Happy Thoughts, Happy Life
1
The Invisible Front (trailer)
The Invisible Front (trailer)
DATE: 2012/03/29::
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German Invasion of Latvia, Lithuania 32610f HD
German Invasion of Latvia, Lithuania 32610f HD
DATE: 2015/02/01::
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shocking footage of world war II
shocking footage of world war II
DATE: 2012/05/12::
4
The Unknown War - Armed anti-Soviet resistance in Lithuania 1944 to 1953
The Unknown War - Armed anti-Soviet resistance in Lithuania 1944 to 1953
DATE: 2011/12/29::
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The Partisan
The Partisan
DATE: 2014/09/08::
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World War 2 Germans and Lithuanians
World War 2 Germans and Lithuanians
DATE: 2009/05/23::
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Joseph Stalin 12 -- World War Two Begins
Joseph Stalin 12 -- World War Two Begins
DATE: 2013/03/05::
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World War II REENACTMEN-Eastern Front Battlefield-Wehrmacht,SS vs RKKA,Czechoslovaks
World War II REENACTMEN-Eastern Front Battlefield-Wehrmacht,SS vs RKKA,Czechoslovaks
DATE: 2009/11/21::
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French Resistance Archive Footage Paris Partisans SOE Charles Bovill
French Resistance Archive Footage Paris Partisans SOE Charles Bovill
DATE: 2013/09/07::
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ᴴᴰ MEN OF STEEL: Wizna - Polish Heroes in World War 2
ᴴᴰ MEN OF STEEL: Wizna - Polish Heroes in World War 2
DATE: 2013/06/02::
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The city of Brussels under German occupation during World War II. HD Stock Footage
The city of Brussels under German occupation during World War II. HD Stock Footage
DATE: 2014/05/26::
12
Nazi Collaborators - on DVD from July 18th
Nazi Collaborators - on DVD from July 18th
DATE: 2011/07/06::
13
World War II • Warsaw Uprising 1944 // ВМВ • Варшавское восстание 1944
World War II • Warsaw Uprising 1944 // ВМВ • Варшавское восстание 1944
DATE: 2014/04/03::
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Bihac (During WW 2 / Während 2. WK - 1943)
Bihac (During WW 2 / Während 2. WK - 1943)
DATE: 2014/12/18::
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Izis Bidermanas
Izis Bidermanas
DATE: 2014/03/29::
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Nazi Invasion of Crete pt1-2 circa 1944 Office of Strategic Services (OSS) World War II
Nazi Invasion of Crete pt1-2 circa 1944 Office of Strategic Services (OSS) World War II
DATE: 2012/05/07::
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The Left Side of History: World War II and the Unfulfilled Promise of Communism in Eastern Europe
The Left Side of History: World War II and the Unfulfilled Promise of Communism in Eastern Europe
DATE: 2014/10/26::
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Armia Krajowa (AK), or the Home Army; Polish resistance movement
Armia Krajowa (AK), or the Home Army; Polish resistance movement
DATE: 2014/02/03::
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Hello, I Must Be Going promo video
Hello, I Must Be Going promo video
DATE: 2015/04/27::
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Anti-communistic resistance during WW2
Anti-communistic resistance during WW2
DATE: 2009/06/26::
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2nd WW Polish partisan song - Rozszumiały się wierzby płaczące
2nd WW Polish partisan song - Rozszumiały się wierzby płaczące
DATE: 2012/02/18::
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Czeslaw Milosz with Helen Vendler, 26 March 1998
Czeslaw Milosz with Helen Vendler, 26 March 1998
DATE: 2010/04/26::
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France Mourns Nazi Resistance Hero Raymond Aubrac
France Mourns Nazi Resistance Hero Raymond Aubrac
DATE: 2012/04/13::
24
Jewish Partisans - Living and Surviving in the Partisans: Shelter
Jewish Partisans - Living and Surviving in the Partisans: Shelter
DATE: 2008/12/19::
25
Polish Wilno (Vilna) in 1936
Polish Wilno (Vilna) in 1936
DATE: 2009/02/23::
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German Invasion of Luxembourg and Holland - Case Yellow, WWII 32590b HD
German Invasion of Luxembourg and Holland - Case Yellow, WWII 32590b HD
DATE: 2015/01/07::
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WW2 - Invasion of the Soviet Union
WW2 - Invasion of the Soviet Union
DATE: 2008/07/17::
28
ww2 German Metal Detecting - Amazing German relics from WW2
ww2 German Metal Detecting - Amazing German relics from WW2
DATE: 2014/09/12::
29
Warsaw - City that came back from the dead
Warsaw - City that came back from the dead
DATE: 2010/08/03::
30
Latvians glorifyimg massMurdering of Civilian Jews during ww2
Latvians glorifyimg massMurdering of Civilian Jews during ww2
DATE: 2013/03/16::
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WW2 Reenactment "FESTUNG PRESSBURG" Eastern Front Battlefield - Bratislava SK 7.5.2011
WW2 Reenactment "FESTUNG PRESSBURG" Eastern Front Battlefield - Bratislava SK 7.5.2011
DATE: 2011/05/17::
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Alternate World War 2 Simulation Part 1
Alternate World War 2 Simulation Part 1
DATE: 2013/08/18::
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WWII Allied War Crimes
WWII Allied War Crimes
DATE: 2013/03/19::
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WW2 REENACTMENT "Sahara 2010" Kurland 1944 Eastern Front Battlefield.Panther&Tiger vs T34 etc.
WW2 REENACTMENT "Sahara 2010" Kurland 1944 Eastern Front Battlefield.Panther&Tiger vs T34 etc.
DATE: 2010/09/24::
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WW2 Soviet Red Army TERMINATOR - Russian NKVD Top Secret - Truth Discovered !!!
WW2 Soviet Red Army TERMINATOR - Russian NKVD Top Secret - Truth Discovered !!!
DATE: 2010/10/04::
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Warsaw Old Town, Warsaw, Masovian, Poland, Europe
Warsaw Old Town, Warsaw, Masovian, Poland, Europe
DATE: 2013/08/15::
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1939: German foxtrot for Stalin: Fritz Weber -  Wladimir
1939: German foxtrot for Stalin: Fritz Weber - Wladimir
DATE: 2009/08/23::
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Defiance Movie Trailer Starring Daniel Craig & Liev Schreiber -  2008
Defiance Movie Trailer Starring Daniel Craig & Liev Schreiber - 2008
DATE: 2009/04/05::
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Video 2012-1-52 ***CONSTITUTION DAY*** Poland,May 3-rd 2012  Music:Polonaise Third Of May
Video 2012-1-52 ***CONSTITUTION DAY*** Poland,May 3-rd 2012 Music:Polonaise Third Of May
DATE: 2012/04/29::
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Lucifer has dominion over this world, Interview with a former French Freemason (Part 2 of 8)
Lucifer has dominion over this world, Interview with a former French Freemason (Part 2 of 8)
DATE: 2010/07/22::
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Spearer Armored vehicles uloading
Spearer Armored vehicles uloading
DATE: 2015/02/21::
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Women in Nazi Germany
Women in Nazi Germany
DATE: 2013/10/19::
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f.Girl in the Belgian resistance
f.Girl in the Belgian resistance
DATE: 2010/01/18::
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Why Are American Jews Abandoning Israel? Norman Finkelstein Speech (201
Why Are American Jews Abandoning Israel? Norman Finkelstein Speech (201
DATE: 2014/11/07::
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The Ghosts Of Partisans
The Ghosts Of Partisans
DATE: 2012/03/06::
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Warsaw after Warsaw uprising
Warsaw after Warsaw uprising
DATE: 2011/02/08::
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Partisans of Vilna:  Zog Nit Keynmol.
Partisans of Vilna: Zog Nit Keynmol.
DATE: 2014/04/25::
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"Russian Invasion Survival Manual" Being Issued to Citizens In European Union!
"Russian Invasion Survival Manual" Being Issued to Citizens In European Union!
DATE: 2015/01/17::
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Gerhard Weinberg, From Allied Defeat to Allied Victory
Gerhard Weinberg, From Allied Defeat to Allied Victory
DATE: 2013/10/13::
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LRT EBU Lithuania distributes war manual
LRT EBU Lithuania distributes war manual
DATE: 2015/01/15::
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Eastern Front, June 1941-December 1941
Eastern Front, August 1943-December 1944

