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Ruby Bridges 1998 Full movie
Ruby Bridges 1998 Full movie
Published: 2015/01/30
Channel: AlexmoviesZ7
Civil Rights - Ruby Bridges
Civil Rights - Ruby Bridges
Published: 2013/01/22
Channel: Jaime McGrath
Ruby Bridges - Trailer
Ruby Bridges - Trailer
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: Disney Educational Productions
The Story of Ruby Bridges
The Story of Ruby Bridges
Published: 2015/11/13
Channel: Nana's Story Time
Ruby Bridges Shares the Key to Overcoming Racism
Ruby Bridges Shares the Key to Overcoming Racism
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: The Official 700 Club
The Story of Ruby Bridges
The Story of Ruby Bridges
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: The Teacher's Library
Ruby Bridges
Ruby Bridges
Published: 2014/01/08
Channel: DisneyMoviesOnDemand
Ruby Bridges for Kids | Social Studies Story Video for Children
Ruby Bridges for Kids | Social Studies Story Video for Children
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: Homeschool Pop
We Are All Going Against The Grain | Ruby Bridges | TEDxNapaValley
We Are All Going Against The Grain | Ruby Bridges | TEDxNapaValley
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: TEDx Talks
Visiting the Classroom Where Ruby Bridges Made History
Visiting the Classroom Where Ruby Bridges Made History
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: Scholastic
Civil Rights Pioneer on First-Grade Teacher: "She Showed Me Her Heart" | Where Are They Now | OWN
Civil Rights Pioneer on First-Grade Teacher: "She Showed Me Her Heart" | Where Are They Now | OWN
Published: 2015/01/01
Channel: OWN
The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross | Ruby Bridges Interview, School Integration | PBS
The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross | Ruby Bridges Interview, School Integration | PBS
Published: 2013/11/10
Channel: PBS
Ruby Bridges
Ruby Bridges
Published: 2012/03/02
Channel: Lake Js
Ruby Bridges - Trailer
Ruby Bridges - Trailer
Published: 2014/01/08
Channel: DisneyMoviesOnDemand
Ruby Bridges
Ruby Bridges
Published: 2014/03/19
Channel: debra diegmann
The First Black Student Ever at an All-White Public School in the South (1999)
The First Black Student Ever at an All-White Public School in the South (1999)
Published: 2015/03/09
Channel: The Film Archives
Ruby Bridges Movie Clip
Ruby Bridges Movie Clip
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: Mr. Schmidt
Nov. 14, 1960 - Ruby Bridges, Age 6, Integrates New Orleans School
Nov. 14, 1960 - Ruby Bridges, Age 6, Integrates New Orleans School
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: Voices of the Civil Rights Movement
Ruby Bridges visits with the President and her portrait
Ruby Bridges visits with the President and her portrait
Published: 2011/07/15
Channel: The Obama White House
Opening to Ruby Bridges 2001 VHS
Opening to Ruby Bridges 2001 VHS
Published: 2013/03/03
Channel: thememorylanechannel
Ruby Bridges Story
Ruby Bridges Story
Published: 2014/01/23
Channel: Will Domingue
Ruby Bridges The Movie - Angry White Crowd
Ruby Bridges The Movie - Angry White Crowd
Published: 2012/09/11
Channel: just videos
Ruby Bridges Remembers
Ruby Bridges Remembers
Published: 2012/03/23
Channel: Scholastic
Ruby Bridges: 6 Years Old and Desegregating a School | The Daily 360 | The New York Times
Ruby Bridges: 6 Years Old and Desegregating a School | The Daily 360 | The New York Times
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: The New York Times
RUBY BRIDGES | Standing One by One
