Play Video
1
**How to Make Rose Oil** Cold Infusion Method
**How to Make Rose Oil** Cold Infusion Method
::2012/08/14::
Play Video
2
Ercetin Rose Oil Co. Corporate Video
Ercetin Rose Oil Co. Corporate Video
::2012/12/26::
Play Video
3
Gorgeously Green - How to Make India Rose Luxurious Skin Oil
Gorgeously Green - How to Make India Rose Luxurious Skin Oil
::2010/06/04::
Play Video
4
Rose Oil: Use All Over the Body. Yes, I said all over the body!
Rose Oil: Use All Over the Body. Yes, I said all over the body!
::2013/07/25::
Play Video
5
How to make Rose Hip Oil (+anti-ageing facial oil)
How to make Rose Hip Oil (+anti-ageing facial oil)
::2013/11/25::
Play Video
6
Ways to use Roses + How to make Rose Petal Infused Oil
Ways to use Roses + How to make Rose Petal Infused Oil
::2012/06/29::
Play Video
7
How To Make Rose Oil
How To Make Rose Oil
::2013/10/16::
Play Video
8
DIY: Fresh Rosewater and Rose Oil And the Benefits *Super Easy to make!*
DIY: Fresh Rosewater and Rose Oil And the Benefits *Super Easy to make!*
::2013/02/21::
Play Video
9
Enio Bonchev - 2012 Rose oil production.avi
Enio Bonchev - 2012 Rose oil production.avi
::2012/07/20::
Play Video
10
NO2 Pink Rose Oil Painting
NO2 Pink Rose Oil Painting
::2009/01/30::
Play Video
11
Distillation and extraction of oil-bearing rose in Isparta, Turkey
Distillation and extraction of oil-bearing rose in Isparta, Turkey
::2014/01/11::
Play Video
12
Making Rose Oil
Making Rose Oil
::2012/01/23::
Play Video
13
Art Lesson: How to Paint a Rose Using Oil Paint
Art Lesson: How to Paint a Rose Using Oil Paint
::2013/09/19::
Play Video
14
How to Paint a Red Rose in Oil with a Palette Knife in only 10 minutes.
How to Paint a Red Rose in Oil with a Palette Knife in only 10 minutes.
::2011/11/30::
Play Video
15
LUSH Buying presents: Rose Oil Buying Trip
LUSH Buying presents: Rose Oil Buying Trip
::2012/02/28::
Play Video
16
REVIEW: Rose Hip Oil VS La Mer - Benefits of Going Natural
REVIEW: Rose Hip Oil VS La Mer - Benefits of Going Natural
::2013/03/04::
Play Video
17
How to massage rose oil on face
How to massage rose oil on face
::2013/09/12::
Play Video
18
Bulgarian Rose Oil
Bulgarian Rose Oil
::2013/04/05::
Play Video
19
Rosehip Seed Oil WARNING: 5 Things You NEED To Know Before Buying
Rosehip Seed Oil WARNING: 5 Things You NEED To Know Before Buying
::2014/04/29::
Play Video
20
NO3 Red Rose Oil Painting
NO3 Red Rose Oil Painting
::2009/01/30::
Play Video
21
Lush Buying Presents: Rose Oil
Lush Buying Presents: Rose Oil
::2008/10/01::
Play Video
22
How to make Rose Oil
How to make Rose Oil
::2014/06/04::
Play Video
23
Destillation of rose oil
Destillation of rose oil
::2011/12/05::
Play Video
24
Rose Oil - The Ultimate Heart Opener
Rose Oil - The Ultimate Heart Opener
::2014/02/23::
Play Video
25
Rose Oil: John Scarman about The Healing Rose
Rose Oil: John Scarman about The Healing Rose
::2013/09/20::
Play Video
26
Rose Hip Seed Oil Review - Natural Under eye cream
Rose Hip Seed Oil Review - Natural Under eye cream
::2012/01/13::
Play Video
27
how to draw a rose using oil pastel
how to draw a rose using oil pastel
::2010/05/15::
Play Video
28
Rose Oil Pastel Painting - Time Lapse
Rose Oil Pastel Painting - Time Lapse
::2013/05/03::
Play Video
29
underpainting technique - Rose Oil Painting
underpainting technique - Rose Oil Painting
::2011/08/09::
Play Video
30
AMMT ROB SREM Rose Oil Bath Stress Relief Energizing Massage E709B P5 Intro
AMMT ROB SREM Rose Oil Bath Stress Relief Energizing Massage E709B P5 Intro
::2014/07/20::
Play Video
31
MY NATURAL EVENING SKINCARE ROUTINE! Oil Cleansing Method, Coconut Oil, Argan Oil & Rose Hip Oil!
MY NATURAL EVENING SKINCARE ROUTINE! Oil Cleansing Method, Coconut Oil, Argan Oil & Rose Hip Oil!
::2013/09/09::
Play Video
32
Organic "ROSE HIP SEED OIL" Anti-Aging Smooths wrinkles Moisturize face
Organic "ROSE HIP SEED OIL" Anti-Aging Smooths wrinkles Moisturize face
::2013/12/22::
Play Video
33
gül, gülbirlik, rosense, rose, rose oil, rose damascena
gül, gülbirlik, rosense, rose, rose oil, rose damascena
::2011/06/21::
Play Video
34
Oil Painting - Rose
Oil Painting - Rose
::2010/02/24::
Play Video
35
Making the Floral Infusion | 2 - Rose Oil
Making the Floral Infusion | 2 - Rose Oil
::2009/12/03::
Play Video
36
Painting Roses in Oil with a Palette Knife in 3 Easy Steps
Painting Roses in Oil with a Palette Knife in 3 Easy Steps
::2011/12/09::
Play Video
37
Yellow Rose oil painting .MPG
Yellow Rose oil painting .MPG
::2010/11/16::
Play Video
38
Black Paint Organic Skin Care -- Step 4: Rose Oil Water
Black Paint Organic Skin Care -- Step 4: Rose Oil Water
::2014/05/13::
Play Video
39
Review: Rose Hip Oil
Review: Rose Hip Oil
::2012/01/28::
Play Video
40
Розовое масло  ИПАР (IPAR Bio - technology Development Groups Inc) rose  oil
Розовое масло ИПАР (IPAR Bio - technology Development Groups Inc) rose oil
::2014/04/10::
Play Video
41
Golden face cream with wheat germ and rose oil
Golden face cream with wheat germ and rose oil
::2011/12/11::
Play Video
42
Rose Oil 玫瑰精油【Dr  David Hill】
Rose Oil 玫瑰精油【Dr David Hill】
::2014/04/04::
Play Video
43
Alteya Organics - Rose Harvest
Alteya Organics - Rose Harvest
::2011/10/20::
Play Video
44
Rose essential Oil
Rose essential Oil
::2012/03/05::
Play Video
45
Introducing pure DKNY a drop of rose, Erçetin Rose Oil
Introducing pure DKNY a drop of rose, Erçetin Rose Oil
::2013/02/18::
Play Video
46
How to Make Herbal Infused Oils
How to Make Herbal Infused Oils
::2010/03/02::
Play Video
47
foot massage with oil - feet & toes of Jelisa Rose
foot massage with oil - feet & toes of Jelisa Rose
::2014/05/19::
Play Video
48
Follow Up Review: Rose Hip Oil
Follow Up Review: Rose Hip Oil
::2012/04/30::
Play Video
49
How to Oil Paint Rose Petals
How to Oil Paint Rose Petals
::2014/05/20::
Play Video
50
AMMT ROB SREM Rose Oil Bath Stress Relief Energizing Massage E709B P5 Intro
AMMT ROB SREM Rose Oil Bath Stress Relief Energizing Massage E709B P5 Intro
::2014/08/08::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Rose (Rosa damascena) essential oil in clear glass vial