During World War II, Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union (1940–1941), Nazi Germany (1941–1944), and the Soviet Union again in 1944. Resistance during this period took many forms. Significant parts of the resistance were formed by Polish and Soviet forces, some of which fought with Lithuanian collaborators. This article presents a summary of the organizations, persons and actions involved.

First Soviet occupation[edit]

In 1940, President Antanas Smetona fled to Germany, not wanting his government to become a puppet of the Soviet occupation. Soviet attempts to capture him were unsuccessful, and he was able to settle in the United States.

In 1940, Chiune Sugihara, the Japanese consul in Kaunas, and his wife Yukiko disobeyed orders and saved thousands of Jewish refugees from Poland by granting them visas.[1]

In 1941, the Lithuanian Activist Front (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Aktyvistų Frontas) formed an underground government, and following the June uprising, the Provisional Government of Lithuania maintained sovereignty for a brief period.

Nazi German occupation[edit]

Soviet partisans began sabotage and guerrilla operations against German forces immediately after the Nazi invasion of 1941. The activities of Soviet partisans in Lithuania were partly coordinated by the Command of the Lithuanian Partisan Movement headed by Antanas Sniečkus and partly by the Central Command of the Partisan Movement of the USSR.[2]

In 1943, the Nazis attempted to raise a Waffen-SS division from the local population as they had in many other countries, but due to widespread coordination between resistance groups, the mobilization was boycotted. The Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force (Lietuvos vietinė rinktinė) was eventually formed in 1944 under Lithuanian command, but was liquidated by the Nazis only a few months later for refusing to subordinate to their command.[3][4][5]

There was no significant violent resistance directed against the Nazis. Some Lithuanians, encouraged by Germany's vague promises of autonomy,[6] cooperated with the Nazis. Pre-war tensions over the Vilnius Region resulted in a low-level civil war between Poles and Lithuanians.[7] Nazi-sponsored Lithuanian units, primarily the Lithuanian Secret Police,[7] were active in the region and assisted the Germans in repressing the Polish population. In the autumn of 1943, the Armia Krajowa began retaliatory operations against the Lithuanian units and killed hundreds of mostly Lithuanian policemen and other collaborators during the first half of 1944. The conflict culminated in the massacres of Polish and Lithuanian civilians in June 1944 in the Glitiškės (Glinciszki) and Dubingiai (Dubinki) villages. See also Polish-Lithuanian relations during World War II.