RUBY BRIDGES | Standing One by One
Published: 2014/02/12
Channel: AccordingTooYouxx
"Life and Times of Ruby Bridges"
"Life and Times of Ruby Bridges"
Published: 2010/07/04
Channel: National Education Association
Ruby Bridges Goes to School
Ruby Bridges Goes to School
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: Meagan Heath
Ruby Bridges
Ruby Bridges
Published: 2016/06/05
Channel: Sophia Carroll
Ruby Bridges: A Marshal
Ruby Bridges: A Marshal's Perspective
Published: 2015/01/07
Channel: The Children's Museum of Indianapolis
Ruby Bridges(civil rights activist)Animated Biography by Ayesha Mahmood
Ruby Bridges(civil rights activist)Animated Biography by Ayesha Mahmood
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Ayesha Mahmood
Robert Coles on Ruby Bridges
Robert Coles on Ruby Bridges
Published: 2013/05/05
Channel: Colette Ouattara
Ruby Bridges
Ruby Bridges
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: Mondeezi Arbuckle
Ruby Bridges at the 2011 National Conference on Volunteering and Service
Ruby Bridges at the 2011 National Conference on Volunteering and Service
Published: 2011/06/07
Channel: TheNCVS
Ruby Bridges Documentary with Eli Wernigg
Ruby Bridges Documentary with Eli Wernigg
Published: 2016/12/12
Channel: Mystery Grace
MLK Day Legacy: Ruby Bridges
MLK Day Legacy: Ruby Bridges
Published: 2011/12/20
Channel: Corporation for National and Community Service
Ruby Bridges goes to School - My True Story
Ruby Bridges goes to School - My True Story
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: Nana's Story Time
Ruby Bridges Scene
Ruby Bridges Scene
Published: 2011/06/04
Channel: nanaay13
Ruby Bridges
Ruby Bridges
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: Sankofa Read Aloud
Civil Rights Pioneer Ruby Bridges on Ferguson and Eric Garner | Where Are They Now | OWN
Civil Rights Pioneer Ruby Bridges on Ferguson and Eric Garner | Where Are They Now | OWN
Published: 2015/01/01
Channel: OWN
Ruby Bridges FuLL
Ruby Bridges FuLL'M.o.V.i.E'1998'HD"
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Sarah Pierce
Ruby Bridges
Ruby Bridges
Published: 2009/01/08
Channel: ComeCelebrate
Ruby Bridges Documentary (HQ)
Ruby Bridges Documentary (HQ)
Published: 2009/03/22
Channel: LovelyLuisa
Ruby Bridges - Ferocious Dog
Ruby Bridges - Ferocious Dog
Published: 2016/02/27
Channel: Alan Fisher
14th November 1960: Ruby Bridges, the first African-American to desegregate an elementary school
14th November 1960: Ruby Bridges, the first African-American to desegregate an elementary school
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: HistoryPod
Ruby Bridges
Ruby Bridges
Published: 2014/05/02
Channel: Riesrockets
Ruby Bridges Biography | Classroom Video for Kids
Ruby Bridges Biography | Classroom Video for Kids
Published: 2017/07/30
Channel: Homeschool Pop
Ruby Bridges FuLL
Ruby Bridges FuLL'M.o.V.i.E'1998'HD"
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Sarah Pierce
#265 Step by Step: The Ruby Bridges Suite
#265 Step by Step: The Ruby Bridges Suite
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Unitarian Universalist Association
Ruby Bridges Anniversary WWL-TV.mpg
Ruby Bridges Anniversary WWL-TV.mpg
Published: 2011/03/24
Channel: WWLTV News Engineering
Ruby Bridges - DepartedMV
Ruby Bridges - DepartedMV
Published: 2009/05/18
Channel: HA†E
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Ruby Bridges
Ruby Bridges 21 Sept 2010.JPG
Ruby Bridges in 2010
Born (1954-09-08) September 8, 1954 (age 63)
Tylertown, Mississippi, U.S.
Nationality American
Occupation

