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This Is the Rover of the Future
This Is the Rover of the Future
Published: 2014/07/18
Channel: Smithsonian Channel
★ How to Get to Mars. Very Cool! HD
★ How to Get to Mars. Very Cool! HD
Published: 2011/03/01
Channel: Heli
The new 2009 Mars rover in HD 720p
The new 2009 Mars rover in HD 720p
Published: 2007/12/27
Channel: ufomovies
[Top Documentary Films] Mars Curiosity Rover Landing Space 2015
[Top Documentary Films] Mars Curiosity Rover Landing Space 2015
Published: 2016/06/03
Channel: Top Documentary Film
Mars Exploration Rover Mission
Mars Exploration Rover Mission
Published: 2010/06/25
Channel: Mohammad Dmour
Rover (space exploration)
Rover (space exploration)
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Little Bit Science
Rover (space exploration) - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Rover (space exploration) - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Wiz Science™
This Is NASA
This Is NASA's Future Rover For Manned Explorations
Published: 2014/08/13
Channel: SpaceTee Vee
Space Engineers - Planets Survival Guide #2 - Exploration Rover mk1
Space Engineers - Planets Survival Guide #2 - Exploration Rover mk1
Published: 2015/11/19
Channel: w4stedspace
What sets Curiosity apart from other Mars Rovers?
What sets Curiosity apart from other Mars Rovers?
Published: 2011/12/09
Channel: SpaceRip
The Curious Life of a Mars Rover | Nat Geo Live
The Curious Life of a Mars Rover | Nat Geo Live
Published: 2015/01/26
Channel: National Geographic
NASA rover takes space exploration to the next level
NASA rover takes space exploration to the next level
Published: 2011/11/24
Channel: CBS
Real World: Exploring the Lunar Electric Rover
Real World: Exploring the Lunar Electric Rover
Published: 2010/01/25
Channel: NASAeClips
Space Exploration Agency - #055 - Designing a Mun Base Rover Trailer
Space Exploration Agency - #055 - Designing a Mun Base Rover Trailer
Published: 2016/08/26
Channel: Learning by Gaming
Space Exploration Agency - #044 - Mun Base Rover Landing
Space Exploration Agency - #044 - Mun Base Rover Landing
Published: 2016/06/10
Channel: Learning by Gaming
NASA Just Unveiled Its Hedgehog Rover Concept For Exploring Comets
NASA Just Unveiled Its Hedgehog Rover Concept For Exploring Comets
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: GeoBeats News
Space Engineers: Cargo Rover
Space Engineers: Cargo Rover
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: Dragon Nation Gaming
Space Engineers - Rover Exploration Theory
Space Engineers - Rover Exploration Theory
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: LastStandGamers
Welcome to Mars - Video for kids space camp
Welcome to Mars - Video for kids space camp
Published: 2013/07/16
Channel: Andrew Rader
Mars Curiosity Rover
Mars Curiosity Rover's Impact on the Future of Space Exploration
Published: 2012/10/08
Channel: okrajoe
Space Engineers - Planet Exploration Rover Build Off
Space Engineers - Planet Exploration Rover Build Off
Published: 2015/10/24
Channel: LastStandGamers
Space Exploration Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner Rover
Space Exploration Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner Rover
Published: 2015/10/31
Channel: Antal Bejczy Center for Intelligent Robotics
Humans … Start your Rovers!
Humans … Start your Rovers!
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: NASA
NASA: Spacecraft Power - Next Generation of Powering Space Exploration
NASA: Spacecraft Power - Next Generation of Powering Space Exploration
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: Space Videos
The Future of Space Exploration
The Future of Space Exploration
Published: 2013/07/24
Channel: Fw:Thinking
DIY Space Exploration: Nor Cal Mars Rover Project
DIY Space Exploration: Nor Cal Mars Rover Project
Published: 2011/10/10
Channel: Maker Faire
50 Years of Mars Exploration
50 Years of Mars Exploration
Published: 2015/08/20
Channel: NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Mars Rover Wrapping Up US Tour To Showcase Future Of Space Travel
