Religious segregation is the separation of people according to their religion. The term has been applied to cases of religious-based segregation occurring as a social phenomenon, as well as to segregation arising from laws, whether explicit or implicit.
The similar term religious apartheid has also been used for situations where people are separated based on religion, including sociological phenomena.
In 2012 Foreign Policy reported that
The number of "peacewalls
," physical barriers separating Catholic and Protestant communities, has increased sharply since the first ceasefires in 1994. Most people in the region cannot envisage the barriers being removed, according to a recent survey conducted by the University of Ulster. In housing and education, Northern Ireland remains one of the most segregated tracts of land anywhere on the planet -- less than one in 10 children attends a school that is integrated between Catholics and Protestant. This figure has remained stubbornly low despite the cessation of violence.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Jonathan Steele of The Guardian has argued that Bosnia and Herzegovina is "a dependent, stifled, apartheid regime". In his view, the U.N. control of Bosnia under the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, which he described as "UN-sanctioned liberal imperialism", creates "dependency, stifles civil society, and produces a highly visible financial apartheid in which an international salariat lords it over a war-wounded and jobless local population."
Islam is the official religion of Iran, which is a theocracy led by an Ayatollah, a clerical position. Iran consigns non-Muslim monotheists to the status of dhimmis, both officially and by custom. The U.S. State Department has identified "reports of imprisonment, harassment, intimidation, and discrimination based on religious beliefs" in Iran.
The Muslim Network for Bahá'í Rights has reported cases of Bahá'í students being expelled from university due to their religion. According to the Times Higher Education, Bahá'í educators are required to renounce their faith in order to teach in Iranian universities. Bahá'í is not among the "recognized religious minorities" in the Constitution of Iran. The Bahá'í faith is considered apostate in Iran because it believes in a prophet (Bahá'u'lláh) more recent than Muhammad, in contradiction of Islamic teachings, where it is held that Muhammad is the last and final messenger sent to mankind .
Road sign on a highway into Mecca, stating that one direction is "Muslims only" while another direction is "obligatory for non-Muslims". Religious police
are stationed beyond the turnoff on the main road to prevent non-Muslims from proceeding into Mecca.
Prior to March 1, 2004, the official Saudi government website stated that Jews were forbidden from entering the country, however, it was not enforced into practice.
In the Holy City of Mecca, only Muslims are allowed. Non-Muslims may not enter or travel through Mecca; attempting to enter Mecca as a non-Muslim can result in penalties such as a fine; being in Mecca as a non-Muslim can result in deportation.
In the Holy City of Medina, both Muslims and Non-Muslims are allowed in. The exception are non-Muslims entering the Nabawi Square, where the Al-Masjid Al-Nabawi is located.
There are many highly segregated religious groups and sects in the USA, most notable of which are the Amish and Haredi Jews. These religious groups segregate themselves from the wider society, create parallel structures and their growth is endogeneous, i.e. depends on group fertility rather than new conversions.
- ^ Knox, H. M. (10 1973). "Religious Segregation in the Schools of Northern Ireland". British Journal of Educational Studies. "...[S]egregated schooling, although in theory open to all, is in practice availed of by virtually only one denomination...." Also refers to pre-Partition religious schools which retained their exclusively Catholic demographics after Partition.
- ^ Norgren, Jill; Nanda, Serena (2006). American Cultural Pluralism and Law. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 132. ISBN 0-275-98692-6., quoting U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy in Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet: "...[D]rawing school district lines along the religious lines of the village impermissibly involved the state in accomplishing the religious segregation."
- ^ Akkaro, Anta (2000-09-01). "Pakistan's Christians Demand End to 'Religious Apartheid' at Polls". Christianity Today. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- ^ "Religion In Schools". The Big Debate. 2008-01-29. 0:09:29 and 0:11:52 minutes in. http://www.teachers.tv/video/24057., in which Rabbi Dr Jonathan Romain says (at 0:09:29): "If you have separate Jewish, Catholic, Muslim, Sikh, Hindu schools, essentially you’re segregating children, you’re separating children" and (at 0:11:52): "It’s a religious apartheid society we’re creating."
- ^ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/12/20/return_of_the_troubles
- ^ Steele, Jonathan. Today's Bosnia: a dependent, stifled, apartheid regime. The Guardian, November 11, 2005.
- ^ International Federation for Human Rights (2003-08-01). "Discrimination against religious minorities in Iran". fdih.org. Retrieved 2006-10-20.
- ^ U.S. Department of State (2005-09-15). "International Religious Freedom Report 2006 - Iran". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2006-11-08.
- ^ "Baha’i children in Egypt not being admitted to schools because of their faith". Muslim Network for Bahá'í Rights. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- ^ "School's Out for the Bahá'ís". Mideast Youth. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- ^ "Confidential Iran memo exposes policy to deny Bahá'í students university education". Bahá'í World News Service. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- ^ "Segregation in Iran". Times Higher Education. TSL Education Ltd. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- ^ "Discrimination against religious minorities in IRAN". FIDH. p. 6. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- ^ "Iran: Religious minority reports arson attacks". Persian Journal. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- ^ "Islam and apostasy". The Religion Report. ABC Radio National (Australia). Retrieved 2008-08-05.
- ^ "Bahá'í believers know freedom and oppression". Clarion Ledger. Retrieved 2008-08-03.
- ^ a b Sandra Mackey's account of her attempt to enter Mecca in Mackey, Sandra (1987). The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 63–64. ISBN 0-393-32417-6.
- ^ "The official tourism website stated that Jews were banned from entering the country; however, it was not enforced in practice." United States Department of State. Saudi Arabia, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2004, February 28, 2005.
- ^ "Jews barred, said Saudi Web site". CNN. February 28, 2004. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- ^ www.sauditourism.gov.sa at the Wayback Machine (archived February 6, 2004)
- ^ Cuddihy, Kathy (2001). An A To Z Of Places And Things Saudi. Stacey International. p. 148. ISBN 1-900988-40-2.