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Richard Benjamin Speck
Born Richard Benjamin Speck[1]
(1941-12-06)December 6, 1941
Kirkwood, Illinois, US
Died December 5, 1991(1991-12-05) (aged 49)
Joliet, Illinois, US
Other names Richard Franklin Lindbergh
Criminal charge
Murder on 8 counts
Criminal penalty
Death penalty (electric chair)
later commuted to life imprisonment
Criminal status Died in custody
Spouse(s) Shirley Annette Malone Speck (m. 1962–1966)
Children 1
Parents Benjamin Franklin Speck
Mary Margaret Carbaugh Speck

Richard Benjamin Speck[1] (December 6, 1941 – December 5, 1991) was an American mass murderer who systematically tortured, raped, and murdered eight student nurses from South Chicago Community Hospital on July 14, 1966.

He was sentenced to death, but that sentence was later overturned due to issues with jury selection at his trial. Speck died of a heart attack after 25 years in prison. In 1996, video tapes featuring Speck were shown before the Illinois state legislature to highlight some of the illegal activity that took place in prisons.

Early life and crimes[edit]

Monmouth, 1941–1950[edit]

Richard Benjamin Speck[1] was born in the village of Kirkwood, Illinois, six miles southwest of Monmouth in west-central Illinois, the seventh of eight children of Benjamin Franklin Speck and Mary Margaret Carbaugh Speck. The family moved to Monmouth shortly after Speck's birth. Speck and his younger sister, Carolyn, born in 1943, were much younger than their four older sisters and two older brothers (Speck's oldest brother, Robert, died at the age of 23 in an automobile accident in 1952). Speck's father worked as a packer at Western Stoneware in Monmouth and had previously worked as a farmer and logger. Speck was very close to his father, who died in 1947 from a heart attack at the age of 53. Speck was six years old at the time.[2]

A few years later, Speck's religious, teetotaler mother met and fell in love with a traveling insurance salesman from Texas, Carl August Rudolph Lindberg, whom she met on a train trip to Chicago. The hard-drinking, peg-legged Lindberg, with a 25-year criminal record that started with forgery and included several arrests for drunk driving, was the opposite of Speck's sober, hardworking father. Speck's mother married Lindberg on May 10, 1950 in Palo Pinto, Texas. Speck and his younger sister Carolyn stayed with their married sister Sara Thornton in Monmouth for a few months so Speck could finish second grade, before joining their mother and Lindberg in rural Santo, Texas, 40 miles west of Fort Worth, Texas, where Speck attended third grade.[2]

Dallas, 1951–1966[edit]

After a year in Santo, Speck moved with his mother, his stepfather, and his sister Carolyn to the East Dallas section of Dallas, Texas, living at ten addresses in poor neighborhoods over the next dozen years. Speck loathed his often drunk and frequently absent stepfather, who psychologically abused him with insults and threats.[2] Speck, a poor student who needed glasses for reading but refused to wear them, struggled through Dallas public schools from fourth through eighth grade, repeating eighth grade at J. L. Long Jr. High School, in part because he refused to recite in class because of a lifelong fear of people staring at him.[2][3] In autumn 1957, Speck started ninth grade at Crozier Technical High School, but failed every subject and did not return for the second semester in January 1958, dropping out just after his 16th birthday.

Speck had begun drinking alcohol at age 12 and by age 15, was getting drunk almost every day. His first arrest, in 1955 at age 13, for trespassing, was followed by dozens of others for misdemeanors over the next eight years.[2]

Speck worked as a laborer for the 7-Up bottling company in Dallas for almost three years, from August 24, 1960 to July 19, 1963. In October 1961, Speck met 15-year-old Shirley Annette Malone at the Texas State Fair. She became pregnant after three weeks of dating him. Shirley married Speck on January 19, 1962, and initially moved in with him, his mother, his sister Carolyn, and Carolyn's husband. Speck's mother and stepfather had separated, and his stepfather had moved to California. Speck stopped using the name Richard Franklin Lindberg when he got married and began using the name Richard Franklin Speck. When Speck's daughter, Robbie Lynn, was born on July 5, 1962, his wife did not know that Speck was serving a 22-day jail sentence for disturbing the peace in McKinney, Texas after a drunken melee.[2]

In July 1963, Speck was caught having forged and cashed a co-worker's $44 paycheck and robbed a grocery store, stealing cigarettes, beer and $3 in cash. The 21-year-old Speck was convicted of forgery and burglary and sentenced to three years in prison. He was paroled after serving 16 months (September 16, 1963 to January 2, 1965) in the Texas State Penitentiary in Huntsville, Texas.[2]

One week after his parole, at 2:20 a.m. on January 9, 1965, Speck, wielding a 17-inch carving knife, attacked a woman in the parking lot of her apartment building. He fled when the woman screamed. The police arrived within minutes and shortly thereafter, apprehended Speck a few blocks away. Speck was convicted of aggravated assault, given a 16-month sentence to run concurrently with a parole violation sentence, and returned to prison in Huntsville, but due to an error he was released from prison just six months later on completion of his parole violation sentence on July 2, 1965.[2]

After his release from prison, Speck worked for three months as a driver for the Patterson Meat Company and had six accidents with his truck before he was fired for failing to show up for work. In December 1965, on the recommendation of his mother, Speck, who was by then separated from his wife, moved in with a 29-year-old divorced woman, an ex-professional wrestler who was a bartender at his favorite bar, Ginny's Lounge, and needed someone to babysit her three children. In January 1966, Speck's wife filed for divorce. That same month, Speck stabbed a man in a knife fight at Ginny's Lounge. He was charged with aggravated assault, but a defense attorney hired by his mother was able to get the charge reduced to disturbing the peace. Speck was fined ten dollars and jailed for three days after he failed to pay the fine. This was the last time Speck was in police custody in Dallas.[2]

