Reichsführer-SS (help·info) was a special title and SS rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945. Reichsführer-SS was a title from 1925 to 1933 and later during 1934, the highest rank of the German Schutzstaffel (SS). The SS saw its largest growth during the tenure of Heinrich Himmler, who also had this position longer than all others combined.
Reichsführer-SS was both a title and a rank. The title of Reichsführer was first created in 1926 by Joseph Berchtold. Berchtold's predecessor, Julius Schreck, never referred to himself as Reichsführer, but the title was retroactively applied to him in later years. In 1929, Heinrich Himmler became Reichsführer-SS and referred to himself by his title instead of his regular SS rank of Obergruppenführer. This set the precedent for the commander of the SS to be called Reichsführer-SS.
Prior to the Night of the Long Knives, the SS was part of the Sturmabteilung (SA or storm troopers), and the Reichsführer-SS was subordinate to the SA's operating head, the Stabschef. On 20 July 1934, as part of the purge of the SA, the SS was made an independent organization. From that point on, the title of Reichsführer-SS became an actual rank, and in fact the highest rank of the SS. In this position, Himmler was on paper the equivalent of a Generalfeldmarschall in the German Army and Grand Admiral in the German Navy, and answerable only to Hitler. As Himmler's position and authority grew in Nazi Germany, so did his rank in a "de facto" sense. Further, there was never more than one Reichsführer-SS at any one time, with Himmler holding the position as his personal title from 1929 (becoming his actual rank in 1934) until April 1945.
As the highest-ranking officer of the SS, the holder of this position in effect held several roles and wielded an enormous amount of personal power. The Reichsführer-SS was responsible for all internal security within the Third Reich. The Reichsführer-SS was overseer of the concentration camps, extermination camps (through the Concentration Camps Inspectorate and SS-TV), and Einsatzgruppen (through the RSHA). Because Nazi Germany developed into a dictatorship, his influence on both civil and foreign policy became marked, as the Reichsführer reported directly to Hitler and his actions were not tempered by democratic means. This meant the office holder could implement broad policy such as the Final Solution, or order criminal acts such as the Stalag Luft III murders, without impediment.
It is difficult to define precisely the full detailed duties and responsibilities of the Reichsführer-SS beyond that of leader and senior member of the SS, since, in the words of one historian, "(b)y the outbreak of the (Second World) war it would have been impossible to define exactly the role within the state" of the entire SS itself.
The rank of Reichsführer-SS was defined in the SS hierarchy as the highest possible rank of the Allgemeine-SS. The exact position of the rank within the military Waffen-SS evolved over many years, ranging from clearly defined to vaguely associated. The Waffen-SS was originally a small armed SS unit called the SS-Verfügungstruppe, and in the 1930s was clearly under the command of Himmler who, in his position as Reichsführer-SS, issued directives and orders to SS-VT commanders. Hold-outs existed for some aspects of the armed SS however, as well as within the special bodyguard company SS-Leibstandarte. Sepp Dietrich, since the earliest inception of an armed SS unit, never truly accepted Himmler's authority and in the mid-1930s went so far as to order his black uniformed troops to remove their swastika armbands as well as forbidding General-SS members (Himmler among them) from entering the Leibstandarte barracks.
The Waffen-SS eventually grew from three regiments to over 38 divisions and served alongside the German army, but was never formally part of it. During World War II, the authority of the Reichsführer-SS over the Waffen-SS was mainly administrative in that certain General-SS offices controlled supply and logistics aspects of the Waffen-SS. Although Himmler did inspect Waffen-SS troops during the war and presented high-ranking medals to its members, the Reichsführer-SS never exercised direct operational authority over Waffen-SS units until the very end of the war and then only through his capacity as an Army Group commander and not as the head of the SS. Top[who?] Waffen-SS commanders further held a certain derision for Himmler, describing him as "sly and unmilitary". The Waffen-SS rank and file also saw the Reichsführer as an odd character, present at high level parades and formations, but of little use to the Waffen-SS operational chain of command. As a further act of indifference, Himmler was known by the nickname "Reichsheini" among Waffen-SS soldiers.
Himmler's rank of Reichsführer was also not seen as a military superior rank of the Waffen-SS, and as such there was no operational equivalent to the rank of field marshal in the armed SS hierarchy. In the very last months of the war, a proposal was made for a new SS rank to be known as Volksmarschall, with this new rank being a Waffen-SS direct equivalent to the army and air force rank of field marshal. Sepp Dietrich was considered for the rank, but due to the looming defeat of the war the rank was never presented nor even an insignia designed.
Attached to the office was the 18,438-strong Kommandostab des Reichsführers-SS, "Command Staff", which was under Himmler's direct control from June 1941 onwards. The unit included two motorized SS-Infantry Brigades, two SS-Cavalry Regiments combined with an SS-Cavalry Brigade, a bodyguard battalion, flak units and a number of companies of support troops. Units were temporarily placed under Heer command for operations, but the Reichsführer could call them back at any time. Despite the name, it was not employed as a unified HQ unit. Instead, its individual units were sent to occupied areas, subordinated to local Higher SS and Police Leaders (HSSPFs) and used for "pacification actions" alongside the Einsatzgruppen. Often these actions were little other than atrocities and mass murders, targeting Jews and supposed partisans.
In all, five people held the title of Reichsführer-SS during the twenty years of its existence. Three persons held the position as a title while two held the actual SS rank.
Hanke was appointed SS leader in April 1945, but not informed until early May. He was killed on June 8, 1945, while attempting to escape a Czech POW camp. Historians have often speculated that Reinhard Heydrich would have eventually held the rank had Himmler in some way been killed or removed from his position earlier in World War II, and indeed Heydrich was often seen as Himmler's heir apparent by senior SS leaders. However, at a diplomatic function in Italy in 1941, Heydrich was reported as stating that he had no desire to succeed Himmler.
The rank of Reichsführer-SS has also appeared in fiction with the following some of the more notable examples:
Oberste Führer der Schutzstaffel