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NAACP leader Roy Wilkins on Face the Nation
NAACP leader Roy Wilkins on Face the Nation
Published: 2012/03/13
Channel: CBS News
Black History Month: Roy Wilkins
Black History Month: Roy Wilkins
Published: 2012/02/08
Channel: City of Saint Paul Communications Services
Roy Wilkins speaking at UCLA 12/2/1965
Roy Wilkins speaking at UCLA 12/2/1965
Published: 2014/03/20
Channel: UCLACommStudies
Roy Wilkins: The Right to Dignity
Roy Wilkins: The Right to Dignity
Published: 2009/12/24
Channel: PublicResourceOrg
Busy signal Performance in queens roy Wilkins park sun June 25
Busy signal Performance in queens roy Wilkins park sun June 25
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: worldboss
The Time - 777-9311 [Live - Roy Wilkins Auditorium, St. Paul, MN - 1987]
The Time - 777-9311 [Live - Roy Wilkins Auditorium, St. Paul, MN - 1987]
Published: 2015/02/19
Channel: BeyeZee
R. KELLY Performed Live @ Roy Wilkins Park - 6/25/17
R. KELLY Performed Live @ Roy Wilkins Park - 6/25/17
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: All Grind Entertainment
CWF Mid-Atlantic Worldwide Ep. #43: Trevor Lee vs. Roy Wilkins - No DQ, No Time Limit (3/9/16)
CWF Mid-Atlantic Worldwide Ep. #43: Trevor Lee vs. Roy Wilkins - No DQ, No Time Limit (3/9/16)
Published: 2016/03/10
Channel: CWFMidAtlantic
Beres Hammond
Beres Hammond' Live on stage Roy Wilkins Park NYC,JUNE. 29 14,HD POW FILM
Published: 2014/07/03
Channel: Dancehall First
Trabass Song For Wheelchair Fan (Roy Wilkins Park, New York) [Sept 2015]
Trabass Song For Wheelchair Fan (Roy Wilkins Park, New York) [Sept 2015]
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: DancehallStarz
March on Washington-Dr King & Roy WIlkins Interview NBC 1963
March on Washington-Dr King & Roy WIlkins Interview NBC 1963
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: Mark Taylor-Canfield
Roy Wilkins History Day Documentary finalized
Roy Wilkins History Day Documentary finalized
Published: 2015/02/17
Channel: 19RichterM
Ding Dong High Energy Performance (Roy Wilkins Park) [Sept 2015]
Ding Dong High Energy Performance (Roy Wilkins Park) [Sept 2015]
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: DancehallStarz
Roy Wilkins Auditorium
Roy Wilkins Auditorium
Published: 2010/09/07
Channel: RenaissanceReel
PANTERA: (1997.09) Minnesota @ Roy Wilkins Auditorium
PANTERA: (1997.09) Minnesota @ Roy Wilkins Auditorium
Published: 2017/06/17
Channel: CONCERT MATRIX 3.0
GLEN WASHINGTON LIVE AT ROY WILKINS PARK (JAMAICA QUEENS)
GLEN WASHINGTON LIVE AT ROY WILKINS PARK (JAMAICA QUEENS)
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: BABATV EVERYTIMEFIRE
CWF Mid-Atlantic Wrestling: Mid-Atlantic champion Adam Page vs. Roy Wilkins! (3/17/12)
CWF Mid-Atlantic Wrestling: Mid-Atlantic champion Adam Page vs. Roy Wilkins! (3/17/12)
Published: 2012/03/18
Channel: CWFMidAtlantic
12/10/93 - Roy Wilkins Auditorium, Saint Paul, MN
12/10/93 - Roy Wilkins Auditorium, Saint Paul, MN
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Nirvana Archives
Kranium Invites Gaza Slim On Stage (Roy Wilkins Park) [Sept 2015]
Kranium Invites Gaza Slim On Stage (Roy Wilkins Park) [Sept 2015]
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: DancehallStarz
The 1975 "Love Me" @ Roy Wilkins St. Paul, MN
The 1975 "Love Me" @ Roy Wilkins St. Paul, MN
Published: 2016/06/03
Channel: Mallory
Busy signal performance in queens roy Wilkins park pt2
Busy signal performance in queens roy Wilkins park pt2
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: worldboss
Red Rat Diss Mr. Vegas Live On Stage (Roy Wilkins Park, New York] (Sept 2015)
Red Rat Diss Mr. Vegas Live On Stage (Roy Wilkins Park, New York] (Sept 2015)
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: DancehallStarz
CWF Mid-Atlantic Wrestling: Trevor Lee vs. Roy Wilkins in a No Ropes match (11/1/14)
CWF Mid-Atlantic Wrestling: Trevor Lee vs. Roy Wilkins in a No Ropes match (11/1/14)
Published: 2015/03/23
Channel: CWFMidAtlantic
Zedd - Destroy Them With Lasers (Live at Roy Wilkins Auditorium, Halloween 2015)
Zedd - Destroy Them With Lasers (Live at Roy Wilkins Auditorium, Halloween 2015)
Published: 2015/11/01
Channel: Tyler McNeal
Busy signal performance in queens roy Wilkins park pt3
Busy signal performance in queens roy Wilkins park pt3
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: worldboss
LBJ and Roy Wilkins, 7/2/64, 12:05P.
LBJ and Roy Wilkins, 7/2/64, 12:05P.
Published: 2012/07/16
Channel: TheLBJLibrary
R Kelly "Fly by" @ Roy Wilkins Park 6/25
R Kelly "Fly by" @ Roy Wilkins Park 6/25
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: Andre Foster