Rose oil, meaning either rose otto (attar of rose, attar of roses) or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. Rose ottos are extracted through steam distillation, while rose absolutes are obtained through solvent extraction or supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, with the absolute being used more commonly in perfumery. Even with their high price and the advent of organic synthesis, rose oils are still perhaps the most widely used essential oil in perfumery.

Components[edit]

Two major species of rose are cultivated for the production of rose oil:

Bulgaria produces about 70% of all rose oil in the world.[1] Other significant producers are Morocco, Iran and Turkey.

The most common chemical compounds present in rose oil are:

citronellol, geraniol, nerol, linalool, phenyl ethyl alcohol, farnesol, stearoptene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-terpinene, limonene, p-cymene, camphene, β-caryophyllene, neral, citronellyl acetate, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate, eugenol, methyl eugenol, rose oxide, α-damascenone, β-damascenone, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, rhodinyl acetate and phenyl ethyl formate.[2][unreliable source?]

The key flavor compounds that contribute to the distinctive scent of rose oil, however, are beta-damascenone, beta-damascone, beta-ionone, and rose oxide. Beta-damascenone presence and quantity is considered as the marker for the quality of rose oil. Even though these compounds exist in less than 1% quantity of rose oil, they make up for slightly more than 90% of the odor content due to their low odor detection thresholds.[3]

Production[edit]

Rose-picking in the Rose Valley near the town of Kazanlak in Bulgaria, 1870s, engraving by Austro-Hungarian traveller Felix Philipp Kanitz

Due to the labor-intensive production process and the low content of oil in the rose blooms, rose oil commands a very high price. Harvesting of flowers is done by hand in the morning before sunrise and material is distilled the same day.