Mars Rover Wrapping Up US Tour To Showcase Future Of Space Travel
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: CBS Miami
NOVA Documentary Welcome To Mars 2017 - Spirit Rover - Experiments on Mars
NOVA Documentary Welcome To Mars 2017 - Spirit Rover - Experiments on Mars
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Ancient Revelation
Customer Story: NASA Mars Rover
Customer Story: NASA Mars Rover
Published: 2012/08/09
Channel: jensonstudios
Space Exploration Vehicle: the Mars Rover in VR 360 vision
Space Exploration Vehicle: the Mars Rover in VR 360 vision
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: SlashGear
Space Exploration – Bobak Ferdowsi talks about the Moon & Mars Exploration
Space Exploration – Bobak Ferdowsi talks about the Moon & Mars Exploration
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: Mouser Electronics
This is Mars 2017
This is Mars 2017
Published: 2016/11/21
Channel: Martian Archaeology
DIY Space Exploration: Nor Cal Mars Rover Project
DIY Space Exploration: Nor Cal Mars Rover Project
Published: 2013/04/30
Channel: Make:
Space Engineers - Exploration Rover & Rocker-Bogie Suspension
Space Engineers - Exploration Rover & Rocker-Bogie Suspension
Published: 2015/07/19
Channel: w4stedspace
What To Look Out For In Space Exploration 2016
What To Look Out For In Space Exploration 2016
Published: 2016/01/01
Channel: Seeker
Space Exploration Vehicle - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Space Exploration Vehicle - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Wiz Science™
Shape-shifting robots designed for space exploration, can roll around on the moon - TomoNews
Shape-shifting robots designed for space exploration, can roll around on the moon - TomoNews
Published: 2015/12/17
Channel: TomoNews US
Top 10 Space Exploration Accomplishments
Top 10 Space Exploration Accomplishments
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: WatchMojo.com
Space Exploration: Why International Cooperation Matters
Space Exploration: Why International Cooperation Matters
Published: 2015/10/19
Channel: U.S. Mission to International Organizations in Vienna
Mars Rover Curiosity: Designing the Largest And Most Advanced Space Exploration Robot Ever Made
Mars Rover Curiosity: Designing the Largest And Most Advanced Space Exploration Robot Ever Made
Published: 2012/08/07
Channel: CAM Logic, Inc.
RCA graduate proposal would see ordinary people driving NASA
RCA graduate proposal would see ordinary people driving NASA's space exploration rovers
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Dezeen
How Dangerous is Deep Space Travel to Mars and Beyond ?
How Dangerous is Deep Space Travel to Mars and Beyond ?
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: Curious Droid
NASA deep space exploration: Jeffrey Rusick at TEDxElonUniversity
NASA deep space exploration: Jeffrey Rusick at TEDxElonUniversity
Published: 2014/04/01
Channel: TEDx Talks
NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and Opportunity Launches: Tracker Camera View
NASA Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and Opportunity Launches: Tracker Camera View
Published: 2013/04/26
Channel: AiirSource Military
Testing a Space Rover Under Alaskan Ice
Testing a Space Rover Under Alaskan Ice
Published: 2014/06/23
Channel: National Geographic
NASA Mars Curiosity Rover Report  June 7, 2013 space travel by robots video
NASA Mars Curiosity Rover Report June 7, 2013 space travel by robots video
Published: 2013/12/07
Channel: Roy Dawson
China Has a Rover on the Moon & Here’s What It Found
China Has a Rover on the Moon & Here’s What It Found
Published: 2016/01/17
Channel: Seeker
METERON - Driving Mars Rover from Space
METERON - Driving Mars Rover from Space
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: Airbus Defence and Space
Lunar & Mars Exploration Concepts 1992 3-D Animation NASA Space Exploration Initiative
Lunar & Mars Exploration Concepts 1992 3-D Animation NASA Space Exploration Initiative
Published: 2012/10/30
Channel: Jeff Quitney
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Three different Mars rover designs; Sojourner, MER and Curiosity.