Irish & Chin Sound Fest 2016 Roy Wilkins ( Mighty Crown )
Irish & Chin Sound Fest 2016 Roy Wilkins ( Mighty Crown )
Published: 2016/07/11
Channel: TheTeamFreeUp
Rammstein - [LIVE] St. Paul, Roy Wilkins Auditorium, USA, 1999.06.12 [FULL VIDEO BOOTLEG]
Rammstein - [LIVE] St. Paul, Roy Wilkins Auditorium, USA, 1999.06.12 [FULL VIDEO BOOTLEG]
Published: 2016/07/17
Channel: Amadeus84
Jerk Fest 2016 Roy Wilkins Park Queens New York
Jerk Fest 2016 Roy Wilkins Park Queens New York
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: OkLowe Productions
Nirvana - Roy Wilkins Auditorium, Saint Paul, MN (12-10-1993)
Nirvana - Roy Wilkins Auditorium, Saint Paul, MN (12-10-1993)
Published: 2015/09/28
Channel: MCRA NIRVANA
Rage Against The Machine - 09/15/1996 Roy Wilkins Auditorium - Full Show
Rage Against The Machine - 09/15/1996 Roy Wilkins Auditorium - Full Show
Published: 2011/12/13
Channel: TravLikesGuitar
Guns N
Guns N' Roses - Roy Wilkins Auditorium, St Paul, MN - 12.17.1987
Published: 2016/03/07
Channel: GN'R Live
Beastie Boys - Live at Roy Wilkins Auditorium, St  Paul, MN (11-1-08) FULL SHOW
Beastie Boys - Live at Roy Wilkins Auditorium, St Paul, MN (11-1-08) FULL SHOW
Published: 2016/01/25
Channel: 322dan
"Daft Punk" @ Roy Wilkins Auditorium St. Paul, MN 10-31-15
"Daft Punk" @ Roy Wilkins Auditorium St. Paul, MN 10-31-15
Published: 2015/11/01
Channel: Chloe LovesMusic
The 1975 Concert Experience // Roy Wilkins Auditorium // St. Paul, MN
The 1975 Concert Experience // Roy Wilkins Auditorium // St. Paul, MN
Published: 2016/05/26
Channel: Jeff Miller
Dexta Daps Stellar Performance (Roy Wilkins Park, New York) [Sept 2015]
Dexta Daps Stellar Performance (Roy Wilkins Park, New York) [Sept 2015]
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: DancehallStarz
Roy Wilkins park
Roy Wilkins park
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: finrankz
Rikki Jai at Oracabessa Reggae Fest - Roy Wilkins Park
Rikki Jai at Oracabessa Reggae Fest - Roy Wilkins Park
Published: 2014/06/03
Channel: Andre Mustapha
CWF Mid-Atlantic Wrestling: Trevor Lee vs. Heavyweight Champion Roy Wilkins (8/23/14)
CWF Mid-Atlantic Wrestling: Trevor Lee vs. Heavyweight Champion Roy Wilkins (8/23/14)
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: CWFMidAtlantic
Joe Morton dishes Rowan Pope in "Scandal," Roy Wilkins in "All the Way."
Joe Morton dishes Rowan Pope in "Scandal," Roy Wilkins in "All the Way."
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: GoldDerby
P.S. 136 Roy Wilkins School
P.S. 136 Roy Wilkins School
Published: 2015/11/07
Channel: KenExcellence
Hozier "Blackbird" Beatles cover Roy Wilkins Auditorium St. Paul MN
Hozier "Blackbird" Beatles cover Roy Wilkins Auditorium St. Paul MN
Published: 2015/09/11
Channel: Cadence Collins
Pantera   Planet Caravan   09 24 97 Roy Wilkins Auditorium, St Paul, MN
Pantera Planet Caravan 09 24 97 Roy Wilkins Auditorium, St Paul, MN
Published: 2013/12/14
Channel: Egods Mann
The National "Mr. November" @Roy Wilkins, St Paul MN 8/6/13
The National "Mr. November" @Roy Wilkins, St Paul MN 8/6/13
Published: 2013/08/08
Channel: parawhorez
Reggae Fest Roy Wilkins Park
Reggae Fest Roy Wilkins Park
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: PAPERSPOSHPICS
Megadeth - ?? Partial 10/4/2015 Roy Wilkins Auditorium St Paul, MN
Megadeth - ?? Partial 10/4/2015 Roy Wilkins Auditorium St Paul, MN
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: 777jones
R KELLY PERFORMANCE AT GROOVIN IN THA PARK VIDEO 3
R KELLY PERFORMANCE AT GROOVIN IN THA PARK VIDEO 3
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: Kerryannbrown music promotions
Three Days Grace Live Show @  Roy Wilkins Auditorium, St. Paul, MN 30/03/2010
Three Days Grace Live Show @ Roy Wilkins Auditorium, St. Paul, MN 30/03/2010
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: 3DGLive
- Roy Wilkins Auditorium
- Roy Wilkins Auditorium
Published: 2015/10/12
Channel: Judy Anderson
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Roy Wilkins
Roy Wilkins at the White House, 30 April, 1968.jpg
Roy Wilkins in 1968
Executive Director of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
In office
1955–1977
Preceded by Walter Francis White
Succeeded by Benjamin Hooks
Personal details
Born (1901-08-30)August 30, 1901
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
Died September 8, 1981(1981-09-08) (aged 80)
New York City, U.S.
Nationality American
Political party Democratic
Height 6 ft 3 in (191 cm)
Spouse(s) Aminda "Minnie" Badeau (1905–1994)
Alma mater University of Minnesota
Occupation Civil rights activist
Known for NAACP involvement

