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Revolution 9 (RM1 Mono acetate of RM4 Stereo)
Revolution 9 (RM1 Mono acetate of RM4 Stereo)
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: SgtPepperChannel
Revolution 9 Backmask ~ Played Backwards ~ The Beatles
Revolution 9 Backmask ~ Played Backwards ~ The Beatles
Published: 2009/08/26
Channel: Killuminati12122012
John Lennon talks about Revolution 9
John Lennon talks about Revolution 9
Published: 2016/10/29
Channel: SgtPepperChannel
The Beatles - Revolution 9 (vinyl LP - first 40 seconds backwards)
The Beatles - Revolution 9 (vinyl LP - first 40 seconds backwards)
Published: 2009/03/16
Channel: rjciccone
Revolution #9 Original [RARE 1964]
Revolution #9 Original [RARE 1964]
Published: 2016/11/26
Channel: The Gay Robot Sheep Fucker
Revolution 9 backwards
Revolution 9 backwards
Published: 2008/08/08
Channel: MCKool1990
Revolution 9 - The Beatles full cover
Revolution 9 - The Beatles full cover
Published: 2013/11/22
Channel: Ryohei Kanayama
Revolution 9 - The Beatles - Al revés Subtitulado
Revolution 9 - The Beatles - Al revés Subtitulado
Published: 2016/11/27
Channel: Mateo Gs - InterrTooGs
The Beatles Revolution 9 .. Recreated Live
The Beatles Revolution 9 .. Recreated Live
Published: 2015/03/02
Channel: fernando perdomo
The Beatles - Revolution
The Beatles - Revolution
Published: 2015/10/20
Channel: TheBeatlesVEVO
The Beatles - Revolution 9 (An Abstract Explanation Of An Abstract Song) The HollyHobs
The Beatles - Revolution 9 (An Abstract Explanation Of An Abstract Song) The HollyHobs
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: The HollyHobs Beatles Explained
The Beatles Revolution #9 Backwards
The Beatles Revolution #9 Backwards
Published: 2015/06/25
Channel: Fernando Andrés Vernon Marín
Spooky Revolution 9 Clues - Paul Is Dead Hoax
Spooky Revolution 9 Clues - Paul Is Dead Hoax
Published: 2009/12/14
Channel: MikeJustesenFilms
The Beatles - Revolution 9 (8-bit Remix)
The Beatles - Revolution 9 (8-bit Remix)
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: SpecklefrondMusic
Revolution 9 (fragments)
Revolution 9 (fragments)
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: supersporkspank
Number Nine for Nine Minutes
Number Nine for Nine Minutes
Published: 2013/03/04
Channel: GodslayerKusanagi
Revolution 9 live by Alarm Will Sound
Revolution 9 live by Alarm Will Sound
Published: 2010/10/17
Channel: AlarmWillSound
Revolution 9
Revolution 9
Published: 2015/07/02
Channel: Phish - Topic
The Beatles Revolution 9 - Do You Love, Like Or Hate It?
The Beatles Revolution 9 - Do You Love, Like Or Hate It?
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: Canadian Studmuffin
Beatles : Revolution 9 : whole song played backwards - weird!
Beatles : Revolution 9 : whole song played backwards - weird!
Published: 2012/01/14
Channel: albumania
The Beatles Revolution 9 - Two Questions For Beatles Fans
The Beatles Revolution 9 - Two Questions For Beatles Fans
Published: 2017/10/17
Channel: Canadian Studmuffin
Revolution 9: Misteriosa Pieza De Los Beatles  | Evidencia X
Revolution 9: Misteriosa Pieza De Los Beatles | Evidencia X
Published: 2014/09/27
Channel: César Buenrostro
Nirvana - Smells Like Revolution - 9 Days That Rocked The 90
Nirvana - Smells Like Revolution - 9 Days That Rocked The 90's (8/23/91)
Published: 2013/04/15
Channel: NirvanaForevermore
French Revolution 9/9
French Revolution 9/9
Published: 2011/02/28
Channel: Shahzad Raja
Revolution 9 cover version
Revolution 9 cover version
Published: 2009/03/27
Channel: stuffthefrankie
REVOLUTION 9 • THE BEATLES | UNA ROLA, UNA HISTORIA
REVOLUTION 9 • THE BEATLES | UNA ROLA, UNA HISTORIA
Published: 2016/05/02
Channel: LaLocadelaColina
Beatles
Beatles' subliminal message - "Revolution n.9" (1968)
Published: 2014/11/16
Channel: ClintReno90
Number 8 Barney
Number 8 Barney
Published: 2013/10/14