On March 5, 1966, Speck bought a 12-year-old car. The following evening, he burgled a grocery store, stole 70 cartons of cigarettes, sold them out of the trunk of his car in the grocery store's parking lot, and then abandoned the car. The police traced the car to Speck and issued a warrant for his arrest for burglary on March 8. An arrest, his 42nd in Dallas, would mean another prison term, so on March 9, 1966, Speck's sister Carolyn drove him to the Dallas bus depot, where he caught a bus to Chicago, Illinois.[2]

Monmouth, March–April 1966[edit]

Speck stayed with his sister Martha Thornton and her family in Chicago for a few days, and then returned to his boyhood hometown of Monmouth, Illinois, where he initially stayed with some old family friends. Speck's brother Howard was a carpenter in Monmouth and found a job for him sanding plasterboard for another Monmouth carpenter. Speck became angry when he learned his ex-wife had remarried two days after she was granted a divorce on March 16, 1966. He moved to the Christy Hotel in downtown Monmouth on March 25 and spent most of his time in the downtown taverns. At the end of March, while Speck and some acquaintances were on a bar-hopping trip to Gulf Port, Illinois, they were detained overnight by police there after Speck reportedly threatened a man in a tavern restroom with his knife.[2]

On April 3, Mrs. Virgil Harris, a 65-year-old resident of Monmouth, returned home at 1:00 a.m. to find a burglar in her house brandishing a knife. He was a six foot tall white man who was "very polite" and spoke "very softly with a Southern drawl." The man blindfolded her, tied her up, raped her, ransacked her house, and stole the $2.50 she had earned babysitting that evening.[2]

A week later, Mary Kay Pierce, a 32-year-old barmaid who worked at her brother-in-law's tavern, Frank's Place, in downtown Monmouth, was last seen leaving the tavern at 12:45 a.m. on April 9. She was reported missing on April 13, and her body was found that day in an empty hog house behind the tavern. She had died from a blow to her abdomen that ruptured her liver.[2]

Speck had frequented Frank's Place, and the empty hog house was one of several he had helped build in the preceding month, so Monmouth police briefly questioned him about Pierce's death when he showed up to collect his final carpentry paycheck on April 15 and asked him to stay in town for further questioning. When police showed up at the Christy Hotel on April 19 to continue questioning Speck, they found he had left the hotel a few hours earlier, carrying his suitcases and saying he was just going to the laundromat. He had instead left town. A search of his room turned up a radio and costume jewelry Mrs. Virgil Harris had reported missing from her house, as well as items reported missing in two other local burglaries in the past month.[2]

Chicago, April–June 1966[edit]

On April 19, 1966, Speck returned to stay at his sister Martha's second-floor apartment at 3966 N. Avondale Ave. in the Old Irving Park neighborhood on the Northwest side of Chicago, where she lived with her husband, Gene Thornton, and their two teenage daughters. Martha had worked as a registered nurse in pediatrics before she was married and her husband Gene worked nights as a railroad switchman. Speck told them an unbelievable story about having to leave Monmouth after refusing to sell narcotics for a "crime syndicate" there. Gene Thornton, who had served in the U.S. Navy, thought that the U.S. Merchant Marine might provide a suitable occupation for his unemployed brother-in-law, so on April 25 he took Speck to the U.S. Coast Guard office to apply for a letter of authority to work as an apprentice seaman. The application required being fingerprinted and photographed, and having a physical examination by a physician.[2]

Speck found work immediately after obtaining the letter of authority, joining the 33-member crew of Inland Steel's Clarence B. Randall, an L6-S-B1 class bulk ore lake freighter, on April 30. Speck's first voyage on the Clarence B. Randall was brief, since he was stricken with appendicitis on May 3 and was evacuated by U.S. Coast Guard helicopter to St. Joseph's Hospital in Hancock, Michigan on the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan's Upper Peninsula where he had an emergency appendectomy.[2]

After he was discharged from the hospital, Speck returned to stay with his sister Martha and her family in Chicago to recuperate. On May 20 he rejoined the crew of the Clarence B. Randall on which he served until June 14, when he got drunk and quarreled with one of the boat's officers and was put ashore on June 15. For the following week, Speck stayed at the St. Elmo, an East Side, Chicago, flophouse at E. 99th St. & S. Ewing Ave. Speck then traveled by train to Houghton, Michigan, staying at the Douglas House, to visit Judy Laakaniemi, a 28-year-old nurse's aide going through a divorce, whom he had befriended at St. Joseph's Hospital. On June 27, after Judy gave him $80 to help him until he found work, Speck left to again stay with his sister Martha and her family in Chicago for the next two weeks.[2]

On June 30, his brother-in-law Gene drove Speck to the National Maritime Union (NMU) hiring hall at 2335 E. 100th St. in the Jeffery Manor neighborhood of South Deering, Chicago, to file his paperwork for a seaman's card. The NMU hiring hall was one block east of six attached two-story brick townhouses, three of which were occupied by South Chicago Community Hospital senior student nurses and Filipino exchange registered nurses, eight of whom lived in the easternmost townhouse at 2319 E. 100th St., just 150 feet from the NMU hiring hall.[2]

Chicago, July 1966[edit]

On Friday, July 8, 1966, his brother-in-law Gene drove Speck to the NMU hiring hall to pick up his seaman's card and register for a berth on a ship. Speck lost out that day to a seaman with more seniority for a berth on the SS Flying Spray, a C1-A cargo ship bound for South Vietnam, and returned to his sister Martha's apartment for the weekend.[2]

By Monday, July 11, Speck had outstayed his welcome with his sister Martha and her family. After packing his bags and again being driven by his brother-in-law Gene to the NMU hiring hall to await a berth on a ship, Speck stayed that evening at Pauline's rooming house, a mile away at 3028 E. 96th St. in the Vets Park neighborhood of South Deering, Chicago.[2]

