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1
Scott Base, Antarctica (1965) (ABJC W3041/8)
Scott Base, Antarctica (1965) (ABJC W3041/8)
::2011/11/06::
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2
7 - Ross Dependency [Interlude]- D-Zeebo
7 - Ross Dependency [Interlude]- D-Zeebo
::2012/07/25::
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3
The Origins of Codependency Explained. Why Someone Becomes a Codependent. Relationship Advice Expert
The Origins of Codependency Explained. Why Someone Becomes a Codependent. Relationship Advice Expert
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4
Ross Kemp Reveals: The Glue Kids of Kenya
Ross Kemp Reveals: The Glue Kids of Kenya
::2014/01/27::
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Sail Away
Sail Away
::2006/09/28::
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Top places to feel like you’re in the future - McMurdo Station - Ross Island - Antarctica
Top places to feel like you’re in the future - McMurdo Station - Ross Island - Antarctica
::2014/12/21::
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Governor-General
Governor-General's visit strengthens NZ's Pacific ties
::2013/10/25::
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8
Integrative Management in Eating Disorders and Chemical Dependency 2012-11-13
Integrative Management in Eating Disorders and Chemical Dependency 2012-11-13
::2012/11/14::
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Scott Base Ross Island Antarctica
Scott Base Ross Island Antarctica
::2009/01/25::
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Codependency Recovery Stages. A New Theory. Hope for Love! Relationship Expert Advice
Codependency Recovery Stages. A New Theory. Hope for Love! Relationship Expert Advice
::2014/02/19::
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11
Automation Dependency 0001
Automation Dependency 0001
::2011/12/27::
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12
Nisshin Maru Caught Poaching Whales
Nisshin Maru Caught Poaching Whales
::2014/03/02::
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13
Isn
Isn't Dependency In A Relationship Bad...And How Do You Avoid It?
::2014/07/23::
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14
New Zealand
New Zealand
::2010/03/15::
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15
Breaking Digital Dependency: A Conversation with William Powers, Author, Hamlet
Breaking Digital Dependency: A Conversation with William Powers, Author, Hamlet's BlackBerry
::2011/03/02::
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16
PHPNW13 Track 2 Talk 5: Ross Tuck - Models and Service Layers; Hemoglobin and Hobgoblins
PHPNW13 Track 2 Talk 5: Ross Tuck - Models and Service Layers; Hemoglobin and Hobgoblins
::2014/02/26::
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17
Wonderful Chill Out Music - New Zealand HD
Wonderful Chill Out Music - New Zealand HD
::2014/04/04::
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New Zealand - Delightful Mint Stamp Collection!
New Zealand - Delightful Mint Stamp Collection!
::2012/11/02::
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A Glimpse of New Zealand
A Glimpse of New Zealand
::2009/08/16::
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20
Ross Rosenberg on The Imago Think Tank. International Imago Therapist  Harville Hendrix
Ross Rosenberg on The Imago Think Tank. International Imago Therapist Harville Hendrix
::2014/10/16::
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21
Sea Shepherd activists release whale hunt video as clash begins in Southern Ocean
Sea Shepherd activists release whale hunt video as clash begins in Southern Ocean
::2014/01/06::
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22
Psych Central Webinar: Codependency Recovery Stages. Relationship Advice.Narcissism Expert
Psych Central Webinar: Codependency Recovery Stages. Relationship Advice.Narcissism Expert
::2014/07/31::
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23
A Pimp Named Silckback (Bitch Dependency).mp4
A Pimp Named Silckback (Bitch Dependency).mp4
::2012/01/29::
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24
Children
Children's Dependence on Technology, Social Problems
::2012/01/16::
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25
Passages Malibu Testimonial from Alumni Ross Remien
Passages Malibu Testimonial from Alumni Ross Remien
::2011/03/07::
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26
NPR RADIO INTERVIEW The Codependent / Narcissist Relationship.  Codependency Expert / Author.
NPR RADIO INTERVIEW The Codependent / Narcissist Relationship. Codependency Expert / Author.
::2013/06/11::
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Celebrate Recovery, Love and Relationship Addiction, Co-dependency, Testimonial Morgan