There are three main methods of extracting the oil from the plant material:

Distillation[edit]

In the process of distillation, large stills, traditionally of copper, are filled with roses and water. The still is fired for 60–105 minutes. The vaporized water and rose oil exit the still and enter a condensing apparatus and are then collected in a flask. This distillation yields a very concentrated oil, direct oil, which makes up about 20% of the final product. The water which condenses along with the oil is drained off and redistilled, cohobation, in order to obtain the water-soluble fractions of the rose oil such as phenethyl alcohol which are a vital component of the aroma and which make up the large bulk, 80%, of the oil. The two oils are combined and make the final rose otto.

Rose otto is usually dark olive-green in color and will form white crystals at normal room temperature which disappear when the oil is gently warmed. It will tend to become more viscous at lower temperatures due to this crystallization of some of its components.

The essence has a very strong odor, but is pleasant when diluted and used for perfume. Attar of roses was once made in India, Persia, Syria, and the Ottoman Empire. The Rose Valley in Bulgaria, near the town of Kazanlak, is among the major producers of attar of roses in the world.[4] In India, Kannauj is an important city of fabrication of Rose Attar, Kannauj is nicknamed "The Grasse of East" or "The Grasse of Orient". Grasse (in France) is an important city of fabrication of rose fragance. Due to the heat required for distillation, some of the compounds extracted from the rose undergo denaturing or chemical breakdown. As such, rose otto does not smell very similar to "fresh" roses.

The hydrosol portion of the distillate is known as rosewater. This inexpensive by-product is used widely as a food flavoring as well as in skin care.

Solvent extraction[edit]

In the solvent extraction method, the flowers are agitated in a vat with a solvent such as hexane, which draws out the aromatic compounds as well as other soluble substances such as wax and pigments. The extract is subjected to vacuum processing which removes the solvent for re-use. The remaining waxy mass is known as a concrete. The concrete is then mixed with alcohol which dissolves the aromatic constituents, leaving behind the wax and other substances. The alcohol is low-pressure evaporated, leaving behind the finished absolute. The absolute may be further processed to remove any impurities that are still present from the solvent extraction.

Rose absolute is a deep reddish brown with no crystals. Due to the low temperatures in this process, the absolute may be more faithful to the scent of the fresh rose than the ottor.

Carbon dioxide extraction[edit]

A third process, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, combines the best aspects of the other two methods. When carbon dioxide is put under at least 72.9 atm (73,900 mb) of pressure and at a temperature of at least 31.1 °C (88.0 °F) (the critical point), it becomes a supercritical fluid with the permeation properties of a gas and the solvation properties of a liquid. (Under normal pressure CO2 changes directly from a solid to a gas in a process known as sublimation.) The supercritical fluid CO2 extracts the aromatics from the plant material.

Like solvent extraction, the CO2 extraction takes place at a low temperature, extracts a wide range of compounds rendering an essence more faithful to the original, and leaves the aromatics unaltered by heat. Because CO2 is gas at normal atmospheric pressure, it leaves no trace of itself in the final product. The equipment for CO2 extraction is expensive, which is reflected in the price of the essential oils obtained from the process.

Adulteration[edit]

It takes many pounds of rose petals to distill one ounce of essential oil. Depending on extraction method and plant species, the average yield can range from 1:1500 to 1:10,000.[5] To mitigate the cost, some dishonest dealers will dilute rose oil with geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) or palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii) essential oils, both of which are rich in geraniol, the main constituent of rose oil. Some of these "rose oils" are up to 90% geranium or palmarosa to 10% rose. This is referred to as extending the rose fragrance. This may be done to compensate for chemotype, e.g. Bulgarian distilled rose oil is naturally low in phenylethanol, and Ukrainian or Russian rose oil is naturally high in phenylethanol. Pure rose oil should not be used directly on the skin, as it can cause allergic reactions such as red skin and spots.[medical citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bulgaria - U.S. Central Command Factbook
  2. ^ [1], Chemical composition of rose oil.
  3. ^ Leffingwell, John C. (1999). "Rose (Rosa damascena)". Aroma from Carotenoids. Leffingwell & Associates. Retrieved 2006-06-08. 
  4. ^ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne. 
  5. ^ The Chemistry of Essential Oils and Artificial Perfumes. 1921. [full citation needed]

External links[edit]

The dictionary definition of rose oil at Wiktionary

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014