Channel: johnlennon6011
Phish - Revolution 9 - Good Night 10.31.94 Glenfalls NY S2 09
Phish - Revolution 9 - Good Night 10.31.94 Glenfalls NY S2 09
Published: 2011/04/19
Channel: IkoIko95
Revolution - Day 9 - Empower Practice
Revolution - Day 9 - Empower Practice
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: Yoga With Adriene
Big Smoke - Revolution 9 Large
Big Smoke - Revolution 9 Large
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Terrainer
CURIOSIDADES DE LA CANCIÓN REVOLUTION 9 | WE ARE THE BEATLES
CURIOSIDADES DE LA CANCIÓN REVOLUTION 9 | WE ARE THE BEATLES
Published: 2017/07/24
Channel: We Are The Beatles
R9 - EL LADO OSCURO DE THE BEATLES Y LA MALDICIÓN DE JOHN LENNON
R9 - EL LADO OSCURO DE THE BEATLES Y LA MALDICIÓN DE JOHN LENNON
Published: 2015/03/07
Channel: Julian Cavalero
Revolution 9 Backwards
Revolution 9 Backwards
Published: 2009/03/14
Channel: Schizophrenia222
The Beatles - Revolution 9 - Acoustic Cover - Danny McEvoy, Jazzy and Ellie.
The Beatles - Revolution 9 - Acoustic Cover - Danny McEvoy, Jazzy and Ellie.
Published: 2010/11/14
Channel: TheWalrusWasDanny
The Shazam - Revolution 9 - Rev9 (2000)
The Shazam - Revolution 9 - Rev9 (2000)
Published: 2013/03/24
Channel: TheSecretFrequency
Silencer Shop Authority Griffin Armament Revolution 9
Silencer Shop Authority Griffin Armament Revolution 9
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: TacticalGunReview
Revolution 9 (arr. M. Marks for chamber ensemble)
Revolution 9 (arr. M. Marks for chamber ensemble)
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: Alarm Will Sound - Topic
Hamilton Audition at Ars Nova Revolution 9/21/15
Hamilton Audition at Ars Nova Revolution 9/21/15
Published: 2015/11/19
Channel: jane
The Beatles  Rock Band Revolution 9 trailer
The Beatles Rock Band Revolution 9 trailer
Published: 2010/01/06
Channel: earcandyfilms
The Beatles - Track 29 (Revolution 9)
The Beatles - Track 29 (Revolution 9)
Published: 2013/02/26
Channel: merseyboys
Griffin Armament Revolution Pistol Silencer Mod 3
Griffin Armament Revolution Pistol Silencer Mod 3
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: Griffin Armament
Revolution #9  al revez | Revolution #9 backwards
Revolution #9 al revez | Revolution #9 backwards
Published: 2013/02/09
Channel: Aldo Méndez
Come Together/The Beatles:REVOLUTION-9(上田雅利/伊豆田洋之/太田シノブ/杉原英樹)
Come Together/The Beatles:REVOLUTION-9(上田雅利/伊豆田洋之/太田シノブ/杉原英樹)
Published: 2013/07/29
Channel: uedamasatoshi
Beatles - Revolution 9 BACKWARDS on a TASCAM 32 Reel to Reel.  - ZCUCKOO
Beatles - Revolution 9 BACKWARDS on a TASCAM 32 Reel to Reel. - ZCUCKOO
Published: 2014/06/12
Channel: ZCuckoo TimR
9 canciones de The Beatles al revés que te TRAUMARÁN por completo
9 canciones de The Beatles al revés que te TRAUMARÁN por completo
Published: 2016/07/31
Channel: Grace McLennon
Revolution 9 - The weapon (Tillmann Uhrmacher Remix)
Revolution 9 - The weapon (Tillmann Uhrmacher Remix)
Published: 2010/10/11
Channel: Kristjan K
French Revolution - फ्रांस की क्रांति - World History - विश्व इतिहास - UPSC/IAS
French Revolution - फ्रांस की क्रांति - World History - विश्व इतिहास - UPSC/IAS
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Study IQ education
Griffin Armament Revolution 9 9mm Suppressor
Griffin Armament Revolution 9 9mm Suppressor
Published: 2015/05/12
Channel: SageDynamics
Magma Ohm - 9 Om (170 Bpm) @ V/A "Revolution 9" Compiled By Bolon Yokte Popol Vuh Records
Magma Ohm - 9 Om (170 Bpm) @ V/A "Revolution 9" Compiled By Bolon Yokte Popol Vuh Records
Published: 2013/04/02
Channel: Imix Jaguar
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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"Revolution 9"
Composition by the Beatles
from the album The Beatles
Released 22 November 1968
Recorded May–June 1968
Studio EMI, London
Genre
Length 8:22
Label Apple
Songwriter(s) Lennon–McCartney
Producer(s)
Audio sample