Celebrate Recovery, Love and Relationship Addiction, Co-dependency, Testimonial Morgan
::2014/02/08::
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28
New Zealand A day in the life
New Zealand A day in the life
::2014/06/01::
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29
Full ABC
Full ABC's Late Night TV Interview. Ross's First TV Interview . Tuesdays with Dan Show.
::2013/06/12::
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30
Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of New Zealand
Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of New Zealand
::2014/11/03::
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31
HEAT - Antarctic Web Diary
HEAT - Antarctic Web Diary
::2008/10/27::
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32
Robots Survey Ice-Covered Ocean
Robots Survey Ice-Covered Ocean
::2010/10/14::
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New Zealand Nyan Cat
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::2011/10/20::
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34
FINALLY AN EXPLANATION of CODEPENDENCY!  Who Are Codependents? Ross Rosenberg Explains.  Expert
FINALLY AN EXPLANATION of CODEPENDENCY! Who Are Codependents? Ross Rosenberg Explains. Expert
::2013/12/18::
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Dr. Umar Johnson - American-Afrikan Paradigm: Marcus Garvey Vs. Dependency Complex
Dr. Umar Johnson - American-Afrikan Paradigm: Marcus Garvey Vs. Dependency Complex
::2013/03/13::
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Fox
Fox's Allen West: Safety Net Programs Create "Economic Dependency Plantation"
::2014/02/04::
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Maya tutorial: Resolving dependency issues with the File Path Editor | lynda.com
Maya tutorial: Resolving dependency issues with the File Path Editor | lynda.com
::2014/09/18::
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Eating Disorder Truth: Body Image, Mental Health | Psychiatrist Colin Ross & Corrina Psychetruth
Eating Disorder Truth: Body Image, Mental Health | Psychiatrist Colin Ross & Corrina Psychetruth
::2013/01/07::
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Dependency - Convicted
Dependency - Convicted
::2011/01/03::
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40
Bradford Health Services - Signs and Symptoms of Depression in Chemical Dependency.mp4
Bradford Health Services - Signs and Symptoms of Depression in Chemical Dependency.mp4
::2012/04/17::
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41
Ross Rosenberg on THE BEST PEOPLE WE KNOW RADIO SHOW w/ Deb Scott. 1 Million Plus Global Listeners!
Ross Rosenberg on THE BEST PEOPLE WE KNOW RADIO SHOW w/ Deb Scott. 1 Million Plus Global Listeners!
::2013/12/17::
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The Paradox of Love & Hate: Understanding Borderline Personality Disorder - BPD Relationship Expert
The Paradox of Love & Hate: Understanding Borderline Personality Disorder - BPD Relationship Expert
::2014/03/30::
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INNER PEACE NOW! Overcoming Co-Dependency Quickly, Part 1
INNER PEACE NOW! Overcoming Co-Dependency Quickly, Part 1
::2013/09/01::
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44
Around the world : New Zealand
Around the world : New Zealand
::2012/10/12::
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New Zealand.
New Zealand.
::2010/02/14::
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Paul Ross - Reveals Drug Addiction
Paul Ross - Reveals Drug Addiction
::2014/09/01::
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47
How to Defend Yourself from Narcissists. Observe Don
How to Defend Yourself from Narcissists. Observe Don't Absorb Technique. Stop the Manipulation!
::2014/01/06::
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BREAKING FREE FROM CO   DEPENDENCY
BREAKING FREE FROM CO DEPENDENCY
::2013/11/12::
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Sex Addicts Are Often Codependent. Linking Codependency & Sex Addiction. Relationship Advice Expert
Sex Addicts Are Often Codependent. Linking Codependency & Sex Addiction. Relationship Advice Expert
::2014/01/31::
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Sea Shepherd Clashes and Drives Japanese Whalers Out of Australia
Sea Shepherd Clashes and Drives Japanese Whalers Out of Australia's Waters
::2008/12/27::
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Ross Dependency
Flag
Major bases
Government None
New Zealand dependency
 -  Claim delegated
to New Zealand
1923 
 -  Sector span 160°E – 150°W 
Area
 -  Total 450,000 km2
174,000 sq mi
Population
 -  Seasonal estimate
Currency New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Time zone NZST (UTC+12)
 -  Summer (DST) NZDT (UTC+13)
(Sep to Apr)
Calling code +64 2409
ISO 3166 code AQ
Internet TLD

