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Reformism and Revolution - Hans Heinz Holz
Reformism and Revolution - Hans Heinz Holz
Published: 2011/08/31
Channel: Communist Party
Difference between Muslim moderates and real reformists: Irshad to The Guardian (UK)
Difference between Muslim moderates and real reformists: Irshad to The Guardian (UK)
Published: 2014/06/10
Channel: Irshad Manji
Chomsky on market anarchism, Keynesianism & reformism
Chomsky on market anarchism, Keynesianism & reformism
Published: 2008/09/21
Channel: mr1001nights
Revolution debatterar med Daniel Suhonen - Revolution eller reformism?
Revolution debatterar med Daniel Suhonen - Revolution eller reformism?
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: Revolution
Reihan Salam: Lower-middle class reformism is the way to go
Reihan Salam: Lower-middle class reformism is the way to go
Published: 2012/11/16
Channel: American Enterprise Institute
Condorcet: 2. Social Reformism and Analysis
Condorcet: 2. Social Reformism and Analysis
Published: 2013/05/20
Channel: Peter Smith
Iran’s Reformists: Who are they, who they support?
Iran’s Reformists: Who are they, who they support?
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: PressTV News Videos
IRAN: ELECTION LANDSLIDE VICTORY FOR REFORMISTS
IRAN: ELECTION LANDSLIDE VICTORY FOR REFORMISTS
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Abby Martin and Sole: Reformist Identitarianism
Abby Martin and Sole: Reformist Identitarianism
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: sweins3
UNIQLO - Reformism
UNIQLO - Reformism
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: Big Ant Academy
Reformists and Revolutionaries (Part 2)
Reformists and Revolutionaries (Part 2)
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: TOTAL FREEDOM
Red North Scott-Reformism
Red North Scott-Reformism
Published: 2014/10/11
Channel: RedScare TV
Alphonse Merrheim: The Emergence of Reformism in Revolutionary Syndicalism, 1871 1925 | Ebook
Alphonse Merrheim: The Emergence of Reformism in Revolutionary Syndicalism, 1871 1925 | Ebook
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: Keneth Wagoner
An Illusive Phantom of Hope: A Critique of Reformism Audiobook
An Illusive Phantom of Hope: A Critique of Reformism Audiobook
Published: 2015/07/19
Channel: Liberty Under Attack
Reformists and moderate conservatives constitute a majority
Reformists and moderate conservatives constitute a majority
Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: CCTV English
What are Reformism & Insurrectionism
What are Reformism & Insurrectionism
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: Political Sextant
Left reformism, the state and the question of organisation - Paul Blackledge
Left reformism, the state and the question of organisation - Paul Blackledge
Published: 2013/08/13
Channel: swpTvUk
Debate: left reformism, the state and socialist politics today - Paul Blackledge & Ed Rooksby
Debate: left reformism, the state and socialist politics today - Paul Blackledge & Ed Rooksby
Published: 2014/08/10
Channel: swpTvUk
Muslim Ethiopia The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics, and Islamic Reformism
Muslim Ethiopia The Christian Legacy, Identity Politics, and Islamic Reformism
Published: 2016/04/03
Channel: John Yang
Focus at Four: Effect for U.S. of more reformists in Iran government - First at 4
Focus at Four: Effect for U.S. of more reformists in Iran government - First at 4
Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: KBTX News
The Platform of the Reformists and the Platform of the Revolutionary Social-Democrats(LENIN Nov.1912
The Platform of the Reformists and the Platform of the Revolutionary Social-Democrats(LENIN Nov.1912
Published: 2015/05/24
Channel: Marxist-Leninist Theory
The Eco Reformist
The Eco Reformist
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: Jacob Mann
Public Debate on Reformism   ICAS NA 2015
Public Debate on Reformism ICAS NA 2015
Published: 2015/04/21
Channel: Instititutefor Criticalanimalstudies
Islamic extremism, reformism, and the war on terror
Islamic extremism, reformism, and the war on terror
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: American Enterprise Institute
UNIQLO Reformism reform it yourself
UNIQLO Reformism reform it yourself
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: Mo
Weiying Zhang: China
Weiying Zhang: China's Anti-Keynesian Reformist
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: Chicago Council on Global Affairs