Philanthropist

Activist

Ruby Nell Bridges Hall (born September 8, 1954) is an American civil rights activist. She was the first African-American child to desegregate the all-white William Frantz Elementary School in Louisiana during the New Orleans school desegregation crisis in 1960.[1][2][3]

Early life

Ruby Bridges was born in Tylertown, Mississippi, to Abon and Lucille Bridges. When she was four years old, the family relocated to New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1960, when she was six years old, her parents responded to a request from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and volunteered her to participate in the integration of the New Orleans school system, even though her father was hesitant.[citation needed]

Integration

In early 1960, Bridges was one of six black children in New Orleans to pass the test that determined whether they could go to the all-white school, William Frantz Elementary. Two of the six decided to stay at their old school, Bridges went to a school by herself, and three children were transferred to McDonogh No. 19 and became known as the McDonogh Three. Bridges and her mother were escorted to school by four federal marshals during the first year Bridges attended William Frantz Elementary.[4]

William Frantz Elementary School building in 2010

Ruby's father was initially reluctant, but her mother felt strongly that the move was needed not only to give her own daughter a better education, but to "take this step forward ... for all African-American children". Her mother finally convinced her father to let her go to the school.[5]

Judge J. Skelly Wright's court order for the first day of integrated schools in New Orleans on November 14, 1960, was commemorated by Norman Rockwell in the painting, The Problem We All Live With (published in Look magazine on January 14, 1964).[6] As Bridges describes it, "Driving up I could see the crowd, but living in New Orleans, I actually thought it was Mardi Gras. There was a large crowd of people outside of the school. They were throwing things and shouting, and that sort of goes on in New Orleans at Mardi Gras."[6] Former United States Deputy Marshal Charles Burks later recalled, "She showed a lot of courage. She never cried. She didn't whimper. She just marched along like a little soldier, and we're all very very proud of her."[7]

U.S. Marshals escorted Bridges to and from school.

As soon as Bridges entered the school, white parents pulled their own children out; all the teachers refused to teach while a black child was enrolled. Only one person agreed to teach Ruby and that was Barbara Henry, from Boston, Massachusetts, and for over a year Henry taught her alone, "as if she were teaching a whole class."

That first day, Bridges and her adult companions spent the entire day in the principal's office; the chaos of the school prevented their moving to the classroom until the second day. On the second day, however, a white student broke the boycott and entered the school when a 34-year-old Methodist minister, Lloyd Anderson Foreman, walked his 5-year-old daughter Pam through the angry mob, saying, "I simply want the privilege of taking my child to school ..." A few days later, other white parents began bringing their children, and the protests began to subside.[2][8] Every morning, as Bridges walked to school, one woman would threaten to poison her;[9] because of this, the U.S. Marshals dispatched by President Eisenhower, who were overseeing her safety, allowed Ruby to eat only the food that she brought from home.

Child psychiatrist Robert Coles volunteered to provide counseling to Bridges during her first year at Frantz. He met with her weekly in the Bridges home, later writing a children's book, The Story of Ruby Bridges, to acquaint other children with Bridges' story.

The Bridges family suffered for their decision to send her to William Frantz Elementary: her father lost his job, the grocery store the family shopped at would no longer let them shop there, and her grandparents, who were sharecroppers in Mississippi, were turned off their land. She has noted that many others in the community, both black and white, showed support in a variety of ways. Some white families continued to send their children to Frantz despite the protests, a neighbor provided her father with a new job, and local people babysat, watched the house as protectors, and walked behind the federal marshals' car on the trips to school.[6][10]

Adult life

Ruby Bridges speaking at Texas A&M University–Commerce in February 2015

Bridges, now Ruby Bridges Hall, still lives in New Orleans with her husband, Malcolm Hall, and their four sons.[11] After graduating from a desegregated high school, she worked as a travel agent for 15 years and later became a full-time parent.[12] She is now chair of the Ruby Bridges Foundation, which she formed in 1999 to promote "the values of tolerance, respect, and appreciation of all differences". Describing the mission of the group, she says, "racism is a grown-up disease and we must stop using our children to spread it."[13]

Bridges Hall is the subject of the Lori McKenna song "Ruby's Shoes". Her childhood struggle at William Frantz Elementary School was portrayed in the 1998 made-for-TV movie Ruby Bridges. The young Ruby Bridges was portrayed by actress Chaz Monet, and the movie also featured Lela Rochon as Ruby's mother, Lucille "Lucy" Bridges; Michael Beach as Ruby's father, Abon Bridges; Penelope Ann Miller as Ruby's teacher, Mrs. Henry; and Kevin Pollak as Dr. Robert Coles.