A rover (or sometimes planetary rover) is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body. Some rovers have been designed to transport members of a human spaceflight crew; others have been partially or fully autonomous robots. Rovers usually arrive at the planetary surface on a lander-style spacecraft.[1] Rovers are created to land on another planet, besides Earth, to find out information and to take samples. They can collect dust, rocks, and even take pictures.They are very useful for exploring universe.

Comparison with space probes of other types[edit]

Comparison of distances driven by various wheeled vehicles on the surface of Earth's moon and Mars (NASA, 15 May 2013; updated version of 28 Jul 2014).

Rovers have several advantages over stationary landers: they examine more territory and they can be directed to interesting features. If they are solar powered, they can place themselves in sunny positions to weather winter months. They can also advance the knowledge of how to perform very remote robotic vehicle control which is necessarily semi-autonomous due to the finite speed of light.

Their advantages over orbiting spacecraft are that they can make observations to a microscopic level and can conduct physical experimentation. Disadvantages of rovers compared to orbiters are the higher chance of failure, due to landing and other risks, and that they are limited to a small area around a landing site which itself is only approximately anticipated.

Features[edit]

Rovers arrive on spacecraft and are used in conditions very distinct from those on the Earth, which makes some demands on their design.

Reliability[edit]

Rovers have to withstand high levels of acceleration, high and low temperatures, pressure, dust, corrosion, cosmic rays, remaining functional without repair for a needed period of time.

Mars rover Sojourner in cruise configuration

Compactness[edit]

Rovers are usually packed for placing in a spacecraft, because it has limited capacity, and has to be deployed. They are also attached to a spacecraft, so devices for removing these connections are installed.

Autonomy[edit]

Rovers which land on celestial bodies far from the Earth, such as the Mars Exploration Rovers, cannot be remotely controlled in real-time since the speed at which radio signals travel is far too slow for real time or near-real time communication. For example, sending a signal from Mars to Earth takes between 3 and 21 minutes. These rovers are thus capable of operating autonomously with little assistance from ground control as far as navigation and data acquisition are concerned, although they still require human input for identifying promising targets in the distance to which to drive, and determining how to position itself to maximize solar energy.[2] Giving a rover some rudimentary visual identification capabilities to make simple distinctions can allow engineers to speed up the reconnaissance.[2] During the NASA Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge, a rover, named Cataglyphis, successfully demonstrated autonomous navigation, decision-making, and sample detection, retrieval, and return capabilities.[3]

Non-wheeled approaches[edit]

Other rover designs that do not use wheeled approaches are possible. Mechanisms that utilize "walking" on robotic legs, hopping, rolling, etc. are possible. For example, Stanford University researchers have proposed "Hedgehog", a small cube-shaped rover that can controllably hop—or even spin out of a sandy sinkhole by corkscrewing upward to escape—for surface exploration of low gravity celestial bodies.[4]

History[edit]

Landing sites of sample return and rover missions

Lunokhod 0 (No.201)[edit]

The Soviet rover was intended to be the first roving remote-controlled robot on the Moon, but crashed during a failed start of the launcher 19 February 1969.

Lunokhod 1[edit]

The Lunokhod 1 rover landed on the Moon in November 1970.[5] It was the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on any celestial body. The Soviet Union launched Lunokhod 1 aboard the Luna 17 spacecraft on November 10, 1970, and it entered lunar orbit on November 15. The spacecraft soft-landed in the Sea of Rains region on November 17. The lander had dual ramps from which Lunokhod 1 could descend to the lunar surface, which it did at 06:28 UT. From November 17, 1970 to November 22, 1970 the rover drove 197 m, and during 10 communication sessions returned 14 close up pictures of the Moon and 12 panoramic views. It also analyzed the lunar soil. The last successful communications session with Lunokhod 1 was on September 14, 1971. Having worked for 11 months,[6] Lunokhod 1 held the durability record for space rovers for more than 30 years, until a new record was set by the Mars Exploration Rovers.

