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The all-new MRJ   -Mitsubishi Regional Jet-
The all-new MRJ -Mitsubishi Regional Jet-
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: MitsubishiAircraft
[FUNNY ATC] IMPATIENT PILOT INSULTS a Regional Jet... =O
[FUNNY ATC] IMPATIENT PILOT INSULTS a Regional Jet... =O
Published: 2016/08/05
Channel: VASAviation -
(HD) Regional Jet Takeover - HD Airplanes Spotting  O
(HD) Regional Jet Takeover - HD Airplanes Spotting O'Hare International Airport
Published: 2014/08/18
Channel: Jay's O'HareAviation Plane Spotting HD
Embraer E190-E2 vs Mitsubishi Regional Jet MRJ90 LR
Embraer E190-E2 vs Mitsubishi Regional Jet MRJ90 LR
Published: 2016/12/15
Channel: flydz
Newark: The Load Of United Express Embraer Regional Jets (HD1080p)
Newark: The Load Of United Express Embraer Regional Jets (HD1080p)
Published: 2013/06/09
Channel: *Inactive* Subscribe to my new channel! New York Planespotting (CathayA340)
Out Front in Aviation - Transforming the Regional Jet Market
Out Front in Aviation - Transforming the Regional Jet Market
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: GE Aviation
China Insight 07/02/2016 First home-grown regional jet ARJ21-700
China Insight 07/02/2016 First home-grown regional jet ARJ21-700
Published: 2016/07/04
Channel: CCTV English
Turkish Regional Jet ( TRJ328 & TRJ 628 )
Turkish Regional Jet ( TRJ328 & TRJ 628 )
Published: 2015/11/15
Channel: CaptainBaseball
Canadair Regional Jet 700 Landing and Take-Off
Canadair Regional Jet 700 Landing and Take-Off
Published: 2013/05/18
Channel: PlanespottingGermany
American Airlines Regional Jet Taxi Takeoff Climb Joplin Missouri Airport
American Airlines Regional Jet Taxi Takeoff Climb Joplin Missouri Airport
Published: 2015/07/12
Channel: Patriot1RAM
American Eagle | CRJ-900 | Washington Dulles ✈ Charlotte Douglas, NC | Economy |
American Eagle | CRJ-900 | Washington Dulles ✈ Charlotte Douglas, NC | Economy |
Published: 2016/07/16
Channel: Zuhair Farouk
Commercial Jet Documentary | Private Jets : Bombardier CRJ 1000 English subtitles
Commercial Jet Documentary | Private Jets : Bombardier CRJ 1000 English subtitles
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Paul Schaffer
HOP! - Bombardier Regional Jet CRJ-1000 NextGen ER F-HMLJ - Landing at Split airport SPU/LDSP
HOP! - Bombardier Regional Jet CRJ-1000 NextGen ER F-HMLJ - Landing at Split airport SPU/LDSP
Published: 2014/07/14
Channel: EdoStuff ✈ CroHD Plane Spotting
Flightglobal
Flightglobal's Ghim-Lay Yeo takes you on a tour of Mitsubishi's MRJ regional jet
Published: 2011/06/22
Channel: FlightGlobal
Regional Jet First Class San Francisco to Calgary
Regional Jet First Class San Francisco to Calgary
Published: 2013/05/11
Channel: sfflyer123
China
China's first regional jet starts commercial operations
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: CGTN
Inside the new Bombardier CRJ1000 regional jet
Inside the new Bombardier CRJ1000 regional jet
Published: 2011/01/28
Channel: Runway Girl Network
Delta Airlines Embraer ERJ-170 and Bombardier CRJ-700 Regional Jets
Delta Airlines Embraer ERJ-170 and Bombardier CRJ-700 Regional Jets
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: TheHDAviation
Canadair Regional Jet CRJ-200 Takeoff from San Jose
Canadair Regional Jet CRJ-200 Takeoff from San Jose
Published: 2012/09/04
Channel: NickFlightX
Avro Regional Jet RJ85 Take Off at Airport Bern-Belp
Avro Regional Jet RJ85 Take Off at Airport Bern-Belp
Published: 2012/09/26
Channel: matthiashaenni
United Airlines Canadair Bombardier CRJ200 Regional Jet New Interior
United Airlines Canadair Bombardier CRJ200 Regional Jet New Interior
Published: 2014/04/23
Channel: Zennie62 Daily Vlog
NASA and FAA drop test regional jet fuselage
NASA and FAA drop test regional jet fuselage
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: NASA Langley Research Center
The first Japanese-made passenger jet - Mitsubishi Regional Jet -  MRJ90
The first Japanese-made passenger jet - Mitsubishi Regional Jet - MRJ90
Published: 2015/12/06
Channel: divxmaniac
Mitsubishi Regional Jet: “We’re ready to deliver the aircraft”
Mitsubishi Regional Jet: “We’re ready to deliver the aircraft”
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: We Are FINN
