SPONSORED VIDEO
Play Video
1
shocking footage of world war II
shocking footage of world war II
::2012/05/12::
Play Video
2
The Invisible Front (trailer)
The Invisible Front (trailer)
::2012/03/29::
Play Video
3
German Invasion of Latvia, Lithuania 32610f HD
German Invasion of Latvia, Lithuania 32610f HD
::2015/02/01::
Play Video
4
French Resistance Archive Footage Paris Partisans SOE Charles Bovill
French Resistance Archive Footage Paris Partisans SOE Charles Bovill
::2013/09/07::
Play Video
5
Joseph Stalin 12 -- World War Two Begins
Joseph Stalin 12 -- World War Two Begins
::2013/03/05::
Play Video
6
EBU FOREST BROTHERS
EBU FOREST BROTHERS
::2014/10/20::
Play Video
7
The Partisan
The Partisan
::2014/09/08::
Play Video
8
World War 2 Germans and Lithuanians
World War 2 Germans and Lithuanians
::2009/05/23::
Play Video
9
World War II REENACTMEN-Eastern Front Battlefield-Wehrmacht,SS vs RKKA,Czechoslovaks
World War II REENACTMEN-Eastern Front Battlefield-Wehrmacht,SS vs RKKA,Czechoslovaks
::2009/11/21::
Play Video
10
"Russian Invasion Survival Manual" Being Issued to Citizens In European Union!
"Russian Invasion Survival Manual" Being Issued to Citizens In European Union!
::2015/01/17::
Play Video
11
Izis Bidermanas
Izis Bidermanas
::2014/03/29::
Play Video
12
The Left Side of History: World War II and the Unfulfilled Promise of Communism in Eastern Europe
The Left Side of History: World War II and the Unfulfilled Promise of Communism in Eastern Europe
::2014/10/26::
Play Video
13
Warsaw after Warsaw uprising
Warsaw after Warsaw uprising
::2011/02/08::
Play Video
14
Anti-communistic resistance during WW2
Anti-communistic resistance during WW2
::2009/06/26::
Play Video
15
Nazi Collaborators - on DVD from July 18th
Nazi Collaborators - on DVD from July 18th
::2011/07/06::
Play Video
16
Polish Wilno (Vilna) in 1936
Polish Wilno (Vilna) in 1936
::2009/02/23::
Play Video
17
Czeslaw Milosz with Helen Vendler, 26 March 1998
Czeslaw Milosz with Helen Vendler, 26 March 1998
::2010/04/26::
Play Video
18
WW2 - Invasion of the Soviet Union
WW2 - Invasion of the Soviet Union
::2008/07/17::
Play Video
19
Armia Krajowa (AK), or the Home Army; Polish resistance movement
Armia Krajowa (AK), or the Home Army; Polish resistance movement
::2014/02/03::
Play Video
20
2nd WW Polish partisan song - Rozszumiały się wierzby płaczące
2nd WW Polish partisan song - Rozszumiały się wierzby płaczące
::2012/02/18::
Play Video
21
Warsaw - City that came back from the dead
Warsaw - City that came back from the dead
::2010/08/03::
Play Video
22
Alternate World War 2 Simulation Part 1
Alternate World War 2 Simulation Part 1
::2013/08/18::
Play Video
23
Why Are American Jews Abandoning Israel? Norman Finkelstein Speech (201
Why Are American Jews Abandoning Israel? Norman Finkelstein Speech (201
::2014/11/07::
Play Video
24
WW2 Reenactment "FESTUNG PRESSBURG" Eastern Front Battlefield - Bratislava SK 7.5.2011
WW2 Reenactment "FESTUNG PRESSBURG" Eastern Front Battlefield - Bratislava SK 7.5.2011
::2011/05/17::
Play Video
25
Egidio: A Story of Resistance and Resilience
Egidio: A Story of Resistance and Resilience
::2013/04/04::
Play Video
26
Lithuanian National Youth League March (Central Kaunas 2013.02.16)
Lithuanian National Youth League March (Central Kaunas 2013.02.16)
::2013/02/16::
Play Video
27
Heroes of War: Poland - Krystyna Skarbek
Heroes of War: Poland - Krystyna Skarbek
::2015/02/23::
Play Video
28
"Russian Invasion Survival Manual" Being Issued to Citizens In European Union!
"Russian Invasion Survival Manual" Being Issued to Citizens In European Union!
::2015/01/17::
Play Video
29
SOLDIERS OF FREEDOM - Home Army - Armia Krajowa - Heimatarmee - AK - Trailer
SOLDIERS OF FREEDOM - Home Army - Armia Krajowa - Heimatarmee - AK - Trailer
::2010/06/18::
Play Video
30
WW2 REENACTMENT "Sahara 2010" Kurland 1944 Eastern Front Battlefield.Panther&Tiger vs T34 etc.
WW2 REENACTMENT "Sahara 2010" Kurland 1944 Eastern Front Battlefield.Panther&Tiger vs T34 etc.
::2010/09/24::
Play Video
31
Russia Warns US
Russia Warns US
::2014/09/14::
Play Video
32
GETO (Ghetto) -- by Kasriel Broydo
GETO (Ghetto) -- by Kasriel Broydo
::2014/11/15::
Play Video
33
WW2 Soviet Red Army TERMINATOR - Russian NKVD Top Secret - Truth Discovered !!!
WW2 Soviet Red Army TERMINATOR - Russian NKVD Top Secret - Truth Discovered !!!
::2010/10/04::
Play Video
34
James Bacque - WWII, Hidden history and Other Losses
James Bacque - WWII, Hidden history and Other Losses
::2014/01/08::
Play Video
35
The Ghosts Of Partisans
The Ghosts Of Partisans
::2012/03/06::
Play Video
36
WWII Allied War Crimes
WWII Allied War Crimes
::2013/03/19::
Play Video
37
War in Ukraine/Interview with a former Ukrainian fighter
War in Ukraine/Interview with a former Ukrainian fighter
::2015/01/27::
Play Video
38
Warsaw Old Town, Warsaw, Masovian, Poland, Europe
Warsaw Old Town, Warsaw, Masovian, Poland, Europe
::2013/08/15::
Play Video
39
World War II Poland, Partisans, Jewish Deportation 221207-06
World War II Poland, Partisans, Jewish Deportation 221207-06
::2012/06/04::
Play Video
40
Defiance Movie Trailer Starring Daniel Craig & Liev Schreiber -  2008
Defiance Movie Trailer Starring Daniel Craig & Liev Schreiber - 2008
::2009/04/05::
Play Video
41
Video 2012-1-52 ***CONSTITUTION DAY*** Poland,May 3-rd 2012  Music:Polonaise Third Of May
Video 2012-1-52 ***CONSTITUTION DAY*** Poland,May 3-rd 2012 Music:Polonaise Third Of May
::2012/04/29::
Play Video
42
BELZEC  EXTERMINATION CAMP, POLAND,the real mcoy.
BELZEC EXTERMINATION CAMP, POLAND,the real mcoy.
::2014/10/26::
Play Video
43
Lucifer has dominion over this world, Interview with a former French Freemason (Part 2 of 8)
Lucifer has dominion over this world, Interview with a former French Freemason (Part 2 of 8)
::2010/07/22::
Play Video
44
Spearer Armored vehicles uloading
Spearer Armored vehicles uloading
::2015/02/21::
Play Video
45
1939: German foxtrot for Stalin: Fritz Weber -  Wladimir
1939: German foxtrot for Stalin: Fritz Weber - Wladimir
::2009/08/23::
Play Video
46
f.Girl in the Belgian resistance
f.Girl in the Belgian resistance
::2010/01/18::
Play Video
47
Norwegian Radio History during WWII
Norwegian Radio History during WWII
::2011/03/15::
Play Video
48
Rockford WWII Event 2012 -- French Partisan Skits
Rockford WWII Event 2012 -- French Partisan Skits
::2012/09/24::
Play Video
49
The Impact of World War I and the Russian Revolution on the World of Russian and East European Jewry
The Impact of World War I and the Russian Revolution on the World of Russian and East European Jewry
::2014/06/16::
Play Video
50
Forest Brothers
Forest Brothers' life is fun!
::2010/11/05::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [ .. ]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Eastern Front, June 1941-December 1941
Eastern Front, August 1943-December 1944