"Revolution 9" is a recorded composition that appeared on the Beatles' 1968 eponymous LP release (popularly known as the "White Album"). The sound collage, credited to Lennon–McCartney, was created primarily by John Lennon with assistance from George Harrison and Yoko Ono. Lennon said he was trying to paint a picture of a revolution using sound. The composition was influenced by the avant-garde style of Ono as well as the musique concrète works of composers such as Edgard Varèse and Karlheinz Stockhausen.

The recording began as an extended ending to the album version of Lennon's song "Revolution". He, Harrison and Ono then combined the unused coda with numerous overdubbed vocals, speech, sound effects, and short tape loops of speech and musical performances, some of which were reversed. These were further manipulated with echo, distortion, stereo panning, and fading. At over eight minutes, it is the longest track that the Beatles officially released.

Background and inspiration[edit]

"Revolution 9" was not the first venture by the Beatles into experimental recordings. Following Paul McCartney's lead, the group had introduced avant-garde styling in their 1966 song "Tomorrow Never Knows" and, in January 1967, they recorded an unreleased piece called "Carnival of Light". McCartney said the work was inspired by composers Stockhausen and John Cage.[9] Stockhausen was also a favourite of Lennon, and was one of the people included on the Sgt. Pepper album cover. Music critic Ian MacDonald wrote that "Revolution 9" may have been influenced by Stockhausen's Hymnen in particular.[10]

Another influence on Lennon was his relationship with Ono. Lennon and Ono had recently recorded their own avant-garde album, Unfinished Music No.1: Two Virgins. Lennon said: "Once I heard her stuff – not just the screeching and howling but her sort of word pieces and talking and breathing and all this strange stuff ... I got intrigued, so I wanted to do one."[11] Ono attended the recording sessions and, according to Lennon, helped him select which tape loops to use.[12] In a 1992 interview for Musician magazine, Harrison said that it was he and Ringo Starr who selected the sounds, sourced from EMI's tape library, including the "Number nine, number nine" dialogue.[13] Authors Chip Madinger and Mark Easter write that the content of Harrison's lesser-known experimental piece "Dream Scene", recorded between November 1967 and February 1968 for his Wonderwall Music album, suggests that Harrison had a greater influence on "Revolution 9" than has been acknowledged.[14]

Recording[edit]

"Revolution 9" originated on 30 May 1968 during the first recording session for Lennon's composition "Revolution". Take 20 lasted more than ten minutes and was given additional overdubs over the next two sessions. Mark Lewisohn described the last six minutes as "pure chaos ... with discordant instrumental jamming, feedback, John repeatedly screaming 'alright' and then, simply, repeatedly screaming ... with Yoko talking and saying such off-the-wall phrases as 'you become naked', and with the overlaying of miscellaneous, home-made sound effects tapes."[15]