First Mitsubishi Regional Jet MRJ90 Test Flight Departure @ Moses Lake
First Mitsubishi Regional Jet MRJ90 Test Flight Departure @ Moses Lake
Published: 2016/11/03
Channel: OwnsGermany
First Mitsubishi Regional Jet arrives in Moses Lake for flight testing
First Mitsubishi Regional Jet arrives in Moses Lake for flight testing
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: iFIBER OneNews
[Livestream] The World
[Livestream] The World's Fastest Regional Jet, JRollon CRJ-200 ✈️ 2017-01-06
Published: 2017/01/07
Channel: catstrator
Mitsubishi shows off new regional jet cabin
Mitsubishi shows off new regional jet cabin
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: AP Archive
mitsubishi regional jet
mitsubishi regional jet
Published: 2012/02/24
Channel: kokpitaero
Mitsubishi Regional Jet MRJ90 First Flight [HD]
Mitsubishi Regional Jet MRJ90 First Flight [HD]
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: AirlineFlyer
China
China's Commercial Aircraft Maker Delivers 2nd Regional Jet ARJ21 to Chengdu Airlines
Published: 2016/09/30
Channel: CCTV+
Birth of the PW1200G engine for Mitsubishi Regional Jet aircraft
Birth of the PW1200G engine for Mitsubishi Regional Jet aircraft
Published: 2011/12/05
Channel: Pratt & Whitney PurePower Engine
Delta Plans Changes to Regional Jet Fleet
Delta Plans Changes to Regional Jet Fleet
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Wochit Business
ATP Regional Jet Programs
ATP Regional Jet Programs
Published: 2011/03/25
Channel: ATP Flight School
China
China's First Home-developed Regional Jet Made First Commercial Flight
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: CCTV+
Canadair CL-600-2D24 Regional Jet CRJ-900 Air Nostrum ( Iberia Regional )
Canadair CL-600-2D24 Regional Jet CRJ-900 Air Nostrum ( Iberia Regional )
Published: 2010/08/20
Channel: aviationchannel2010
Canadair Regional Jet: Takeoff and Landing
Canadair Regional Jet: Takeoff and Landing
Published: 2010/09/29
Channel: Kyle Klink
[MRJ 能登空港着陸] Mitsubishi Regional Jet MRJ90STD JA21MJ LANDING NOTO Airport 2016.6.17
[MRJ 能登空港着陸] Mitsubishi Regional Jet MRJ90STD JA21MJ LANDING NOTO Airport 2016.6.17
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: whitewing681 [Travel Aviation Railway]
China
China's home-grown ARJ21 commercial regional jet delivered
Published: 2015/11/30
Channel: New China TV
AVIAÇÃO.  EMBRAER REGIONAL JET.
AVIAÇÃO. EMBRAER REGIONAL JET.
Published: 2015/06/13
Channel: Pedro Gabriel
Canadair Regional Jet 700 Landing and Take-Off
Canadair Regional Jet 700 Landing and Take-Off
Published: 2012/07/15
Channel: PlanespottingGermany
MRJ model - Mitsubishi Regional Jet model
MRJ model - Mitsubishi Regional Jet model
Published: 2009/02/05
Channel: ssssspppp00
Airbus A380 Collision and Crash with Canadair Regional Jet (CRJ)
Airbus A380 Collision and Crash with Canadair Regional Jet (CRJ)
Published: 2011/04/13
Channel: DaDailyBread
China
China's homemade ARJ21 regional jet gets approval for mass production
Published: 2017/07/10
Channel: New China TV
Aviation in China takes off with first domestically-designed regional jet
Aviation in China takes off with first domestically-designed regional jet
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: CGTN America
Eurowings  Start vom Flughafen Dresden Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet CRJ-900LR
Eurowings Start vom Flughafen Dresden Bombardier Canadair Regional Jet CRJ-900LR
Published: 2016/06/20
Channel: Marko Herrmann
Reporter boards new Chinese regional jet for test flight
Reporter boards new Chinese regional jet for test flight
Published: 2014/10/30
Channel: New China TV
Crosswind Landing Delta Regional Jet
Crosswind Landing Delta Regional Jet
Published: 2013/02/26
Channel: AIRBOYD
Modhop.com Review | American Eagle | Canadair Regional Jet 700 | Seat 1A
Modhop.com Review | American Eagle | Canadair Regional Jet 700 | Seat 1A
Published: 2010/12/06
Channel: Jake Redman
Mitsubishi Regional Jet Goes Into Production
Mitsubishi Regional Jet Goes Into Production
Published: 2012/01/25
Channel: Mike Firn
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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An Embraer E-170 short-haul jet airliner in the "eurowhite" aircraft livery of Cirrus Airlines.