On Tuesday, July 12, Speck returned to the NMU hiring hall and in mid-afternoon received an assignment on Sinclair Oil's tanker SS Sinclair Great Lakes, a thirty-minute drive away in East Chicago, Indiana, but when he arrived there he found his spot had already been taken, and was driven back to the by then closed NMU hiring hall. Speck did not have enough money for a rooming house, so he dropped off his bags six blocks east at the Manor Shell filling station at 9954 S. Torrence Ave. and slept in an unfinished house just off E. 103rd St.[2][4]

On Wednesday, July 13, after picking up his bags and checking in at the NMU hiring hall angry at being sent to a non-existent assignment, Speck talked for thirty minutes in their car with his sister Martha and her husband Gene who had driven down to visit him at 9 a.m., parked on E. 100th St. next to Luella Elementary School, across the street from the townhouses where the nurses lived. At 10:30 a.m., tired of waiting at the NMU hiring hall for a job and with $25 his sister had given him, Speck left and walked a mile and a half east on E. 100th St. to check in at the Shipyard Inn at E. 101st St. & S. Avenue N, an East Side, Chicago rooming house.[2]

Speck spent the rest of the day drinking in nearby taverns before accosting at knifepoint Ella Mae Hooper, a 53-year-old woman who had spent the day drinking at the same taverns as Speck. Speck took her to his room at the Shipyard Inn, raped her, and stole her black $16 mail-order .22 caliber Röhm pistol.[5] After dinner at the nearby Kay's Pilot House, Speck returned to drink at the Shipyard Inn’s tavern until 10:20 p.m., when he left dressed entirely in black, armed with a switchblade[6] and Ella Mae Hooper's handgun, and walked a mile and a half west on E. 100th St. to the nurses' townhouse at 2319 E. 100th St.[2]

The murders[edit]

At 11:00 p.m. on July 13, 1966, Speck broke into a townhouse located at 2319 East 100th Street in the Jeffery Manor neighborhood of Chicago. It was functioning as a dormitory for several young student nurses. Armed with only a knife (the Illinois Supreme Court opinion recounting the facts of the case reports that the defendant appeared at the door of the townhouse holding a gun[7]), he then killed most of the young women, including Gloria Davy, Patricia Matusek, Nina Jo Schmale, Pamela Wilkening, Suzanne Farris, Mary Ann Jordan, Merlita Gargullo, and Valentina Pasion. Speck, who later claimed he was high on both alcohol and drugs, may have originally planned to commit a routine burglary.[8] Speck held the women in the house for hours, methodically leading them out of the room one by one, stabbing or strangling them to death, then finally raping and strangling his last victim, Gloria Davy. Only one woman, Cora (Corazon) Amurao, escaped because she managed to wiggle under a bed while Speck was out of the room with one of his victims. Speck may have lost count, or he may have known there were eight women living in the townhouse but had been unaware a ninth student nurse was spending the night there. Amurao stayed hidden until almost 6 a.m. When she emerged, she climbed out of her northeast bedroom window onto a ledge screaming, "They're all dead! All my friends are dead!"[9]

Lieutenant Emil G. Giese headed the Identification Section of the Chicago Police Department. He compared and identified a smudged fingerprint found at the murder scene to another provided by the FBI, which belonged to Richard Speck. Sgt. Hugh Granahan assisted with the comparison and later that morning, Senior Examiner Burton J. Buhrke found a better fingerprint on a door at the scene.[10]

Two days after the murders, Speck was identified by a drifter named Claude Lunsford. Speck, Lunsford, and another man had been drinking the evening of July 15 on the fire escape of the Starr Hotel at 617 W. Madison. On July 16, Lunsford recognized a sketch of the murderer in the evening paper and phoned the police at 9:30 p.m. after finding Speck in his (Lunsford's) room at the Starr Hotel. The police, however, did not respond to the call although their records showed it had been made. Speck then attempted suicide, and the Starr Hotel desk clerk phoned in the emergency around midnight. Speck was taken to Cook County Hospital at 12:30 a.m. on July 17. At the hospital, Speck was recognized by Dr. LeRoy Smith, a 25-year-old surgical resident physician, who had read about the "Born To Raise Hell" tattoo in a newspaper story. The police were called. Speck was arrested.[10] Concerns over the recent Miranda case that had vacated the convictions of a number of criminals meant Speck was not even questioned for three weeks after his arrest.[11]

Pre-trial[edit]

Felony Court Judge Herbert J. Paschen appointed an impartial panel to report on Speck's competence to stand trial and his sanity at the time of the crime. The panel of three physicians suggested by the defense and three physicians selected by the prosecution: five psychiatrists and one general surgeon. The panel's confidential report deemed Speck competent to stand trial and concluded he had not been insane at the time of the murders.[2]

While awaiting trial, Speck participated in twice-weekly sessions with part-time Cook County Jail psychiatrist, Dr. Marvin Ziporyn. These continued after Speck's transfer from Cermak Memorial Hospital (inside Chicago's House of Corrections) on July 29, 1966 until February 13, 1967, the day before Speck was transferred to Peoria to stand trial. Ziporyn prepared a discharge summary with depression, anxiety, guilt, and shame among Speck's emotions, but also a deep love for his family. It went on to note an obsessive-compulsive personality and a "Madonna-prostitute" attitude towards women. Ziporyn maintained Speck viewed women as saintly until he felt betrayed by them for some reason, after which hostility developed. He also diagnosed organic brain syndrome, resulting from the cerebral injuries suffered earlier in Speck's life, and stated he was competent to stand trial but was insane at the time of the crime due to the effects of alcohol and drug use on his organic brain syndrome.[2]

Ziporyn did not testify for the defense or the prosecution as both sides were troubled to learn before the trial Ziporyn was writing a book about Speck for financial gain. Ziporyn also earned the ire of the Cook County Jail, which fired him as its part-time psychiatrist the week after Speck's trial ended. At some point during his interviews with Speck, Ziporyn had obtained a written three-sentence consent from Speck authorizing him to tell "what I am really like." Ziporyn's biography of Speck was published in summer 1967.[2]