Lennon soon decided to make the first part of the recording into a conventional Beatles song, "Revolution 1", while using the last six minutes as the basis for a separate track, "Revolution 9". He began preparing additional sound effects and tape loops: some newly recorded in the studio, at home and from the studio archives. The work culminated on 20 June, with Lennon performing a live mix from tape loops running on machines in all three studios at Abbey Road, but during the live mix, the STEED system ran out and the sound of the tape machine rewinding can be heard at the 5:11 mark[16] and additional prose was overdubbed by Lennon and Harrison.[17]

More overdubs were added on 21 June followed by final mixing in stereo. The stereo master was completed on 25 June when it was shortened by 53 seconds.[18] Although other songs on the album were separately remixed for the mono version, the complexity of "Revolution 9" necessitated making the mono mix a direct reduction of the final stereo master.[19] McCartney had been out of the country when "Revolution 9" was assembled and mixed; he was unimpressed when he first heard the finished track, and later tried to persuade Lennon to drop his insistence that it be included on the album.[20] Lennon said that the final editing was done by himself and Ono alone.[21]

Structure and content[edit]

The piece begins with a slow piano theme in the key of B minor and the voice of an EMI engineer[22] repeating the words "number nine", quickly panning across the stereo channels. Both the piano theme and the "number nine" loop recur many times during the piece, serving as a motif. Lennon later said of the track and its production:

Revolution 9 was an unconscious picture of what I actually think will happen when it happens; just like a drawing of a revolution. All the thing was made with loops. I had about 30 loops going, fed them onto one basic track. I was getting classical tapes, going upstairs and chopping them up, making it backwards and things like that, to get the sound effects. One thing was an engineer's testing voice saying, "This is EMI test series number nine." I just cut up whatever he said and I'd number nine it. Nine turned out to be my birthday and my lucky number and everything. I didn't realise it: it was just so funny the voice saying, "number nine"; it was like a joke, bringing number nine into it all the time, that's all it was.[12]

Much of the track consists of tape loops that are faded in and out, several of which are sampled from performances of classical music. Works that have been specifically identified include the Vaughan Williams motet O Clap Your Hands, the final chord from Sibelius' Symphony No. 7, and the reversed finale of Schumann's Symphonic Studies.[23] Other loops include brief portions of Beethoven's Choral Fantasy, "The Streets of Cairo", violins from "A Day in the Life", and George Martin saying "Geoff, put the red light on". Part of the Arabic song "Awal Hamsa" by Farid al-Atrash is included shortly after the 7-minute mark. There are also loops of unidentified operatic performances, backwards mellotron, violins and sound effects, an oboe/French horn duet, a reversed electric guitar in the key of E major, loud cymbals and a reversed string quartet in the key of E-flat major.[23] A loop from "Tomorrow Never Knows" is also evident.

Portions of the unused coda of "Revolution 1" can be heard briefly several times during the track, particularly Lennon's screams of "right" and "all right", with a longer portion near the end featuring Ono's discourse about becoming naked. Segments of random prose read by Lennon and Harrison are heard prominently throughout, along with numerous sound effects such as laughter, crowd noise, breaking glass, car horns and gunfire. Some of the sounds were taken from an Elektra Records album of stock sound effects.[24] The piece ends with a recording of American football chants ("Hold that line! Block that kick!"). In all, the final mix includes at least 45 different sound sources.[25]

Album sequencing and release[edit]

During compilation and sequencing of the master tape for the album The Beatles, two unrelated segments were included between the previous song ("Cry Baby Cry") and "Revolution 9".[26] The first was a fragment of a song based on the line "Can you take me back", an improvisation sung by McCartney that was recorded between takes of "I Will". The second was a bit of conversation from the studio control room where Alistair Taylor asked Martin for forgiveness for not bringing him a bottle of claret, and then calling him a "cheeky bitch".[26]

"Revolution 9" was released as the fifth track on the side four of the album. With no gaps in the sequence from "Cry Baby Cry" to "Revolution 9", the point of track division has varied among different reissues of the album. Some versions place the conversation at the end of "Cry Baby Cry", resulting in a length of 8:13 for "Revolution 9", while others start "Revolution 9" with the conversation, for a track length of 8:22.