The Ross Dependency is a region of Antarctica defined by a sector originating at the South Pole, passing along longitudes 160° east to 150° west, and terminating at latitude 60° south. New Zealand's claim to the region was formalized in 1923, when the Governor-General of New Zealand was appointed as the Governor of the Ross Dependency by an Imperial Order in Council made in London, United Kingdom. Since the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1961, Article IV of which states "No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica", most countries do not recognise territorial claims in Antarctica.

The Dependency takes its name from Sir James Clark Ross, who discovered the Ross Sea, and includes part of Victoria Land, and most of the Ross Ice Shelf. Ross Island, Balleny Islands and the small Scott Island also form part of the Dependency, as does the ice-covered Roosevelt Island.

Habitation[edit]

The scientific bases of Scott Base (New Zealand) and McMurdo Station (USA) are the only permanently occupied human habitations in the area, though Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station is partially within the territory and dependent on logistics operations based in New Zealand. The Dependency has a snow runway at Williams Field, and depending on conditions and time of year, two Ice Runways. This guarantees accessibility by wheeled and ski equipped aircraft year round.

Italy conducts scientific research each summer at their Zucchelli Station in Terra Nova Bay, and from 1969 to 1995 New Zealand operated a summer-only base called Vanda Station in the Dry Valley area of the dependency.

Greenpeace maintained its own Antarctic station in the Ross Dependency called World Park Base from 1987 to 1992, which was on Ross Island. As this base was a non-governmental entity, the official policy of the signatory nations of the Antarctic Treaty was not to give any support or assistance to it.

Jurisdiction[edit]

Following his discovery of Victoria Land in 1841, James Clark Ross took possession of this territory, along with the surrounding sea, on behalf of Britain. On 30 July 1923, the British government passed an Order in Council under the British Settlements Act 1887, which defined the current borders of the Ross Dependency as follows,

"From and after the publication of this Order in the Government Gazette of the Dominion of New Zealand that part of His Majesty's Dominions in the Antarctic Seas, which comprises all the islands and territories between the 160th degree of East Longitude and the 150th degree of West Longitude which are situated south of the 60th degree of South Latitude shall be named the Ross Dependency."

The Order in Council then went on to appoint the Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of New Zealand as the Governor of the territory.[1] This Order in Council was published in the New Zealand Gazette on 16 August 1923, and on 14 November 1923, the Governor-General issued regulations extending New Zealand law to the Ross Dependency.

After the Order in Council was read in the New Zealand House of Representatives by the Rt. Hon. William Ferguson Massey, a clarification was made by the Attorney-General Hon. Sir Francis Bell in the legislative council. Sir Francis stated that,

"The boundaries of New Zealand are not extended to include the Ross sea and adjacent lands. His Majesty's delegation to the Governor-General of New Zealand did not confer upon the government or parliament of New Zealand the same powers as were vested by the Constitution Act in respect of the Dominion itself. It might be assumed that in the administration of the Ross Dependency that he would invite advice from his New Zealand ministers and it was certain that details would be entrusted to the New Zealand government. But his excellency was required in all matters of legislation and regulation for the Ross Territory to comply with instructions from the colonial secretary. There was no reason to believe that the Colonial Office would give such instructions without prior consultation with the Government of the Dominion, but the part which the New Zealand Government had agreed to take in enabling His Majesty to exercise jurisdiction in and over the Ross Territory must be taken on behalf of the Empire as a whole and not specially in the interests of New Zealand."

At an Imperial conference in 1930,[2] it was agreed that the Governors-General of the Dominions would be appointed by the King on the advice of the Dominion in question. And following the passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 (which was adopted in full by New Zealand in 1947), the government of the United Kingdom relinquished all control over the government of New Zealand. This however had no bearing on the obligations of the Governor-General of New Zealand in his capacity as Governor of the Ross Dependency on the appointment of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. Then in the year 1959, the Antarctic Treaty was signed by twelve nations which included both the United Kingdom and New Zealand.

Aerial photo of Mount Erebus on Ross Island.

The actual amount of land mass claimed is not large; most of the area defined as being in the Ross Dependency is either in the Ross Sea or the Antarctic Ocean. It is the second-smallest of the claims which were made prior to the implementation of the Antarctic Treaty System and the suspension of all territorial claims to Antarctica proper. Officers of the Government of the Ross Dependency are annually appointed to run the Dependency. The New Zealand Geographic Board has named many features within the Dependency.

In the summer of 1985, when the British non-governmental exploratory vessel Southern Quest sank in the Ross Sea, United States Coast Guard helicopters rescued the crew, who were taken to McMurdo Station. The expedition was criticised by scientists in the Antarctic because the rescue and return of the crew disrupted their work.[3]

In 2006, the New Zealand police reported that jurisdictional issues prevented them issuing warrants for potential American witnesses who were reluctant to testify during the Christchurch Coroner's investigation into the poisoning death of Rodney Marks at the South Pole base.[4][5]

Postage stamps[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.legislation.govt.nz/regulation/imperial/1923/0974/latest/DLM1195.html Order in Council Under the British Settlements Act, 1887 (50 & 51 Vict c 54), Providing for the Government of the Ross Dependency.
  2. ^ Extracts from Imperial Conferences
  3. ^ "Robert Swan Expedition 1984-85". Glasgow Digital Library. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  4. ^ Hotere, Andrea. "South Pole death file still open". Sunday Star Times, December 17, 2006. Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
  5. ^ Deutsche Presse-Agentur. "Death of Australian astrophysicist an Antarctic whodunnit". Monstersandcritics.com, December 14, 2006. Retrieved on December 19, 2006.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 75°00′S 175°00′W / 75.000°S 175.000°W / -75.000; -175.000

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