Apollo 15 Lunar Rover

Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle[edit]

NASA included Lunar Roving Vehicles in three Apollo missions: Apollo 15 (which landed on the Moon July 30, 1971), Apollo 16 (which landed April 21, 1972) and Apollo 17 (which landed December 11, 1972).[7]

Lunokhod 2[edit]

The Lunokhod 2 Lunar Rover

The Lunokhod 2 was the second of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of the Lunokhod program. The rover became operational on the Moon on January 16, 1973.[8] It was the second roving remote-controlled robot to land on any celestial body. The Soviet Union launched Lunokhod 2 aboard the Luna 21 spacecraft on January 8, 1973, and it entered lunar orbit on January 12, 1973. The spacecraft soft-landed in the eastern edge of the Mare Serenitatis region on January 15, 1973. Lunokhod 2 descended from the lander's dual ramps to the lunar surface at 01:14 UT on January 16, 1973. Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4 months, covered 39 km (24 mi) of terrain, including hilly upland areas and rilles, and sent back 86 panoramic images and over 80,000 TV pictures.[9][10][11] Based on wheel rotations Lunokhod 2 was thought to have covered 37 km (23 mi) but Russian scientists at the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK) have revised that to an estimated distance of about 42.1–42.2 km (26.2–26.2 mi) based on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) images of the lunar surface.[12][13] Subsequent discussions with their American counterparts ended with an agreed-upon final distance of 39 km (24 mi), which has stuck since.[14][15]

Prop-M Rover

Prop-M Rover[edit]

The Soviet Mars 2 and Mars 3 landers each had a small 4.5 kg Mars rover on board, which would have moved across the surface on skis while connected to the lander with a 15-meter umbilical. Two small metal rods were used for autonomous obstacle avoidance, as radio signals from Earth would have taken too long to drive the rovers using remote control. The rover was planned to be placed on the surface after landing by a manipulator arm and to move in the field of view of the television cameras and stop to make measurements every 1.5 meters. The rover tracks in the Martian soil would also have been recorded to determine material properties. Because of the crash landing of Mars 2 and the communication failure (15 seconds post landing) of Mars 3, neither rover was deployed.

Lunokhod 3[edit]

The Soviet rover was intended to be the third roving remote-controlled robot on the Moon in 1977. The mission was canceled due to lack of launcher availability and funding, although the rover was built.

Marsokhod[edit]

The Marsokhod was a heavy Soviet rover (hybrid, with both controls telecommand and automatic) aimed at Mars, part of the Mars 4NM and scheduled to be released (after 1973 according to the plans of 1970) launched by a N1 rocket that never arrived to fly successfully.[16]

Sojourner on Mars

Sojourner[edit]

The Mars Pathfinder mission included Sojourner, the first rover to successfully deploy on another planet. NASA, the space agency of the United States, launched Mars Pathfinder on 4 December 1996; it landed on Mars in a region called Chryse Planitia on 4 July 1997.[17] From its landing until the final data transmission on 27 September 1997, Mars Pathfinder returned 16,500 images from the lander and 550 images from Sojourner, as well as data from more than 15 chemical analyses of rocks and soil and extensive data on winds and other weather factors.[17]

Beagle 2 Planetary Undersurface Tool[edit]

Beagle 2 was designed to explore Mars with a small "mole" (Planetary Undersurface Tool, or PLUTO), to be deployed by the arm. PLUTO had a compressed spring mechanism designed to enable it to move across the surface at a rate of 20 mm per second and to burrow into the ground and collect a subsurface sample in a cavity in its tip. Beagle 2 failed while attempting to land on Mars in 2003.