Confessions[edit]

Speck later claimed he had no recollection of the murders, but he had confessed the crime to Dr. LeRoy Smith at the Cook County Hospital. Smith did not testify, because the confession was made while Speck was sedated. Illinois Supreme Court Justice John J. Stamos, Cook County's state attorney when Speck was tried, who knew of the hospital confession stated, "...we didn't need it. We had an eyewitness."[10] Speck confessed to the murders for the first time in public when he spoke to Chicago Tribune columnist Bob Greene in 1978.[12] In a film inmates made at the Stateville Correctional Center in 1988, Speck recounted the brutal murders.[13]

Trial[edit]

Speck's jury trial began April 3, 1967, in Peoria, Illinois, three hours southwest of Chicago, with a gag order on the press.[14] In court, Speck was dramatically identified by the sole surviving student nurse, Cora Amurao. When Amurao was asked if she could identify the killer of her fellow students, Amurao rose from her seat in the witness box, walked directly in front of Speck and pointed her finger at him, nearly touching him, and said, "This is the man."

Lieutenant Emil Giese testified regarding the fingerprints which were matched. He provided the scientific evidence the prosecution needed for conviction and with Amurao's testimony, placed the evidence against Speck beyond a reasonable doubt, which persuaded jurors.[10]

On April 15, after 49 minutes of deliberation, the jury found Speck guilty and recommended the death penalty. On June 5, Judge Herbert J. Paschen sentenced Speck to die in the electric chair but granted an immediate stay pending automatic appeal to the Illinois Supreme Court, which upheld his conviction and death sentence on November 22, 1968.[15]

False reports that Speck was XYY[edit]

In December 1965 and March 1966, Nature and The Lancet published the first preliminary reports by British cytogeneticist Patricia Jacobs and colleagues of a chromosome survey of Scotland's only security hospital for the developmentally disabled, that found nine patients, ranging from 5'7" to 6'2" in height, had a 47,XYY karyotype,[16] and mischaracterized them as aggressive and violent criminals.[17][18][19]

In August 1966, based on those mischaracterizations, Eric Engel, a Swiss endocrinologist and geneticist at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, wrote to Speck's attorney, Cook County Public Defender Gerald W. Getty, who was reportedly planning an insanity defense, and proposed confidentially karyotyping the 6 ft. 1 in. tall Speck.[20][21] Getty agreed, a chromosome analysis was performed, and the results—showing Speck had a normal 46,XY karyotype—were reported to Getty in a September 26, 1966 letter,[21] one month before a court-appointed panel of six physicians concluded that Speck was mentally competent to stand trial.[22]

In January 1968 and March 1968, The Lancet and Science published the first U.S. reports of institutionalized XYY males by Mary Telfer, a biochemist at the Elwyn Institute.[23] Telfer found five tall, developmentally disabled XYY boys and men in hospitals and penal institutions in Pennsylvania, and since four of the five had at least moderate facial acne, jumped to the erroneous conclusion acne was a defining characteristic of XYY males.[23] In January 1968, Getty contacted Telfer for more information on her findings. She not only incorrectly assumed the acne-scarred Speck was an XYY male, but leapt to the egregiously false conclusion Speck was the archetypical XYY male.[24]

In April 1968, The New York Times introduced the XYY genetic condition to the general public for the first time, using Telfer as a main source for a three-part series on consecutive days that began with a Sunday front-page story.[18][25] The second story in the series, "Ultimate Speck appeal may cite a genetic defect", incorrectly reported a chromosome analysis of Speck by Chicago geneticist Eugene Pergament in the summer of 1967 had shown Speck to be an XYY male.[26] The third story in the series included a denial by Pergament he had done a chromosome analysis of Speck, but continued to incorrectly report a chromosome analysis had shown Speck to be an XYY male.[27][28][29]

The following week, a Time article using Telfer as a main source reported "Richard Speck is said to be one such" man with two Y chromosomes[30] and a Newsweek article using Telfer as a main source reported that "according to some doctors" Richard Speck "exemplifies the XYY type" and "His chromosomes have in fact been analyzed, but his lawyer will not reveal the results of the test."[31]

In May 1968, after reading news stories about Speck being an XYY male, a dumbfounded Engel contacted Getty and learned the news stories were false—other than Engel's September 1966 chromosome analysis which had shown Speck to have a normal 46,XY karyotype—no other chromosome analysis of Speck had been done.[21] Engel performed a second chromosome analysis of Speck in June 1968 and the results—again showing Speck had a normal 46,XY karyotype—were reported to Getty in a July 3, 1968 letter,[21] three weeks before Getty filed his 193-page brief in Speck's appeal to the Illinois Supreme Court.[32]

In November 1968, five days before the Illinois Supreme Court's decision on Speck's appeal, a Sunday front-page article in the Chicago Tribune that again used Telfer as a main source, reported that prison records showed blood samples were taken from Speck in Stateville prison in June 1968 to determine whether he was an XYY male, and Getty had confirmed that a chromosome analysis had been performed outside of Illinois, but refused to disclose the results.[33][34] On November 25, 1968, three days after the Illinois Supreme Court upheld Speck's conviction and death sentence, Getty held a press conference at which he outlined the basis of his forthcoming appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court and also made public the chromosome analysis results from Engel showing Speck to have a normal 46,XY karyotype.[35]

In September 1972, Engel published his account of the story and a photograph of Speck's normal 46,XY karyotype in the American Journal of Mental Deficiency,[21] but by then the false association of Speck with the XYY genetic condition had been incorporated into high school biology textbooks, college genetics textbooks and medical school psychiatry textbooks, where misinformation still persists decades later.[19][36]

Death penalty reversal[edit]

On June 28, 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court (citing their June 3, 1968 decision in Witherspoon v. Illinois) upheld Speck's conviction but reversed his death sentence, because more than 250 potential jurors were unconstitutionally excluded from his jury because of their conscientious or religious beliefs against capital punishment.[4][37] The case was remanded back to the Illinois Supreme Court for re-sentencing.