Reception[edit]

... compare Lennon's work with Luigi Nono's similar Non Consumiamo Marx (1969) to see how much more aesthetically and politically acute Lennon was than most of the vaunted avant-garde composers of the time ... Nono's piece entirely lacks the pop-bred sense of texture and proportion manifested in "Revolution 9".
– Ian MacDonald, Revolution in the Head[27]
"Revolution 9" is an embarrassment that stands like a black hole at the end of the White Album, sucking up whatever energy and interest remain after the preceding ninety minutes of music. It is a track that neither invites nor rewards close attention ...
– Jonathan Gould, Can't Buy Me Love[28]

The unusual nature of "Revolution 9" engendered a wide range of opinions. Lewisohn summarised the public reaction upon its release: "… most listeners loathing it outright, the dedicated fans trying to understand it."[29] Music critics Robert Christgau and John Piccarella called it "an anti-masterpiece" and noted that, in effect, "for eight minutes of an album officially titled The Beatles, there were no Beatles."[30] Jann Wenner was more complimentary, writing that "Revolution 9" was "beautifully organized" and had more political impact than "Revolution 1".[31] Ian MacDonald remarked that "Revolution 9" evoked the era's revolutionary disruptions and their repercussions, and thus was culturally "one of the most significant acts the Beatles ever perpetrated".[32]

Among more recent reviews, The New Rolling Stone Album Guide said it was "justly maligned", but "more fun than 'Honey Pie' or 'Yer Blues'".[33] Pitchfork reviewer Mark Richardson commented that "the biggest pop band in the world exposed millions of fans to a really great and certainly frightening piece of avant-garde art."[34]

While reviewing the most overrated albums of all time, where the White Album ranked at number 18, Edward Sharp-Paul of FasterLouder wrote that "'Revolution #9' is the sound of an illusion shattering: Yes, The Beatles are human, and sometimes they drop almighty turds."[35] The track was voted the worst Beatles song in one of the first such polls, conducted in 1971 by WPLJ and The Village Voice.[36] Writing for Mojo in 2003, Mark Paytress said that "Revolution 9" remained "the most unpopular piece of music The Beatles ever made", yet it was also their "most extraordinary [recording]".[37]

Interpretation[edit]

Lennon described "Revolution 9" as "an unconscious picture of what I actually think will happen when it happens, just like a drawing of revolution".[12] He said he was "painting in sound a picture of revolution", but he had mistakenly made it "anti-revolution".[12] In his analysis of the song, MacDonald doubted that Lennon conceptualised the piece as representing a revolution in the usual sense, but rather as "a sensory attack on the citadel of the intellect: a revolution in the head" aimed at each listener.[38] MacDonald also noted that the structure suggests a "half-awake, channel-hopping" mental state, with underlying themes of consciousness and quality of awareness.[39] Others have described the piece as Lennon's attempt at turning "nightmare imagery" into sound,[40] and as "an autobiographical soundscape".[41] The loop of "number nine" featured in the recording fuelled the legend of Paul McCartney's death after it was reported that it sounded like "turn me on, dead man" when played backwards.[42]

In an interview held 10 days after its release, Lennon was asked if "Revolution 9" was about death, because it seemed like that to the interviewer. Lennon answered: "Well then it is, then, when you heard it … listen to it another day. In the sun. Outside. And see if it's about death then." He went on: "It's not specifically about anything. It's a set of sounds, like walking down the street is a set of sounds. And I just captured a moment of time, and put it on disc, and it's about that ... It was maybe to do with the sounds of a revolution ... so that's the vague story behind it. But apart from that, it's just a set of sounds."[43]