A regional jet (RJ) is a class of short to medium-range turbofan powered regional airliners.

History[edit]

The term "regional jet" describes a range of short to medium-haul turbofan-powered aircraft, whose use throughout the world expanded after the advent of airline deregulation in the United States in 1978.

Polish government Yakovlev Yak-40 at the Polish Aviation Museum.

Regional jet airliners are not a new concept in aviation. Starting in the late 1960s Aeroflot, for example, used Yakolev Yak-40 regional sized mini-jet airliners, when its airline functioned as a state controlled national directive. In the West the smaller Aerospatiale Corvette was used as a regional airliner from the 1970s onwards. Several large business jets, such as the British Aerospace 125 and Dassault Falcon 20 were also operated by smaller airlines in the 1960s and 1970s.

Large 70–100 passenger short haul regional aircraft in the western world have existed for years. National "Flag carrier airlines" began ordering the first true purpose-built short-haul airliner, the Sud Aviation Caravelle, a twin turbojet airliner designed for use upon inter-European routes. To speed manufacturing, the Caravelle used the forward fuselage nose section of the de Havilland Comet, the West's first large-scale commercial jetliner, which was not as effective in continental-European flights.

Many of the post World War II airliners were often used on shorter and economically significant prestige routes such as London-Paris, or New York-Chicago, by the world's major airlines.

With the arrival of economy class travel, which blossomed during the post World War II years, non-jet aircraft of the larger airlines migrated toward the "trunk airlines," "minor airlines," "feeder airlines" and "commuter airlines" throughout international air lanes and sky ways.

In the post-war era many aircraft manufacturers sought to create a replacement aircraft for the "ubiquitous" Douglas DC-3, which was surplus in large amounts after the war. First with large 40–50 passenger sized piston powered Convair 340s and Martin 202s, and later with turboprop powered aircraft such as the Convair 580, Fairchild F-27 and Fokker F27

These earlier large 50 passenger aircraft had begun to trickle down to the larger trunk and minor airlines, which were used on shorter range regional routes that had become their forte, especially in the U.S. Smaller "mini-airliners" soon found niches regionally in the 1960s when aircraft manufacturers such as the British made Shorts Skyvan, Brazilian Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante, and French Nord 262, all sought to capture the lower end of the DC-3 replacement market.

In the 1970s, the market for smaller sized mini-airliners boomed with the process of route liberalization in the U.S known as Airline Deregulation went into force in 1978. Airline passengers in the U.S accustomed to flying larger jet aircraft and even the smaller "trickled down" short haul propeller motivated and equipped "propliners", with features such as aircraft lavatories and air hostesses, were taken aback when flying aboard on "puddle jumpers" that had neither.

Due to growing markets for feeder routes, airlines and aircraft manufacturers rapidly replaced these "puddle jumpers" with larger amenity equipped, turboprop "mini airliners," generally flown by regionally based smaller airlines to feed larger airlines' hub cities. The same market forces also allowed these "mini airliners" to be rapidly supplanted by faster longer range, first generation turbofan powered regional jets (as the first generation Bombardier CRJ became known), differentiating them from prior generation equipment.

Another reason for the downturn in the turboprop market was the introduction of the first regional jets. Although a number of small jets entered service in the 1950s and 60s, notably the Sud Aviation Caravelle, Fokker F28 Fellowship, British Aircraft Corporation BAC One-Eleven and Yak-40, these could not compete in terms of cost of operation with the turboprop designs, and were suitable for routes with small numbers of passengers, as opposed to short routes where fuel economy was paramount. As engine technology improved, this difference continued to narrow, until the higher utilization factors due to higher cruising speeds erased any remaining advantage from lower operating costs.

The earliest example of a true short-range jet is the BAe 146, produced by BAE Systems. However, like the de Havilland Canada Dash 7 before it, the BAe 146 was tuned to a very specific market, city-center to city-center service where low noise and excellent takeoff performance were paramount. Like the Dash 7, the market niche for this design proved to be fairly small, and its four engines meant it had higher maintenance costs than twin-engine designs. Unlike the Dash 7 example BAe did not respond by producing a twin-engine design that filled the same range requirements but offering lower operational costs. The BAe 146 was produced in three differently sized versions, being the BAe 146-100, the BAe 146-200 and the largest example, the BAe 146-300. The aircraft would later be manufactured as the Avro Regional Jet (ARJ).