On June 29, 1972, in Furman v. Georgia, the U.S. Supreme Court declared the death penalty unconstitutional, so the Illinois Supreme Court's only option was to order Speck re-sentenced to prison by the original Cook County court.[38]

On November 21, 1972, in Peoria, Judge Richard Fitzgerald re-sentenced Speck from 400 to 1,200 years in prison (8 consecutive sentences of 50 to 150 years).[39] He was denied parole in seven minutes at his first parole hearing on September 15, 1976, and at six subsequent hearings in 1977, 1978, 1981, 1984, 1987, and 1990.[40]

Life in prison[edit]

While incarcerated at the Stateville Correctional Center in Crest Hill, Illinois, Speck was given the nickname "birdman", after the film Birdman of Alcatraz, because he kept a pair of sparrows that had flown into his cell. He was described as a loner who kept a stamp collection and listened to music. His contacts with the warden included requests for new shirts, radio and other mundane items. The warden merely described him as "a big nothing doing time." Speck was not a model prisoner; he was often caught with drugs or distilled moonshine. Punishment for such infractions never stopped him. "How am I going to get in trouble? I'm here for 1,200 years!"[12]

Speck customarily refused all media requests, but granted one prison interview to Bob Greene in 1978; Speck told Greene he read Greene's column in the Chicago Tribune. In this interview, Speck confessed to the murders for the first time publicly and said he thought he would get out of prison "between now and the year 2000", at which time he hoped to run his own grocery store business.[12] He told Greene one of his pleasures in prison was "getting high."[12] When Greene asked him if he compared himself to celebrity killers like John Dillinger, Speck replied, "Me, I'm not like Dillinger or anybody else. I'm freakish."[12]

Speck said when he killed the nurses he "had no feelings", but things had changed: "I had no feelings at all that night. They said there was blood all over the place. I can't remember. It felt like nothing ... I'm sorry as hell. For those girls, and for their families, and for me. If I had to do it over again, it would be a simple house burglary."[12]

Speck's "final thought for the American people" was: "Just tell 'em to keep up their hatred for me. I know it keeps up their morale. And I don't know what I'd do without it."[12]

Prison video[edit]

In May 1996, Chicago television news anchor Bill Kurtis received video tapes made at Stateville Prison in 1988 from an anonymous attorney. Showing them publicly for the first time before the Illinois state legislature, Kurtis pointed out the explicit scenes of sex, drug use, and money being passed around by prisoners, who seemingly had no fear of being caught; in the center was Speck, performing oral sex on another inmate,[41][42] sharing a huge pile of cocaine with an inmate, parading in silk panties, sporting female-like breasts (allegedly grown using smuggled hormone treatments), and boasting, "If they only knew how much fun I was having, they'd turn me loose."[41] The Illinois legislature packed the auditorium to view the two-hour video,[41] but stopped the screening when the film showed Speck performing oral sex on another man.[42]

From behind the camera, a prisoner asked Speck if he had killed the nurses. Speck responded, "Sure I did." When asked why, Speck shrugged and jokingly said, "It just wasn't their night." Asked how he felt about himself in the years since, he said, "Like I always felt ... had no feeling. If you're asking me if I felt sorry, no." He also described in detail the experience of strangling someone: "It's not like TV ... it takes over three minutes and you have to have a lot of strength."[41] John Schmale, the brother of one of the murdered student nurses, said, "It was a very painful experience watching him tell about how he killed my sister."[43]

Portions of the tapes were later broadcast on the A&E Network's Investigative Reports. The same airing of Investigative Reports included interviews with people who believed Speck was not taking hormones, wearing panties, etc. voluntarily and he'd instead been forced to by other inmates.

Death, autopsy, and funeral[edit]

Speck died of a heart attack at 6:05 a.m. December 5, 1991, one day before his 50th birthday, at Silver Cross Hospital in Joliet. He had been taken to Silver Cross after complaining of chest pains and nausea at Stateville Correctional Center.[44]

After Speck's death, Dr. Jan E. Leestma, a neuropathologist at the Chicago Institute of Neurosurgery, performed an autopsy of Speck's brain. Leestma found apparent gross abnormalities. Two areas of the brain — the hippocampus, which involves memory, and the amygdala, which deals with rage and other strong emotions — encroached upon each other, and their boundaries were blurred.[13] Leestma made tissue section slides and presented them to others, who agreed his findings were unusual. There was no further analysis, however; the tissue samples were lost or stolen when sent to a Boston neurologist for further study. Leestma's findings were inconclusive.[13]

Dr. John R. Hughes, a neurologist and longtime director of the Epilepsy Clinic at the University of Illinois College of Medicine and a colleague of Leestma, examined photos of the tissue in the 1990s along with brain wave tests performed on Speck in the 1960s. Hughes stated, "I have never heard of that [type of abnormality] in the history of neurology. So any abnormality that exceptional has got to have an exceptional consequence." Hughes attributes Speck's homicidal nature to a combination of the brain abnormalities, the violence Speck suffered at the hands of his alcoholic stepfather, and his own drinking and violence in Texas.[13]

After Speck died, his body was not claimed. Duane Krieger, Will County coroner when Speck died, said he had talked to Richard Speck's sister: "She said they were afraid people would desecrate the grave if they had him buried out there." Krieger also stated that the sister "told her kids, 'You can never tell people Richard Speck was your uncle.'"[44]