Based on interviews and testimony, prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi asserted that Charles Manson believed that many songs on the album The Beatles contained references confirming his prediction of an impending apocalyptic race war, a scenario dubbed "Helter Skelter". According to Gregg Jakobson, Manson mentioned "Revolution 9" more often than any of the other album tracks, and he interpreted it as a parallel of Chapter 9 of the Book of Revelation.[44] Manson viewed the piece as a portrayal in sound of the coming black-white revolution.[44] He misheard Lennon's distorted screams of "Right!" within "Revolution 9" as a command to "Rise!"[45]

Personnel[edit]

In addition, McCartney and Starr performed on the extended "Revolution" coda, elements of which were used intermittently in "Revolution 9".

Cover versions[edit]

Kurt Hoffman's Band of Weeds performs "Revolution #9" on the 1992 album Live at the Knitting Factory: Downtown Does the Beatles (Knitting Factory Records).[46] The jam band Phish performed "Revolution 9" (along with almost all of the songs from The Beatles) at their Halloween 1994 concert that was released in 2002 as Live Phish Volume 13.[47] (Band member Jon Fishman streaked across the stage after the line "if you become naked".) Australian dance rock band Def FX recorded a version for their 1996 album Majick. Little Fyodor recorded a cover in 1987 and released it as a CD single in 2000.[48] The Shazam recorded a cover version of Revolution #9 which appears as the final track on their mini-album "Rev9" released in 2000.[49] In 2008, the contemporary classical chamber ensemble Alarm Will Sound transcribed an orchestral re-creation of "Revolution 9" which they performed on tour.[50] Also in 2008, the contemporary jazz trio The Neil Cowley Trio recorded both "Revolution 9" and "Revolution" for the magazine Mojo. "Revolution 9" has also inspired songs by punk group United Nations ("Resolution 9") and rock band Marilyn Manson ("Revelation #9"). It also inspired White Zombie's "Real Solution #9", which contains samples of a Prime Time Live interview that Diane Sawyer conducted with Manson Family member Patricia Krenwinkel. In the sample used Krenwinkel is heard saying: "Yeah, I remember her saying, I'm already dead." Skinny Puppy references a reversed melodic fragment from "Revolution #9" on their song "Love in Vein" from their album Last Rights.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Everett, Walter (1999). The Beatles as Musicians: Revolver Through the Anthology. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 174. ISBN 0-19-509553-7. Retrieved 14 December 2016. The six-minute remainder formed the basis of a musique concrète work, largely a Lennon-Ono collaboration 'painting in sound a revolution,' 'Revolution 9' 
  2. ^ Courrier, Kevin (2009). Artificial Paradise: The Dark Side of the Beatles' Utopian Dream. Westport, Connecticut; London: Praeger Publishers. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-313-34586-9. Retrieved 14 December 2016. Composed as a piece of musique concète by Lennon and Yoko out of various taped pieces, including radio broadcasts, plus outtakes from the outro of ‘Revolution 1,’ 'Revolution 9' was highly influenced by the pioneers of Dadaist experimentation. 
  3. ^ Pollack, Alan W. "Notes on "Revolution #9"". Soundscapes.info. Frank B. Brokken. Retrieved 14 December 2016. As one of the more infamous achievements of the mid twentieth century avant garde, this form of musical composition challenges the listener on both psychological and philosophical grounds. 