Roy Ottoway Wilkins (August 30, 1901 – September 8, 1981) was a prominent activist in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the 1930s to the 1970s.[1][2] Wilkins' most notable role was in his leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).[2]

Early life[edit]

Wilkins was born in St. Louis, Missouri on August 30, 1901.[3] His father was not present for his birth, having fled the town in fear of being lynched after he refused demands to step away and yield the sidewalk to a white man.[3] When he was four years old, his mother died from tuberculosis, after which Wilkins and his siblings were raised by an aunt and uncle in an integrated community of St. Paul, Minnesota, where they attended local schools.[4] His nephew was Roger Wilkins. Wilkins graduated from the University of Minnesota with a degree in sociology in 1923.[3]

In 1929, he married social worker Aminda "Minnie" Badeau; the couple had no children of their own, but the couple did raise the two children of Hazel Wilkins-Colton, a writer from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Early career[edit]

While attending college, Wilkins worked as a journalist at The Minnesota Daily and became editor of The Appeal, an African-American newspaper. After he graduated he became the editor of The Call in 1923.

His confrontation of the Jim Crow Laws led his activist work and in 1931, he moved to New York City as assistant NAACP secretary under Walter Francis White. When W. E. B. Du Bois left the organization in 1934, Wilkins replaced him as editor of The Crisis, the official magazine of the NAACP. From 1949-50, Wilkins chaired the National Emergency Civil Rights Mobilization, which comprised more than 100 local and national groups.

He served as an adviser to the War Department during World War II.

In 1950, Wilkins — along with A. Philip Randolph, founder of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, and Arnold Aronson,[5] a leader of the National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council — founded the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR). LCCR has become the premier civil rights coalition, and has coordinated the national legislative campaign on behalf of every major civil rights law since 1957.

Leading the NAACP[edit]

Roy Wilkins as the Executive Secretary of the NAACP in 1963.

In 1955, Roy Wilkins was chosen to be the executive secretary of the NAACP and in 1964 he became its executive director. He had developed an excellent reputation as an articulate spokesperson for the civil rights movement. One of his first actions was to provide support to civil rights activists in Mississippi who were being subject to a "credit squeeze" by members of the White Citizens Councils.