90's 50-seaters[edit]

A Delta connection Bombardier CRJ and a United Express Embraer ERJ

Low fuel prices drove the development of the regional jet: in the '90s oil prices were around $10–20 per barrel. Turboprop manufacturers wanted to develop their portfolio. Canadair's purchase by Bombardier in 1986 enabled a stretched development of its Challenger business jet, green-lighted by then chief executive Laurent Beaudoin in March 1989. The first Bombardier four-abreast Canadair Regional Jet was delivered in October 1992 to Lufthansa CityLine.[1]

Embraer then developed the three-abreast ERJ 145 from the EMB-120 Brasilia turboprop, which was introduced in December 1996. They replaced the turboprops thanks to their better perceived image and larger range. On small-capacity long routes, they could offer a better service by increasing frequencies at a smaller capacity and could replace mainline jet airliners like McDonnell Douglas DC-9s and Boeing 737s.[1]

U.S. scope clauses[edit]

US major carriers high pilots' wages led them to subcontract flights to regional airlines with lower labour costs. Pilot unions then demanded to regulate subcontracted aircraft size to a 50 seats maximum scope clause. In turn, large routes were served by suboptimal 50-seat jets which accelerated demand for those types in North America. Embraer envisioned a market for more than 500 aircraft and planned to produce up to 80 a year, but at peak delivered 157 ERJs in 2000 while Bombardier delivered 155 CRJs in 2003.[1]

After 9/11, high fuel prices returned and jets had to grow to keep seat-mile costs down. Airlines renegotiated scope clause limits to 70-seat jets as the market consolidates. Larger aircraft came back on regional routes for their efficiency and on short routes turboprops don't lose too much time for a lower cost, reversing the 90's trend. Bombardier delivered its last 50-seat CRJ in 2006 and Embraer its last ERJ in 2011.[1]

Larger jets[edit]

Bombardier switched to its lengthened 70- to 100-seat CRJ700/900/1000, while Embraer launched the four-abreast E-Jet170/175/190/195. 50 seats jets demand is lower with high fuel prices, and it reflects on a lower market value. A majority of them will be scrapped.[1]

Bombardier and Embraer have been locked in a series of counter-lawsuits over export taxes and subsidies ever since. The ERJ's success led to a totally new version, the Embraer E-Jets series. Bombardier developed a larger aircraft in response, the CSeries.

Graphical comparison between aircraft, based on the number of seats.

These aircraft were originally intended to be used for direct airport-to-airport flights, bypassing hubs, and led to industry-wide discussions about the decline of the hub-and-spoke model. Although not as economical as the turboprop, by flying directly to and from smaller airports, they reduced the need for low-cost regional airliners. And although turboprops are quiet to outside observers, propwash makes them very noisy inside.[2] Passengers greatly preferred jets, both for real and perception reasons.

Other competitors have not been successful. Fairchild Dornier introduced the Fairchild Dornier 328JET to compete, but went bankrupt soon afterwards and the type did not enter large scale production. Their bankruptcy also ended development of the more competitive Fairchild-Dornier 728, which had attracted strong airline interest. The CRJ/ERJ also resulted in the end of the BAe 146 line.

The CRJ and ERJ success also played a minor part in the failure of Fokker, whose Fokker 100 found itself squeezed on both sides by new models of the Boeing 737 and Airbus A319 on the "large" side and the RJs on the "small side". Bombardier turned down the chance to purchase Fokker's assets, feeling that the 100-seat market was already saturated by designs like the A319, a decision that looked foolish with the successful introduction of the E-Jets.

The Antonov An-148 has been successfully certified and tested and the production has started with three machines already built. Most of the orders are from post-Soviet markets and the Middle East, for European markets are still fairly hesitant to adopt aircraft from the former Soviet Union. The Sukhoi Superjet 100, a 60 to 95-seat jet developed by the Russian aerospace firm Sukhoi with assistance of Ilyushin and Boeing, completed its maiden flight in May 2008.

The largest regional jet to date was the Boeing 747-Short Range (SR), used extensively in Japan. The aircraft had a strengthened undercarriage and airframe to cope with the additional landings and takeoffs regional flights make. Japan Air Lines was the first airline in the world to introduce this 747 version, in 1974. Coincidently it was this short-range Boeing 747 version that was involved in the horrifying loss of life in the crash of Japan Airlines Flight 123 and the most loss of life upon a jetliner of any size.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Boom and bust, the regional jet phenomenon". Flight Global. 10 April 2012. 
  2. ^ "Airlines give propellers another spin". MSNBC. Retrieved 2008-05-01. 

External links[edit]

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