Mars Exploration Rover A Spirit[edit]

Spirit is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010. It was one of two rovers of NASA's ongoing Mars Exploration Rover Mission. It landed successfully on Mars at 04:35 Ground UTC on January 4, 2004, three weeks before its twin, Opportunity (MER-B), landed on the other side of the planet. Its name was chosen through a NASA-sponsored student essay competition. The rover became stuck in late 2009, and its last communication with Earth was sent on March 22, 2010.

Chang'e 3[edit]

Chang'e 3 is a Chinese Moon mission that includes a robotic lunar rover. Launched in 2013, it is China's first lunar rover, part of the second phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program undertaken by China National Space Administration (CNSA).

Active rover missions[edit]

Active rover locations in context[edit]

Acidalia Planitia Acidalia Planitia Alba Mons Amazonis Planitia Aonia Terra Arabia Terra Arcadia Planitia Arcadia Planitia Argyre Planitia Elysium Mons Elysium Planitia Hellas Planitia Hesperia Planum Isidis Planitia Lucas Planum Lyot Crater Noachis Terra Olympus Mons Promethei Terra Rudaux Crater Solis Planum Tempe Terra Terra Cimmeria Terra Sabaea Terra Sirenum Tharsis Montes Utopia Planitia Valles Marineris Vastitas Borealis Vastitas BorealisMap of Mars
Interactive imagemap of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars landers and rovers (Red label = Rover; Blue label = Lander; bold red/blue = currently active). Hover your mouse to see the names of over 25 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Reds and pinks are higher elevation (+3 km to +8 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevation (down to −8 km). Whites (>+12 km) and browns (>+8 km) are the highest elevations. Axes are latitude and longitude; Poles are not shown.
Beagle 2
Bradbury Landing
Deep Space 2
Mars 2
Mars 3
Mars 6
Mars Polar Lander
Challenger Memorial Station
Green Valley
Schiaparelli EDM lander
Carl Sagan Memorial Station
Columbia Memorial Station
Thomas Mutch Memorial Station
Gerald Soffen Memorial Station
Mars Exploration Rover

Mars Exploration Rover B Opportunity[edit]

Opportunity is a robotic rover on the planet Mars, active since 2004. It is the remaining rover in NASA's ongoing Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Launched from Earth on July 7, 2003, it landed on the Martian Meridiani Planum on January 25, 2004 at 05:05 Ground UTC (about 13:15 local time), three weeks after its twin Spirit (MER-A) touched down on the other side of the planet. On July 28, 2014, NASA announced that Opportunity, after having traveled over 40 km (25 mi) on the planet Mars, has set a new "off-world" record as the rover having driven the greatest distance, surpassing the previous record held by the Soviet Union's Lunokhod 2 rover that had traveled 39 km (24 mi).[18][19] (related image)

Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity[edit]

Mars Science Laboratory

On 26 November 2011, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission was successfully launched for Mars. The mission successfully landed the robotic Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars in August 2012, whereupon the rover is currently helping to determine whether Mars could ever have supported life, and search for evidence of past or present life on Mars.[20][21]

Planned rover missions[edit]

Chandrayaan 2[edit]

The Chandrayaan-II mission is a joint venture between India and Russia, consisting of a lunar orbiter and a lunar lander. An opportunity was given to students to design this rover. 150 students gave their designs but only 6 were selected. They gave a demonstration in NRSA and are going to ISRO.The Russian designed rover weighs 50 kg, will have six wheels and will run on solar power. It will land near one of the poles and will operate for a year, roving up to 150 km at a maximum speed of 360 m/h. The proposed launch year is 2018.

TeamIndus Rover[edit]

TeamIndus, a private aerospace startup based out of Bangalore, is building a lunar mission comprising a lunar lander and rover scheduled for launch in December, 2017. It recently secured a launch contract with Indian Space Research Organisation for a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. The solar-powered rover has four wheels and will be equipped with a number of cameras including CASPEX micro-camera from CNES.[22] The rover will operate for a maximum of one lunar day or fourteen Earth days.