Reformists win most seats in parliament in Iran election
Reformists win most seats in parliament in Iran election
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: TRT World
Iran - Hossein from Tehran:
Iran - Hossein from Tehran: 'People want to overthrow this Regime, Reformists dont represent us'
Published: 2011/03/10
Channel: UNITY4IRAN
Reformism Meaning
Reformism Meaning
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: ADictionary
A Talk with Reformist Micere Mugo
A Talk with Reformist Micere Mugo
Published: 2012/04/16
Channel: Kenya CitizenTV
Reform or Revolution by Rosa Luxemburg Audiobook [English] | Audible Socialism
Reform or Revolution by Rosa Luxemburg Audiobook [English] | Audible Socialism
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Audible Socialism
Rethinking Islamic Reform: Hamza Yusuf & Tariq Ramadan
Rethinking Islamic Reform: Hamza Yusuf & Tariq Ramadan
Published: 2011/09/29
Channel: Ahmed Hussien
SEA 20121115 MD reformism 2245
SEA 20121115 MD reformism 2245
Published: 2012/11/16
Channel: sepideh ea
Ask Nikolai #9: Reformism, Theories, Socialism, and More!
Ask Nikolai #9: Reformism, Theories, Socialism, and More!
Published: 2015/05/15
Channel: CommunistGamer
Hassan Abbasi on The Foreign Policy of Reformists
Hassan Abbasi on The Foreign Policy of Reformists
Published: 2012/03/21
Channel: tabrizi79
European Reformism, Nazism and Traditionalism  Economic Thought in Imperial Japan, 1930 1945
European Reformism, Nazism and Traditionalism Economic Thought in Imperial Japan, 1930 1945
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: Benjamin Holt
Luxemburg - Reform or Revolution - The Consequences of Social Reformism (6/11)
Luxemburg - Reform or Revolution - The Consequences of Social Reformism (6/11)
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: Leftist Theory Audiobooks
Reformists and moderates drawing votes in Iran
Reformists and moderates drawing votes in Iran
Published: 2016/02/27
Channel: PBS NewsHour
LUA Radio 7.19.2015: Reformism Does Not Work
LUA Radio 7.19.2015: Reformism Does Not Work
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: Liberty Under Attack
How to say "reformism"! (High Quality Voices)
How to say "reformism"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: WordBox
How to say "reformism
How to say "reformism's"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/01/18
Channel: WordBox
Iranians Vote for Reformists
Iranians Vote for Reformists
Published: 2016/03/05
Channel: Thom Hartmann Program
Gayatri Spivak: The General Strike Is Not Reformist
Gayatri Spivak: The General Strike Is Not Reformist
Published: 2012/04/27
Channel: The Nation
The House in Fata Morgana - Part 2 (Special Feature - Read with Reformist)
The House in Fata Morgana - Part 2 (Special Feature - Read with Reformist)
Published: 2016/05/20
Channel: ReformistTM
IRAN: PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION: REFORMISTS
IRAN: PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION: REFORMISTS
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Reformists gain in Iran
Reformists gain in Iran's run-off parliamentary election
Published: 2016/05/01
Channel: New China TV
3rd Luna Reformists (clear copy)
3rd Luna Reformists (clear copy)
Published: 2014/02/14
Channel: Acey Leonidas
How to Pronounce Reformism
How to Pronounce Reformism
Published: 2014/06/18
Channel: Emma Saying
Fighting Breaks Out At Pro-Democracy Rally, Parliamentary Election Reformists, Election Landslide Vi
Fighting Breaks Out At Pro-Democracy Rally, Parliamentary Election Reformists, Election Landslide Vi
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Reformists, moderates unite for Iran elections
Reformists, moderates unite for Iran elections
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: AP Archive
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Reformism is a political position that posits that gradual changes within existing institutions can eventually change a society's fundamental aspects, such as its economic system and political structures. Within the socialist movement, reformism as a hypothesis of social change grew out of opposition to revolutionary socialism, which contends that some form of revolutionary upheaval is necessary for fundamental structural changes to occur in society. In contrast, reformism posits that a capitalist economy can be gradually transformed into a qualitatively different socialist system through political and economic reform.