During World War II, Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union (1940–1941), Nazi Germany (1941–1944), and the Soviet Union again in 1944. Resistance during this period took many forms. Significant parts of the resistance were formed by Polish and Soviet forces, some of which fought with Lithuanian collaborators. This article presents a summary of the organizations, persons and actions involved.

First Soviet occupation[edit]

In 1940, President Antanas Smetona fled to Germany, not wanting his government to become a puppet of the Soviet occupation. Soviet attempts to capture him were unsuccessful, and he was able to settle in the United States.

In 1940, Chiune Sugihara, the Japanese consul in Kaunas, and his wife Yukiko disobeyed orders and saved thousands of Jewish refugees from Poland by granting them visas.[1]

In 1941, the Lithuanian Activist Front (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Aktyvistų Frontas) formed an underground government, and following the June uprising, the Provisional Government of Lithuania maintained sovereignty for a brief period.

Nazi German occupation[edit]

Soviet partisans began sabotage and guerrilla operations against German forces immediately after the Nazi invasion of 1941. The activities of Soviet partisans in Lithuania were partly coordinated by the Command of the Lithuanian Partisan Movement headed by Antanas Sniečkus and partly by the Central Command of the Partisan Movement of the USSR.[2]

In 1943, the Nazis attempted to raise a Waffen-SS division from the local population as they had in many other countries, but due to widespread coordination between resistance groups, the mobilization was boycotted. The Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force (Lietuvos vietinė rinktinė) was eventually formed in 1944 under Lithuanian command, but was liquidated by the Nazis only a few months later for refusing to subordinate to their command.[3][4][5]

There was no significant violent resistance directed against the Nazis. Some Lithuanians, encouraged by Germany's vague promises of autonomy,[6] cooperated with the Nazis. Pre-war tensions over the Vilnius Region resulted in a low-level civil war between Poles and Lithuanians.[7] Nazi-sponsored Lithuanian units, primarily the Lithuanian Secret Police,[7] were active in the region and assisted the Germans in repressing the Polish population. In the autumn of 1943, the Armia Krajowa began retaliatory operations against the Lithuanian units and killed hundreds of mostly Lithuanian policemen and other collaborators during the first half of 1944. The conflict culminated in the massacres of Polish and Lithuanian civilians in June 1944 in the Glitiškės (Glinciszki) and Dubingiai (Dubinki) villages. See also Polish-Lithuanian relations during World War II.