Speck was cremated. The ashes were scattered in a location known only to Krieger, his chief deputy, a pastoral worker and Joliet Herald News columnist John Whiteside, who has since died. All witnesses swore to keep the location, a "pastoral" and "an appropriate location" in the Joliet area, secret. "We said a couple of prayers and spread them to the wind", Krieger said. "It was a very small funeral."[44]

In media[edit]

In films[edit]

  • Japanese "pink film" director, Kōji Wakamatsu, based his 1967 film, Violated Angels (犯された白衣 - Okasareta Hakui) on the Speck murders.[45]
  • in John Waters' 1974 film Female Trouble, Divine screams, "I blew Richard Speck!"
  • In John Waters' Serial Mom, Beverly Sutphin's husband Eugene reaches under the mattress of their bed and finds an envelope containing a signed photograph with Richard Speck's head apposed to the body of a muscular bodybuilder. The return address on the envelope reads: "Richard Speck, Stateville Correctional Center, Juliet, Illinois, 60434." Newspaper clippings about the nurse murders are also seen in a folder.
  • In the 1996 film Freeway, Reese Witherspoon's character holds up a picture, purportedly of her father whom she has never met. The photograph is of Richard Speck.
  • The 2002 film Speck portrays Speck's murders from his perspective.
  • The 2007 film Chicago Massacre: Richard Speck also portrays Speck's crimes.
  • The 2012 film 100 Ghost Street: The Return of Richard Speck follows investigators who try to film Speck's ghost at the site of the murders.
  • The 1976 film "Born for Hell", also known as "Naked Massacre", directed by Dennis Heroux, was closely based on the Richard Speck case.
  • The poster for the Fernando di Leo film "Slaughter Hotel" (aka "La Bestia uccide a sangue freddio) features an allusion to the Speck case: the poster is designed to look like a blown-up newspaper article, complete with a garish 'crime scene' photo and the headline "See the slashing massacre of 8 innocent nurses".

In music[edit]

  • A report of Speck's grand jury indictment is among the news bulletins read in "7 O'Clock News/Silent Night", a song from Simon and Garfunkel's 1966 album Parsley, Sage, Rosemary, and Thyme.
  • The song "The Ballad of TV Violence" from the first '77 self-titled Cheap Trick album was originally called "The Ballad of Richard Speck" and is about Richard Speck. Their label made them change the track to "The Ballad of TV Violence" because they thought "The Ballad of Richard Speck" was too offensive.
  • Original keyboardist of Marilyn Manson, Perry Pandrea, went by the stage name of Zsa Zsa Speck, combining the names of Zsa Zsa Gabor and Richard Speck.
  • Japanese doom metal band Church of Misery wrote "Born to Raise Hell" about Richard Speck.
  • American thrash/death metal/grindcore band Macabre wrote "What The Heck Richard Speck?: Eight Nurses You Wrecked" about Richard Speck on their Sinister Slaughter album.
  • The Chicago-based schizophrenic singer and songwriter Wesley Willis wrote the song "Richard Speck", which appears on his Greatest Hits album.
  • Garage rock band The Chesterfield Kings wrote the song "Richard Speck" for their 1989 Berlin Wall of Sound album.[46]
  • Norfolk, Virginia based punk/pop band Buttsteak wrote & released a song entitled "Murder Trilogy." The lyrics of the song mentioned Richard Speck, Theodore Bundy, and Charlie Manson. It is available on their 2nd LP, Shit... Cool It's The Honeycomb Generation (1992, Merkin Records).
  • The Song Sticks & Stones by Bruce Hornsby refers to "Old Dick Speck."

In art[edit]

  • Photographs of the eight nurses Speck murdered were the basis of Eight Student Nurses (1966), a painting series by German artist Gerhard Richter.[47]

In television[edit]

