally Roy Jenkins, Bill Rodgers and Shirley Williams left the Labour Party in 1981 to found the Social Democratic Party, but the central objective of the Gaitskellites was eventually achieved by Tony Blair in his successful attempt to rewrite Clause IV in 1995.

The use of the term is distinguished from the gradualism associated with Fabianism (the ideology of the Fabian Society), which itself should not be seen as being in parallel with the revisionism associated with Bernstein and the Social Democratic Party of Germany, as originally the Fabians had explicitly rejected Marxism.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Collins English Dictionary. "Reformism". HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 8 August 2017. a doctrine or movement advocating reform, esp political or religious reform, rather than abolition. 
  2. ^ Paul Blackledge (2013). "Left reformism, the state and the problem of socialist politics today and Jesus followers". International Socialist Journal. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  3. ^ Stan Parker (March 2002). "Reformism - or socialism?". Socialist Standard. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  4. ^ Duncan Hallas (1973). "Do We Support Reformist Demands?". Controversy: Do we support reformist demands?. International Socialism. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  5. ^ Stan Parker (March 2002). "Reformism - or socialism?". Socialist Standard. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  6. ^ Lois Clifton (November 2011). "Do we need reform of revolution?". Socialist Review. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  7. ^ Rosa Luxemburg. Reform or Revolution (1900)
  8. ^ Koestler, Arthur. The God That Failed. Edited by Richard Crossman. Bantam Matrix, Tenth Edition. pp 41-42.

External links[edit]

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