Also in 1943, several underground political groups united under the Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania (Vyriausias Lietuvos išlaisvinimo komitetas, or VLIK). The committee issued a declaration of independence that went largely unnoticed. It became active mostly outside Lithuania among emigrants and deportees, and was able to establish contacts in Western countries and get support for resistance operations inside Lithuania (see Operation Jungle). It would persist abroad for many years as one of the groups representing Lithuania in exile.[8][9]

Jewish partisans also fought against the Nazi occupation. In September 1943, the United Partisan Organization, led by Abba Kovner, attempted to start an uprising in the Vilna Ghetto, and later engaged in sabotage and guerrilla operations against the Nazi occupation.[10]

In July 1944, as part of its Operation Tempest, the Polish Home Army launched Operation Ostra Brama, an attempt to recapture that city. See also Polish–Lithuanian relations during World War II.

As of January 2008, 723 Lithuanians were recognized by Israel as Righteous among the Nations for their efforts in saving Lithuania's Jews from the Holocaust.[11] The total number of people who helped the Jews may be much higher.[12]

Second Soviet occupation[edit]

Lithuanian partisans, known as the Forest Brothers, began guerrilla warfare against the Soviet forces as soon as the front passed over them in 1944, and continued an armed struggle until 1953. The core of this movement was made up of soldiers from the Territorial Defense Force who had disbanded with their weapons and uniforms and members of the Lithuanian Freedom Army, established in 1941. The underground had extensive clandestine radio and press.[13] Thousands of people engaged in active and passive resistance against the Soviet authorities.[8] The various resistance organizations eventually united under the Movement of the Struggle for the Freedom of Lithuania (Lietuvos Laisvės Kovų Sąjūdis, or LLKS), issuing a declaration of independence in 1949 that would ultimately be signed into law by the independent Republic of Lithuania in 1999.[14] The most famous of these partisans is probably Juozas Lukša, author of several books during the resistance and the subject of a recent film.

While armed resistance ended in the 1950s, nonviolent resistance continued in various forms (e.g. through Lithuanians living abroad, the Catholic press, safeguarding local traditions and the Lithuanian language, the Sąjūdis movement, etc.), until 1991 when Russia recognized the independence declared by Lithuania on March 11, 1990.

Significance of February 16[edit]

February 16, the date that Lithuania first declared its independence in 1918, played an important symbolic role during this period. The call for volunteers for the Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force, the VLIK declaration of independence, and the LLKS declaration of independence were all made on February 16. This day has become a national holiday in Lithuania.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Chiune and Yukiko Sugihara". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2006-06-29. 
  2. ^ Janavičienė, Audronė (2004-01-30). "Soviet Saboteurs in Lithuania (1941-1944)". Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  3. ^ Peterson, Roger D. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe, p. 164. Cambridge University Press, 2001-05-07. ISBN 0-521-77000-9
  4. ^ Lane, Thomas. Lithuania: Stepping Westward. p. 57, Routledge (UK), 2002-08-23. ISBN 0-415-26731-5
  5. ^ Mackevičius, Mečislovas. Lithuanian resistance to German mobilization attempts 1941-1944, Lituanus, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1986. Ed. Antanas Dundzila. ISSN 0024-5089
  6. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1998). Poland's Holocaust. McFarland & Company. p. 163. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. 
  7. ^ a b Snyder, Timothy (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999. Yale University Press. p. 84. ISBN 0-300-10586-X. 
  8. ^ a b Kaszeta, Daniel J. Lithuanian Resistance to Foreign Occupation 1940-1952, Lituanus, Volume 34, No. 3, Fall 1988. Ed. Antanas Dundzila. ISSN 0024-5089
  9. ^ Banionis, Juozas (2004-03-10). "The Liberation of Lithuania in the West under détente, 1970–1974". Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania. Retrieved 2006-06-29. 
  10. ^ Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Abba Kovner and Resistance in the Vilna Ghetto". About.com. Retrieved 2006-06-29. 
  11. ^ "Righteous Among the Nations - per Country & Ethnic Origin January 1, 2008". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  12. ^ Procuta, Genius. How Many Rescuers of Jews Were There?, Tėviškės Žiburiai, Missisauga, Ontario, Canada, 1999-03-16.
  13. ^ Lane, p. 58
  14. ^ Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. Law on the February 16, 1949 Declaration by the Council of the Movement of the Struggle for Freedom of Lithuania, Law No. VIII-1021, 1999-01-12, Vilnius.

Further reading[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
MASHPEDIA
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2015