On January 8, 2001, Bridges Hall was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Bill Clinton.[14]

Like hundreds of thousands of others in the greater New Orleans area, Bridges Hall lost her home (in Eastern New Orleans) to the catastrophic flooding in the failure of the levee system during Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

In October 2006, the Alameda Unified School District in California dedicated a new elementary school to Ruby Bridges, and issued a proclamation in her honor, and in November that year she was honored in the Anti-Defamation League's Concert Against Hate. In 2007, the Children's Museum of Indianapolis unveiled a new exhibit documenting her life, along with the lives of Anne Frank and Ryan White.

In 2010, she had a 50th year reunion at Frantz Elementary with Pam Foreman Testroet, who, at age five, was the first white child to break the boycott that ensued from Bridges' attendance at that school.[2]

On July 15, 2011, Bridges met with President Barack Obama at the White House, and while viewing the Norman Rockwell painting of her on display he told her, "I think it's fair to say that if it hadn't been for you guys, I might not be here and we wouldn't be looking at this together."[15]

On May 19, 2012, Bridges Hall received an Honorary Degree from Tulane University at the annual graduation ceremony at the Superdome.

In 2014, a statue of Bridges was unveiled in the courtyard of William Frantz Elementary School.[16]

Works

  • Bridges Hall, Ruby. Through My Eyes, Scholastic Press, 1999. (ISBN 0590189239)

See also

References

  1. ^ The Unfinished Agenda of Brown v. Board of Education, p. 169
  2. ^ a b c Miller, Michelle (2010-11-12). "Ruby Bridges, Rockwell Muse, Goes Back to School". CBS Evening News with Katie Couric. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  3. ^ "Google Maps". Google Maps. Google Maps. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  4. ^ Michals, PhD, Debra. "Ruby Bridges (1954-)". National Women's History Museum. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 
  5. ^ Ruby Bridges Hall. "The Education of Ruby Nell," Guideposts, March 2000, pp. 3–4.
  6. ^ a b c Charlayne Hunter-Gault. "A Class of One: A Conversation with Ruby Bridges Hall," Online NewsHour, February 18, 1997
  7. ^ Susannah Abbey. Freedom Hero: Ruby Bridges
  8. ^ Ellen Blue, St. Mark's and the Social Gospel: Methodist Women and Civil Rights in New Orleans, 1895–1965, pp. 161–162 (University of Tennessee Press, 2011).
  9. ^ Excerpts from Through My Eyes, at African American World for Kids Archived May 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Bridges Hall, Guideposts p. 5.
  11. ^ "In a Class of Only One: Ruby Bridges". CBN.
  12. ^ Michals,, Debra. "Ruby Bridges (1954-)". National Women's History Museum. Retrieved 14 November 2016. 
  13. ^ "The Ruby Bridges Foundation". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  14. ^ "President Clinton Awards the Presidential Citizens Medals". Washington, D.C: The White House (whitehouse.gov), archived by the National Archives and Records Administration (nara.gov). 2001-01-08. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  15. ^ "Ruby Bridges visits with the President and her portrait". YouTube. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  16. ^ "New Ruby Bridges statue inspires students, community". NOLA.com. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 

Further reading

  • Coles, Robert. The Story of Ruby Bridges, Scholastic Press, 1995. (ISBN 0590572814)
  • Steinbeck, John. Travels with Charley in Search of America, Viking Adult, 1962. (ISBN 0670725080)
  • The Unfinished Agenda of Brown v. Board of Education, John Wiley & Sons, 2004. (ISBN 0471649260)

External links

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