ExoMars Rover[edit]

The European Space Agency (ESA) is currently designing and carrying out early prototyping and testing of the ExoMars rover. As of 2017, the rover is scheduled for launch in 2020.[23][24]

Mars 2020 rover mission[edit]

The Mars 2020 rover mission is a Mars planetary rovermission concept under study by NASA with a possible launch in 2020. It is intended to investigate an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars, investigate its surface geological processes and history, including the assessment of its past habitability and potential for preservation of biosignatures within accessible geological materials.[25]

Future lunar missions[edit]

As of 2009, NASA had developed a series of plans for future moon missions which called for rovers that have a far longer range[clarification needed] than the Apollo rovers.[26][needs update]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Exploring The Planets - Tools of Exploration - Rovers". Air and Space Museum. 2002. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Michael Schirber (8 July 2012). "Rovers of the future may make decisions on their own". Astrobiology Magazine. Mother Nature Network. Retrieved 2012-07-10. 
  3. ^ Hall, Loura (2016-09-08). "NASA Awards $750K in Sample Return Robot Challenge". Retrieved 2016-09-17. 
  4. ^ Chipman, Ian (2016-02-08). "Meet "Hedgehog": Engineers build cube-like rover for exploration of asteroids, comets". Phys.org. Retrieved 2016-02-11. 
  5. ^ "Lunar Lost & Found: The Search for Old Spacecraft". www.space.com. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  6. ^ "Luna 17 and Lunokhod 1". www.zarya.info. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  7. ^ "Experiment: Lunar Rover Vehicle". Ares.jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  8. ^ "Luna 21 and Lunokhod 2". www.zarya.info. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  9. ^ Andrew Chaikin (March 1, 2004). "The Other Moon Landings". Air & Space/Smithsonian. Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  10. ^ Lewis Page (March 16, 2012). "New NASA snap of game developer's electric cart FOUND ON MOON: Probe in low pass over Garriott's radioactive tub-rover". The Register. Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Lunokhod 2 Revisited". NASA. March 13, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2013. 
  12. ^ Lakdawalla, Emily (June 21, 2013). "Is Opportunity near Lunokhod's distance record? Not as close as we used to think!". The Planetary Society. Retrieved June 26, 2013. 
  13. ^ Witze, Alexandra (June 19, 2013). "Space rovers in record race". Nature News. Retrieved June 26, 2013. 
  14. ^ http://www.theweathernetwork.com/news/articles/its-official-nasa-confirms-mars-opportunity-rover-has-broken-the-off-world-driving-record/32813/
  15. ^ http://lroc.sese.asu.edu/posts/774
  16. ^ Советский грунт с Марса {{Country data {{{1}}} | flaglink/core | variant = | size = | name = | altlink = national rugby union team | altvar = rugby union}} Archived April 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ a b "Mars Pathfinder". NASA. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  18. ^ Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (July 28, 2014). "NASA Long-Lived Mars Opportunity Rover Sets Off-World Driving Record". NASA. Retrieved July 29, 2014. 
  19. ^ Knapp, Alex (July 29, 2014). "NASA's Opportunity Rover Sets A Record For Off-World Driving". Forbes. Retrieved July 29, 2014. 
  20. ^ NASA Staff (26 November 2011). "Mars Science Laboratory". NASA. Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  21. ^ Associated Press (26 November 2011). "NASA Launches Super-Size Rover to Mars: 'Go, Go!'". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-11-26. 
  22. ^ CNES (29 June 2016). "France-India space cooperation: CNES partners India's TeamIndus to fly French technology to the moon in 2017.". CNES. CNES. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 
  23. ^ "ExoMars Rover ESA Portal". ESA. 
  24. ^ "Full go-ahead for building ExoMars 2020". ESA. Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  25. ^ Keith Cowing (21 December 2012). "Science Definition Team for the 2020 Mars Rover". NASA. Science Ref. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 
  26. ^ NASA's Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV)

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