Wilkins backed a proposal suggested by Dr. T.R.M. Howard of Mound Bayou, Mississippi, who headed the Regional Council of Negro Leadership, a leading civil rights organization in the state. Under the plan, black businesses and voluntary associations shifted their accounts to the black-owned Tri-State Bank of Memphis, Tennessee. By the end of 1955, about $300,000 had been deposited in Tri-State for this purpose. The money enabled Tri-State to extend loans to credit-worthy blacks who were denied loans by white banks.[6] Wilkins participated in the March on Washington (August 1963) which he helped organize,[2] the Selma to Montgomery marches (1965), and the March Against Fear (1966).

He believed in achieving reform by legislative means, testified before many Congressional hearings and conferred with Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Ford, and Carter. Wilkins strongly opposed militancy in the movement for civil rights as represented by the "black power" movement due to his non-violence initiative. He was a strong critic of racism in any form regardless of its creed, color, or political motivation, and he also declared that violence and racial separation of blacks and whites were not the answer.[2] On issues of segregation, as well, he was a proponent of systematic integration instead of radical desegregation. In an 1964 interview with Robert Penn Warren for the book Who Speaks for the Negro?, he declared,

We Negroes want the improvements in the public school system – and among them, of course, the elimination of segregation, based upon race – the institution of the same quality education in the schools attended by our children as those attended by other children, and we want Negro teachers and we want Negro supervisors, and we want all the opportunity, but the only way our form of government and our structure of society can survive is by some common indoctrination of our citizenry, and we have found this in the public school system. And, for any reformer, black or white, zealot or not, to come along and say, "I’ll destroy it, if it doesn't do like I want it to do," is very dangerous business, as far as I’m concerned.[7]

However, these moderate views increasingly brought him into conflict with younger, more militant black activists who saw him as an "Uncle Tom".

Wilkins was also a member of Omega Psi Phi, a fraternity with a civil rights focus, and one of the intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternities established for African Americans.

Wilkins (right) with Sammy Davis, Jr. (left) and a reporter at the 1963. Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C.

In 1964, he was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP.[8]

In 1967, Wilkins was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Lyndon Johnson. During his tenure, the NAACP played a pivotal role in leading the nation into the Civil Rights Movement and spearheaded the efforts that led to significant civil rights victories, including Brown v. Board of Education, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

In 1968, Wilkins also served as chair of the U.S. delegation to the International Conference on Human Rights. After turning 70 in 1971, he faced increased calls to step down as NAACP chief. In 1976, he fell into a dispute with undisclosed board members at the NAACP national convention in Memphis, Tennessee. Although he had intended to retire that year, he decided to postpone it until 1977 because he thought that the pension plan offered to him by the NAACP was inadequate. Board member Emmitt Douglas of Louisiana demanded that Wilkins disclose the offenders and not impugn the board as a whole. Wilkins merely said that the offenders had "vilified" his reputation and questioned his health and integrity.[9]

In 1977, at the age of 76, Wilkins finally retired from the NAACP and was succeeded by Benjamin Hooks.[3] He was honored with the title Director Emeritus of the NAACP in the same year.[2] Roy Wilkins died on September 8, 1981 in New York City of heart problems related to a pacemaker implanted on him in 1979 due to his irregular heartbeat.[2] In 1982, his autobiography Standing Fast: The Autobiography of Roy Wilkins was published posthumously.

The players in this drama of frustration and indignity are not commas or semicolons in a legislative thesis; they are people, human beings, citizens of the United States of America.

— Roy Wilkins

Views[edit]

Wilkins was a staunch liberal and proponent of American values during the Cold War, and he denounced suspected and actual communists within the civil rights movement. He had been criticized by some on the left of the civil rights movement, such as Daisy Bates, Paul Robeson, W. E. B. Du Bois, Robert F. Williams, and Fred Shuttlesworth, for his cautious approach, his suspicion of grassroots organizations, and his conciliatory attitude towards white anticommunism.