Reformism is to be distinguished from pragmatic reforms: reformism is the assumption that an accumulation of reforms can lead to the emergence of an entirely different socioeconomic system than the present-day forms of capitalism and democracy, whereas pragmatic reforms represent attempts to safeguard the status quo from fundamental and structural changes.[1]

Overview[edit]

There are two types of reformism. One has no intention of bringing about socialism or fundamental economic change to society and is used to oppose such structural changes. The other is based on the assumption that while reforms are not socialist in themselves, they can help rally supporters to the cause of revolution by popularizing the cause of socialism to the working class. [2]

The debate on the ability for social democratic reformism to lead to a socialist transformation of society is over a century old.

Reformism is criticized for being paradoxical: it seeks to overcome the existing economic system of capitalism, but it tries to improve the conditions of capitalism thereby making it appear more tolerable to society. According to Rosa Luxemburg, under reformism, "(capitalism) is not overthrown, but is on the contrary strengthened by the development of social reforms."[3] In a similar vein, Stan Parker of the Socialist Party of Great Britain argues that reforms are a diversion of energy for socialists and are limited because they must adhere to the logic of capitalism.[4]

The French social theorist Andre Gorz criticized reformism by advocating a third alternative to reformism and social revolution that he called "non-reformist reforms". "Non-reformist reforms" are reforms specifically focused on structural changes to capitalism, as opposed to reforms for improve living conditions within capitalism or to prop it up through economic interventions.[5]

History[edit]

In 1875 German Social Democratic Party (SPD) adopted a Gotha Program that proposed "every lawful means" on a way to a "socialist society" and was criticized by Karl Marx who considered the communist revolution a required step. One of the delegates to the SPD congress, Eduard Bernstein, expanded on the concept, proposing evolutionary socialism. Bernstein was a leading social democrat in Germany. Reformism was quickly targeted by revolutionary socialists, with Rosa Luxemburg condemning Bernstein's Evolutionary Socialism in her 1900 essay Reform or Revolution?.[6] While Luxemburg died in the German Revolution, the reformists soon found themselves contending with the Bolsheviks and their satellite communist parties for the support of intellectuals and the working class.

In 1959, the Godesberg Program (signed at a party convention in the West German capital of Bad Godesberg) marked the shift of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from a Marxist program espousing an end to capitalism to a reformist one focused on social reform.

After Joseph Stalin consolidated power in the Soviet Union, the Comintern launched a campaign against the Reformist movement by denouncing them as "social fascists". According to The God that Failed by Arthur Koestler, a former member of the Communist Party of Germany, the largest communist party in Western Europe in the Interwar period, communists, aligned with the Soviet Union, continued to consider the "social fascist" Social Democratic Party of Germany to be the real enemy in Germany, even after the Nazi Party had gotten into power.[7]

In modern times, reformists are seen as centre-left. Some social democratic parties, such as the Canadian NDP and the Social Democratic Party of Germany, are still considered to be reformist.[citation needed]

Reformism in the British Labour Party[edit]

The term was applied to elements within the British Labour Party in the 1950s and subsequently, on the party's right. Anthony Crosland wrote The Future of Socialism (1956) as a personal manifesto arguing for a reformulation of the term. For Crosland, the relevance of nationalization (or public ownership) for socialists was much reduced as a consequence of contemporary full employment, Keynesian management of the economy and reduced capitalist exploitation. In 1960, after the third successive defeat of his party in the 1959 General Election Hugh Gaitskell attempted to reformulate the original wording of Clause IV in the party's constitution, but proved unsuccessful.

Some of the younger followers of Gaitskell, principally Roy Jenkins, Bill Rodgers and Shirley Williams left the Labour Party in 1981 to found the Social Democratic Party, but the central objective of the Gaitskellites was eventually achieved by Tony Blair in his successful attempt to rewrite Clause IV in 1995.

The use of the term is distinguished from the gradualism associated with Fabianism (the ideology of the Fabian Society), which itself should not be seen as being in parallel with the revisionism associated with Bernstein and the Social Democratic Party of Germany, as originally the Fabians had explicitly rejected Marxism.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Paul Blackledge (2013). "Left reformism, the state and the problem of socialist politics today and Jesus followers". International Socialist Journal. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Stan Parker (March 2002). "Reformism - or socialism?". Socialist Standard. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  3. ^ Duncan Hallas (1973). "Do We Support Reformist Demands?". Controversy: Do we support reformist demands?. International Socialism. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  4. ^ Stan Parker (March 2002). "Reformism - or socialism?". Socialist Standard. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  5. ^ Lois Clifton (November 2011). "Do we need reform of revolution?". Socialist Review. Retrieved 3 September 2015. 
  6. ^ Rosa Luxemburg. Reform or Revolution (1900)
  7. ^ Koestler, Arthur. The God That Failed. Edited by Richard Crossman. Bantam Matrix, Tenth Edition. pp 41-42.

External links[edit]

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