Also in 1943, several underground political groups united under the Supreme Committee for the Liberation of Lithuania (Vyriausias Lietuvos išlaisvinimo komitetas, or VLIK). The committee issued a declaration of independence that went largely unnoticed. It became active mostly outside Lithuania among emigrants and deportees, and was able to establish contacts in Western countries and get support for resistance operations inside Lithuania (see Operation Jungle). It would persist abroad for many years as one of the groups representing Lithuania in exile.[8][9]

Jewish partisans also fought against the Nazi occupation. In September 1943, the United Partisan Organization, led by Abba Kovner, attempted to start an uprising in the Vilna Ghetto, and later engaged in sabotage and guerrilla operations against the Nazi occupation.[10]

In July 1944, as part of its Operation Tempest, the Polish Home Army launched Operation Ostra Brama, an attempt to recapture that city. See also Polish–Lithuanian relations during World War II.

As of January 2008, 723 Lithuanians were recognized by Israel as Righteous among the Nations for their efforts in saving Lithuania's Jews from the Holocaust.[11] The total number of people who helped the Jews may be much higher.[12]

Second Soviet occupation[edit]

Lithuanian partisans, known as the Forest Brothers, began guerrilla warfare against the Soviet forces as soon as the front passed over them in 1944, and continued an armed struggle until 1953. The core of this movement was made up of soldiers from the Territorial Defense Force who had disbanded with their weapons and uniforms and members of the Lithuanian Freedom Army, established in 1941. The underground had extensive clandestine radio and press.[13] Thousands of people engaged in active and passive resistance against the Soviet authorities.[8] The various resistance organizations eventually united under the Movement of the Struggle for the Freedom of Lithuania (Lietuvos Laisvės Kovų Sąjūdis, or LLKS), issuing a declaration of independence in 1949 that would ultimately be signed into law by the independent Republic of Lithuania in 1999.[14] The most famous of these partisans is probably Juozas Lukša, author of several books during the resistance and the subject of a recent film.

While armed resistance ended in the 1950s, nonviolent resistance continued in various forms (e.g. through Lithuanians living abroad, the Catholic press, safeguarding local traditions and the Lithuanian language, the Sąjūdis movement, etc.), until 1991 when Russia recognized the independence declared by Lithuania on March 11, 1990.

Significance of February 16[edit]

February 16, the date that Lithuania first declared its independence in 1918, played an important symbolic role during this period. The call for volunteers for the Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force, the VLIK declaration of independence, and the LLKS declaration of independence were all made on February 16. This day has become a national holiday in Lithuania.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Chiune and Yukiko Sugihara". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 2006-06-29. 
  2. ^ Janavičienė, Audronė (2004-01-30). "Soviet Saboteurs in Lithuania (1941-1944)". Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  3. ^ Peterson, Roger D. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe, p. 164. Cambridge University Press, 2001-05-07. ISBN 0-521-77000-9
  4. ^ Lane, Thomas. Lithuania: Stepping Westward. p. 57, Routledge (UK), 2002-08-23. ISBN 0-415-26731-5
  5. ^ Mackevičius, Mečislovas. Lithuanian resistance to German mobilization attempts 1941-1944, Lituanus, Vol. 32, No. 4, Winter 1986. Ed. Antanas Dundzila. ISSN 0024-5089
  6. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1998). Poland's Holocaust. McFarland & Company. p. 163. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. 
  7. ^ a b Snyder, Timothy (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999. Yale University Press. p. 84. ISBN 0-300-10586-X. 
  8. ^ a b Kaszeta, Daniel J. Lithuanian Resistance to Foreign Occupation 1940-1952, Lituanus, Volume 34, No. 3, Fall 1988. Ed. Antanas Dundzila. ISSN 0024-5089
  9. ^ Banionis, Juozas (2004-03-10). "The Liberation of Lithuania in the West under détente, 1970–1974". Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania. Retrieved 2006-06-29. 
  10. ^ Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Abba Kovner and Resistance in the Vilna Ghetto". About.com. Retrieved 2006-06-29. 
  11. ^ "Righteous Among the Nations - per Country & Ethnic Origin January 1, 2008". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  12. ^ Procuta, Genius. How Many Rescuers of Jews Were There?, Tėviškės Žiburiai, Missisauga, Ontario, Canada, 1999-03-16.
  13. ^ Lane, p. 58
  14. ^ Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania. Law on the February 16, 1949 Declaration by the Council of the Movement of the Struggle for Freedom of Lithuania, Law No. VIII-1021, 1999-01-12, Vilnius.

Further reading[edit]

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