In 1951, J. Edgar Hoover and the state department, in collusion with the NAACP and Wilkins (then editor of The Crisis, the official magazine of the NAACP), arranged for a ghost-written leaflet to be printed and distributed in Africa.[10] The purpose of the leaflet was to spread negative press and views about the Black political radical and entertainer Paul Robeson throughout Africa. Roger P. Ross, a State Department public affairs officer working in Africa, issued three pages of detailed guidelines including the following instructions:[11]

USIE in the Gold Coast, and I suspect everywhere else in Africa, badly needs a through-going, sympathetic and regretful but straight talking treatment of the whole Robeson episode... there's no way the Communists score on us more easily and more effectively out here, than on the US. Negro problem in general, and on the Robeson case in particular. And, answering the latter, we go a long way toward answering the former.[10][12]"

The finished article published by the NAACP was called Paul Robeson: Lost Shepherd,[13] penned under the false name of "Robert Alan", whom the NAACP claimed was a "well known New York journalist." Another article by Roy Wilkins, called "Stalin's Greatest Defeat", denounced Robeson as well as the Communist Party of the USA in terms consistent with the FBI's information.:[10][11]

At the time of Robeson's widely misquoted[14] declaration at The Paris Peace Conference in 1949, that African Americans would not support the United States in a war with the Soviet Union because of their continued lynchings and second-class citizen status under law following World War II,[15] Roy Wilkins stated that regardless of the number of lynchings that were occurring or would occur, Black America would always serve in the armed forces.[16] Wilkins also threatened to cancel a charter of an NAACP youth group in 1952 if they did not cancel their planned Robeson concert.

Legacy[edit]

Gil Scott-Heron mentioned Wilkins in his most famous spoken word song "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised" with this lyric: "There will be no slow motion or still life of Roy Wilkins strolling through Watts in a red, black and green liberation jumpsuit that he has been saving for just the proper occasion."

During his later life Wilkins was frequently referred to as the 'Senior Statesman' of the Civil Rights Movement.[2]

In 1982 his autobiography Standing Fast: The Autobiography of Roy Wilkins was published posthumously.[17]

The Roy Wilkins Center for Human Relations and Social Justice was established at the University of Minnesota's Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs in 1992.

The St. Paul Auditorium was renamed for Wilkins in 1985.

In 2001, the U.S. Postal Service issued a 34 cent stamp honoring Wilkins.[18]

In 2002, Molefi Kete Asante listed Roy Wilkins on his list of the 100 Greatest African Americans.[19]

Roy Wilkins Recreation Center in Jamaica, Queens, New York was named after him as a unique public and cultural touchstone for all of New York City.[20]

He is played by Joe Morton in All the Way.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roy Wilkins, Spartacus Educational website, UK
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Roy Wilkins, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica online 19 September 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d Newton, Michael (2012-01-16). The FBI Encyclopedia. McFarland. ISBN 9781476604176. 
  4. ^ Chenrow, Fred; Chenrow, Carol (1973). Reading Exercises in Black History, Volume 1. Elizabethtown, PA: The Continental Press, Inc. p. 58. ISBN 0-8454-2107-7
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ David T. Beito and Linda Royster Beito, Black Maverick: T.R.M. Howard's Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009)
  7. ^ Robert Penn Warren Center for the Humanities. "Roy Wilkins". Robert Penn Warren's Who Speaks for the Negro? Archive. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  8. ^ NAACP Spingarn Medal
  9. ^ ""Races: A Leader's Dissonant Swan Song," July 12, 1976". Time, July 12, 1976. July 12, 1976. Retrieved December 16, 2010. 
  10. ^ a b c Foner, Henry. Paul Robeson: A Century of Greatness, pg 112-115.
  11. ^ a b Duberman, Martin. Paul Robeson, 1989, pg 396.
  12. ^ American Consul, Accra. 179. January 9, 1951, USIE: Request for Special Story on Paul Robesondeclassified 10-19-79
  13. ^ Duberman, Martin. Paul Robeson, 1989, p. 395.
  14. ^ Duberman, Martin. Paul Robeson, 1989, pg 358.
  15. ^ Foner, Phillip. Paul Robeson Speaks, 1978, pg 197.
  16. ^ Wilkins, Roy. Standing Fast: The Autobiography of Roy Wilkins, pg 200–205.
  17. ^ https://donate.naacp.org/pages/naacp-history-roy-wilkins
  18. ^ "Stamp Series". United States Postal Service. Retrieved Sep 2, 2013. 
  19. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
  20. ^ https://www.nycgovparks.org/parks/roy-wilkins-recreation-center/

Further reading[edit]

  • Yvonne Ryan, Roy Wilkins: The Quiet Revolutionary and the NAACP. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2014.
  • Arvarh E. Strickland, "Roy Wilkins," American National Biography Online, Feb. 2000.

External links[edit]

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