In literature[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c . (August 5, 1966). "Find missing woman sought in Speck case". Chicago Tribune. p. 14.  … indictments were returned against Richard Benjamin Speck, the name he used most frequently, instead of Richard Benjamin Speck, as shown on his birth certificate.
    Fornek, Scott (July 9, 2006). "Drinking buddy: 'He was just calm'". Chicago Sun-Times. p. A13.  Speck was born Richard Benjamin Speck on Dec. 6, 1941, in Downstate Kirkwood. Later, he took Franklin—his father's middle name—as his own middle name.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Breo, Daniel L.; Martin, William J. (1993). The crime of the century : Richard Speck and the murder of eight student nurses. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-56025-5. 
  3. ^ Altman, Jack; Ziporyn, Marvin (1967). Born to Raise Hell : The Untold Story of Richard Speck. New York: Grove Press. OCLC 295373. 
  4. ^ a b Getty, Gerald W.; Presley, James (1974). "Richard Speck and the eight slaughtered nurses". Public Defender. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. pp. 222–337. ISBN 0-448-01023-2. 
  5. ^ Breo & Martin (1993), pp. 23–24: "Ella Mae had obtained the .22 caliber black Rohm pistol for sixteen dollars from a mail-order house in West Virginia…and it was delivered to her by parcel post on March 10, 1966".
  6. ^ Breo & Martin (1993), pp. 199–200: possibly a $4.75 black-handled Schrade Walden "Improved Muskrat" switchblade with 23/4" and 23/16" blades.
  7. ^ 41 Ill.2d 177, 242 N.E.2d 208(1968)
  8. ^ Fornek, Scott. "'They're all dead!': 40 years ago this week, Richard Speck killed 8". Chicago Sun-Times. July 9, 2006.
  9. ^ Chua-Eoan, Howard. Top 25 Crimes of the Century - Richard Speck - TIME. Time.com.
  10. ^ a b c d Fornek, Scott. "Dogged detectives, alert physician nailed Speck". Chicago Sun-Times. July 10, 2006. Reprint.
  11. ^ "Criminal Justice: Learning to Live with Miranda". Time. August 5, 1966. 
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  15. ^ Speck Conviction. from CBS Evening News, from the Vanderbilt Television News Archive. November 22, 1968.
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    Price, W. H.; Strong, J. A.; Whatmore, P. B.; McClemont, W. F. (March 12, 1966). "Criminal patients with XYY sex-chromosome complement". Lancet 287 (7437): 565–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(66)90760-4. PMID 4159988. 
    editorial (March 12, 1966). "The YY syndrome". Lancet 287 (7437): 583–4. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(66)90771-9. PMID 4159658. 
  17. ^ Price, W. H.; Whatmore, P. B. (February 25, 1967). "Criminal behavior and the XYY male". Nature 213 (5078): 815. doi:10.1038/213815a0. PMID 6031815. 
    Price, W. H.; Whatmore, P. B. (March 4, 1967). "Behavior disorders and pattern of crime among XYY males identified at a maximum security hospital". Br Med J 1 (5539): 533–6. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5539.533. PMC 1841401. PMID 6017153. 
    Jacobs, Patricia A.; Price, W. H.; Court Brown, W. M.; Brittain, R. P.; Whatmore, P. B. (May 1968). "Chromosome studies on men in a maximum security hospital". Ann Hum Genet 31 (4): 339–58. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1968.tb00566.x. 
    Court Brown, W. M. (December 1968). "Males with an XYY sex chromosome complement". J Med Genet 5 (4): 341–59. doi:10.1136/jmg.5.4.341. PMC 1468679. PMID 4890326. 
    Jacobs, Patricia A. (September 1982). "The William Allan Memorial Award address: human population cytogenetics: the first twenty-five years". Am J Hum Genet 34 (5): 689–98. PMC 1685430. PMID 6751075. 
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  19. ^ a b Beckwith, Jonathan R. (2002). "The myth of the criminal chromosome". Making genes, making waves: A social activist in science. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 116–134. ISBN 0-674-00928-2. 
  20. ^ Larizza, Lidia (July 2002). "E.C.A. Honorary Member Eric Engel". E.C.A. Newsletter No. 10. European Cytogeneticists Association. 
    Davis, Richard John; McGee, Barbara J.; Empson, Judith; Engel, Eric (November 21, 1970). "XYY and crime". Lancet 296 (7682): 1086. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(70)90319-3. PMID 4098380. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Engel, Eric (September 1972). "The making of an XYY". Am J Ment Defic 77 (2): 123–7. PMID 5081078. 
  22. ^ . (August 3, 1966). "Speck's lawyer maps strategy in defense". Chicago Tribune. p. 7. 
    Wiedrich, Robert (August 19, 1966). "Mental test panel for Speck is asked". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. 
    . (September 10, 1966). "Judge orders Speck be given mental tests; Orders panel of 6 to report back Oct. 24". Chicago Tribune. p. 17. 
    . (October 25, 1966). "Rule Speck can face trial; Panel silent on sanity on murder day; Final report due on Nov. 4". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. 
  23. ^ a b Telfer, Mary A.; Baker, David; Longtin, Lucien (January 13, 1968). "YY syndrome in an American Negro". Lancet 291 (7533): 95. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(68)90107-4. PMID 4169701. 
    Telfer, Mary A.; Baker, David; Clark, Gerald R.; Richardson, Claude E. (March 15, 1968). "Incidence of gross chromosomal errors among tall criminal American males". Science 159 (3820): 1249–50. doi:10.1126/science.159.3820.1249. PMID 5715587. 
  24. ^ Telfer, Mary A. (November–December 1968). "Are some criminals born that way?". Think 34 (6): 24–8. ISSN 0040-6112. 
    Clark, Gerald R.; Telfer, Mary A.; Baker, David; Rosen, Marvin (May 1970). "Sex chromosomes, crime, and psychosis". Am J Psychiatry 126 (11): 1659–63. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.126.11.1659. PMID 5443650. 
    Baker, David; Telfer, Mary A.; Richardson, Claude E.; Clark, Gerald R. (November 2, 1970). "Chromosome errors in men with antisocial behavior. Comparison of selected men with Klinefelter's syndrome and XYY chromosome pattern". JAMA 214 (5): 869–78. doi:10.1001/jama.214.5.869. PMID 4248395. 
  25. ^ Lyons, Richard D. (April 21, 1968). "Genetic abnormality is linked to crime; Genetics linked to violent crimes". The New York Times. p. 1. 
  26. ^ Lyons, Richard D. (April 22, 1968). "Ultimate Speck appeal may cite a genetic defect". The New York Times. p. 43. 
  27. ^ Lyons, Richard D. (April 23, 1968). "Chromosome test for flaws costly; 2 scientists cite scarcity of skilled aides for analyses". The New York Times. p. 27. 
  28. ^ . (April 23, 1968). "Geneticist: Didn't test Speck". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 8. 

    Dr. Pergament said he and Dr. Sato, a research fellow, had absolutely no connection with the Speck case and never examined Speck. The report was also denied by Speck's attorney, Public Defender Gerald W. Getty. "I never knew those doctors existed before I read about them in the paper", Getty said. Getty did say that a chromosomal test was performed on Speck, before Speck's trial, by a geneticist from outside the Chicago area. He declined to identify the geneticist, and he said the results of the test never have been disclosed. "It was agreed", he said, "that the results would not be disclosed unless I wished them disclosed. And I still don't." In any case, Getty said, the results could not be used in an appeal — since they were not part of the trial evidence. If anything, he said, they could only be used in connection with a new trial.