  4. ^ Unterberger, Richie (2006). The Unreleased Beatles: Music & Film. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. p. 210. ISBN 978-0-87930-892-6. Retrieved 14 December 2016. The other Beatles and George Martin probably would have been happy enough to keep ‘Revolution 9’ under wraps, but John Lennon was probably determined to get at least one of his avant-garde outings on the record 
  5. ^ Worby, Robert. "Crackle goes pop: how Stockhausen seduced the Beatles". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 14 December 2016. The Beatles’ Revolution 9 brought experimental music to a global audience 
  6. ^ Kozinn, Allan. "A Master's in Paul-Is-Definitely-Not-Dead". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 14 December 2016. … the freedom they gave themselves to make experimental works like 'Revolution 9.' 
  7. ^ Athitakis, Mark (September–October 2013). "A Beatles Reflection". Humanities. National Endowment of the Humanities. Retrieved 24 April 2016. The Beatles, by contrast, was scruffy and centerless, its thirty songs encompassing mock-Beach Boys vocal harmonies ('Back in the U.S.S.R.'), … proto-punk ('Helter Skelter'), sound collage ('Revolution 9'), and plenty more besides. 
  8. ^ Kreps, Daniel. "The Beatles' Experimental "Revolution 1 (Take 20)" Surfaces". Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 14 December 2016. The track makes it clear why seemingly unrelated 'Revolution 1' and the maniacal 'Revolution 9' sound collage share the same name 
  9. ^ Thorpe 2008.
  10. ^ MacDonald 1994, pp. 233–234.
  11. ^ Sheff 2000, p. 188.
  12. ^ a b c d The Beatles 2000, p. 307.
  13. ^ Badman 2001, pp. 486–87.
  14. ^ Madinger & Easter 2000, pp. 419–20, 421.
  15. ^ Lewisohn 2000, p. 284.
  16. ^ https://www.beatlesbible.com/songs/revolution-9/2/
  17. ^ Lewisohn 1988, pp. 137–138.
  18. ^ Lewisohn 1988, pp. 138–139.
  19. ^ Lewisohn 1988, p. 150.
  20. ^ Emerick & Massey 2006, pp. 243–244.
  21. ^ Willman, Chris (8 October 2012). "'John Lennon Letters' Reveal Bitterness Toward George Martin As Well as McCartney". Music.yahoo.com. Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  22. ^ Jann S., Wenner (2000). Lennon Remembers: The Full Rolling Stone Interviews from 1970. US: Verso. p. 111. ISBN 1859846009. 
  23. ^ a b Everett 1999, pp. 175–176.
  24. ^ Winn 2009, p. 180.
  25. ^ Everett 1999, p. 175.
  26. ^ a b Lewisohn 1988, p. 162.
  27. ^ MacDonald 1994, p. 234.
  28. ^ Gould 2007, p. 527.
  29. ^ Lewisohn 1988, p. 139.
  30. ^ Christgau 1999, p. 119.
  31. ^ Wenner 1968.
  32. ^ MacDonald 1994, pp. 230–231.
  33. ^ Sheffield 2004, p. 53.
  34. ^ Richardson 2009.
  35. ^ Levin, Darren (21 September 2012). "The Most Overrated Albums Of All Time". FasterLouder. Retrieved 10 January 2017. 
  36. ^ Schaffner 1978, p. 217.
  37. ^ Paytress, Mark (2003). "The Magic Number". Mojo Special Limited Edition: 1000 Days of Revolution (The Beatles' Final Years – Jan 1, 1968 to Sept 27, 1970). London: Emap. p. 32. 
  38. ^ MacDonald 1994, p. 231.
  39. ^ MacDonald 1994, pp. 231–232.
  40. ^ Belanger & Dalley 2006, p. 268.
  41. ^ Spignesi & Lewis 2004, p. 40.
  42. ^ Reeve, Andru J. Turn Me On, Dead Man: The Beatles And The "Paul-Is-Dead" Hoax. AuthorHouse. pp. 11–13. 
  43. ^ Hindle, Maurice (2017). Burger, Jeff, ed. Lennon on Lennon: Conversation. Chicago, IL: Chicago Review Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-61374-824-4. 
  44. ^ a b Bugliosi & Gentry 1974, p. 243.
  45. ^ Miles 1997, pp. 489–490.
  46. ^ Live at the Knitting Factory: Downtown Does the Beatles – Various Artists : Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards : AllMusic
  47. ^ "Live Phish, Vol. 13: 10/31/94, Glens Falls Civic Center, Glens Falls, NY - Phish". AllMusic. Retrieved 7 September 2017. 
  48. ^ Little Fyodor
  49. ^ The Shazam Rev9 Allmusic Page
  50. ^ Druckenbrod 2009.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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