  29. ^ Mintzer, R.; Pergament, E.; Berlow, S.; Sato, H. (April 1968). "The XYY syndrome". J Pediatr 72 (4): 572. doi:10.1016/s0022-3476(68)80368-3. 
    Pergament, Eugene; Sato, Hideo; Berlow, Stanley; Mintzer, Richard (August 3, 1968). "YY syndrome in an American Negro". Lancet 292 (7562): 281. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(68)92382-9. PMID 4173710. 
  30. ^ . (May 3, 1968). "Of chromosomes & crime". Time 91 (18): 41. 
  31. ^ . (May 6, 1968). "Born bad?". Newsweek 76 (19): 87. 
  32. ^ . (July 23, 1968). "Getty sends Speck appeal to high court; Cites 22 errors in his 193-page brief". Chicago Tribune. p. B11. 
  33. ^ Kotulak, Ronald; Jones, William (November 17, 1968). "Test Speck, seek genetic error 'alibi'; Move to prevent execution". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. 
  34. ^ Howard, Robert (November 23, 1968). "Upholds Speck sentence; Court fixes Jan. 31 for execution; Trial was fair, Klingbiel rules". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. 
  35. ^ . (November 26, 1968). "Getty tells Speck case plea basis; 10 issues are raised regarding trial". Chicago Tribune. p. A16. 
  36. ^ Freedman, Alfred M.; Kaplan, Harold I.; Sadock, Benjamin J. (1972). Modern Synopsis of Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (1st ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. p. 711. OCLC 1232929. "Figure 43.2" 
    Kaplan, Harold I.; Sadock, Benjamin J.; Grebb, Jack A. (1994). Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry : Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychiatry (7th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. p. 1185. ISBN 0-683-04530-X. "Figure 51–9" 
    Kaplan, Harold I.; Sadock, Benjamin J. (1998). Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry : Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychiatry (8th ed.). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. p. 1317. ISBN 0-683-30330-9. "Figure 55–5" 
    Sadock, Benjamin James; Sadock, Virginia Alcott (2003). Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry : Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychiatry (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 155. ISBN 0-7817-3183-6. "Figure 4.4–1" 
    Sadock, Benjamin James; Sadock, Virginia Alcott (2007). Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry : Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry (10th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 154. ISBN 0-7817-7327-X. "Figure 4.4–1" 
  37. ^ U.S. Supreme Court (June 3, 1968). "Witherspoon v. Illinois". Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  38. ^ Elsasser, Glen (June 30, 1972). "Supreme Court ruling: death sentences voided". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
    Crews, Stephen; Crimmins, Jerry (June 30, 1972). "Most on death row here were appealing". Chicago Tribune. p. C16. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
    . (September 21, 1972). "Top state court orders new Speck sentencing". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
    . (August 18, 2004). "Chronology: The Illinois death penalty experience—Furman v. Georgia to the present". Chicago: Center on Wrongful Convictions, Northwestern University School of Law. Archived from the original on November 11, 2004. Retrieved February 6, 2007. 
  39. ^ Blatchford, Frank (November 22, 1972). "New Speck term: 400 to 1,200 years". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. 
    . (November 23, 1972). "New law makes Speck eligible for parole in 1977". Chicago Tribune. p. B14. 
    Oppenheim, Carol (November 24, 1972). "Plan study of new code; 1977 parole for Speck doubted". Chicago Tribune. p. 16. 
  40. ^ Oppenheim, Carol (September 16, 1976). "Speck's parole denied in 7 minutes". Chicago Tribune. p. 1. 
    . (September 8, 1977). "Speck waives hearing on parole with fiery note". Chicago Tribune. p. 4. 
    . (September 29, 1978). "Parole denied to Speck; next hearing set for 1981". Chicago Tribune. p. A7. 
    . (September 5, 1981). "Parole for Speck is denied 4th time". Chicago Tribune. p. S2. 
    . (September 8, 1984). "Board refuses parole for mass-killer Speck". Chicago Tribune. p. 5. 
    O`Brien, John; Davidson, Jean (September 10, 1987). "Speck is denied parole again". Chicago Tribune. p. 3 (Chicagoland). 
    . (September 11, 1990). "Speck parole denied for 7th time". Chicago Tribune. p. 3 (Chicagoland). 
  41. ^ a b c d "NARY A SPECK OF DECENCY". TIME. May 27, 1996.
  42. ^ a b Johnson, Dirk. "Killer's Prison Video Sparks Illinois Lawmakers' Outrage". New York Times. May 16, 1996.
  43. ^ http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/predators/speck/4c.html
  44. ^ a b c Minor, Chris. "Ashes scattered in secret spot". Chicago Sun-Times. July 11, 2006. Reprint.
  45. ^ Weisser, and Yuko Mihara Weisser (1998). Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films. Miami: Vital Books: Asian Cult Cinema Publications. p. 101. ISBN 1-88928-852-7. 
  46. ^ http://www.allmusic.com/album/the-berlin-wall-of-sound-mw0000309481
  47. ^ Buchloh, Benjamin H. D. (1989). "A Note on Gerhard Richter's "October 18, 1977"". October (The MIT Press) 48 (Spring): 88–109. doi:10.2307/778953. JSTOR 778953. 
  • "The Voice of Richard Speck", Chicago Tribune, December 8, 1991.

Further reading[edit]

  • Altman, Jack; Ziporyn, Marvin (1967). Born to raise hell : the untold story of Richard Speck. New York: Grove Press. OCLC 295373. 
  • Getty, Gerald W.; Presley, James (1974). "Richard Speck and the eight slaughtered nurses". Public Defender. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. pp. 222–337. ISBN 0-448-01023-2. 
  • "Loser". Mass murderers. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books. 1992. pp. 6–29. ISBN 0-7835-0005-X. 
  • Breo, Daniel L.; Martin, William J. (1993). The crime of the century : Richard Speck and the murder of eight student nurses. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-56025-5. 
  • Nash, Jay Robert (1995). "Speck, Richard Franklin". Bloodletters and badmen : a narrative encyclopedia of American criminals from the Pilgrims to the present. New York: M. Evans and Co. pp. 575–579. ISBN 0-87131-777-X. 
  • Bachmann, Patrick (producer, writer); Smith, Harry (narrator) (1998). Richard Speck : natural born killer. New York: A&E Television Networks. OCLC 64181583. 

External links[edit]

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