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Russia in the European energy sector
Russia in the European energy sector
Published: 2015/10/18
Channel: Audiopedia
Ukrainian Energy Reforms and European Gas Supply
Ukrainian Energy Reforms and European Gas Supply
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: Center for Strategic & International Studies
Will sanctions hurt energy sector in Russia?
Will sanctions hurt energy sector in Russia?
Published: 2014/08/02
Channel: CGTN America
Europe taking green energy seriously
Europe taking green energy seriously
Published: 2017/02/18
Channel: CBC News
Rebalancing the EU-Russia-Ukraine Gas Relationship
Rebalancing the EU-Russia-Ukraine Gas Relationship
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: Norsk utenrikspolitisk institutt NUPI
France: Lega Nord leader says Russia more democratic than EU
France: Lega Nord leader says Russia more democratic than EU
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: Ruptly TV
EU Sanctions - Impact on Europe’s economy | Made in Germany
EU Sanctions - Impact on Europe’s economy | Made in Germany
Published: 2014/08/06
Channel: DW English
POLAND ENERGY- DIRTY COAL COME BACK
POLAND ENERGY- DIRTY COAL COME BACK
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: CNN
Fereidun Fesharaki: Is the U.S. a Rising Energy Superpower?
Fereidun Fesharaki: Is the U.S. a Rising Energy Superpower?
Published: 2014/05/16
Channel: Center for Strategic & International Studies
Energy Security in Europe
Energy Security in Europe
Published: 2011/06/30
Channel: mostratube
Nord Stream 2: Is It a Threat to European Energy Security?
Nord Stream 2: Is It a Threat to European Energy Security?
Published: 2016/04/01
Channel: AtlanticCouncil
CGEP - Impact of Sanctions on Russia
CGEP - Impact of Sanctions on Russia's Energy Economy
Published: 2014/12/05
Channel: Columbia SIPA
Book: Wheel of Fortune: The Battle for Oil and Power in Russia with Thane Gustafson
Book: Wheel of Fortune: The Battle for Oil and Power in Russia with Thane Gustafson
Published: 2012/12/19
Channel: Center for Eurasian, Russian and East European Studies
Russian sanctions against the West is collapsing EU Food & Agriculture Sector
Russian sanctions against the West is collapsing EU Food & Agriculture Sector
Published: 2014/08/15
Channel: PowerRossiya
Final presser of Russia/EU summit, Barroso, Putin bites
Final presser of Russia/EU summit, Barroso, Putin bites
Published: 2015/07/28
Channel: AP Archive
CGEP: European Energy Security, Russian Policy and US LNG Exports
CGEP: European Energy Security, Russian Policy and US LNG Exports
Published: 2014/09/23
Channel: Columbia SIPA
Ukraine 2014: "Right sector" will leave Europe without Russian gas! : An objective look
Ukraine 2014: "Right sector" will leave Europe without Russian gas! : An objective look
Published: 2014/03/23
Channel: Ed Freeman
Europe
Europe's Energy and Climate Policies -- Coming Apart at the Seams?
Published: 2013/09/13
Channel: IIEA1
'Energy Security in Central Europe' conference
Published: 2013/06/24
Channel: ECREuroParl
Energy-saving approach in EU and EU-Russia relations, Lutz Mez, Formerly Freie Universität Berlin
Energy-saving approach in EU and EU-Russia relations, Lutz Mez, Formerly Freie Universität Berlin
Published: 2016/12/22
Channel: Dialogue of Civilizations Research Institute
The Baltic Sea Pipelines and EU Law | Kim Talus
The Baltic Sea Pipelines and EU Law | Kim Talus
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Florence School of Regulation
Alan Greenspan: Economic Perspectives on Russia and Eastern Europe (1990)
Alan Greenspan: Economic Perspectives on Russia and Eastern Europe (1990)
Published: 2015/03/23
Channel: Way Back
STI 2014: Energy and Politics in Russia and the Former Soviet Union
STI 2014: Energy and Politics in Russia and the Former Soviet Union
Published: 2014/08/18
Channel: UChicagoCISSR
Energy Sector Report: Gazprom Seen Cutting Gas Output on Weak European Demand
Energy Sector Report: Gazprom Seen Cutting Gas Output on Weak European Demand
Published: 2010/06/18
Channel: TradeTheTrend
Russia
Russia's Energy Sector and the Oil Price Collapse
Published: 2015/07/01
Channel: cftni
Russia: the oil & gas superpower looks to Asian markets
Russia: the oil & gas superpower looks to Asian markets
Published: 2012/02/16
Channel: S&P Global Platts
Europe Commits to Renewable Energy
Europe Commits to Renewable Energy
Published: 2012/02/27
Channel: NTDTV
For USA, Russian economic growth is aggression
For USA, Russian economic growth is aggression
Published: 2014/07/18
Channel: Pravda Report
EU looks at unbundling energy sector
EU looks at unbundling energy sector
Published: 2007/08/14
Channel: RT
New Energy Suppliers for Europe - A utopia? | Made in Germany
New Energy Suppliers for Europe - A utopia? | Made in Germany
Published: 2014/05/14
Channel: DW English
China-Russia Energy Relations: Key Drivers and Implications.
China-Russia Energy Relations: Key Drivers and Implications.
Published: 2015/04/09
Channel: Columbia SIPA
Energy Geopolitics after the Elections: The Struggle for Energy Security in Europe
Energy Geopolitics after the Elections: The Struggle for Energy Security in Europe
Published: 2016/11/21
Channel: Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs
Worst aggression in 200 yrs: Venezuela stands up to US sanctions
Worst aggression in 200 yrs: Venezuela stands up to US sanctions
Published: 2017/08/26
Channel: RT
Interview: MEP Liberadzki on Ukraine energy sector reforms
Interview: MEP Liberadzki on Ukraine energy sector reforms
Published: 2011/07/14
Channel: EURACTIV
Šefčovič: "The time for a European Energy Union has clearly come"
Šefčovič: "The time for a European Energy Union has clearly come"
Published: 2014/10/21
Channel: EURACTIV
Russia: Putin and Qatari Emir discuss energy cooperation, situation in Middle East
Russia: Putin and Qatari Emir discuss energy cooperation, situation in Middle East
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: Ruptly TV
EU
EU's O'Sullivan on Future of US Relations, Upcoming Elections, Russia & Security
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: Defense & Aerospace Report
Russia: Putin speaks about negotiations on EU-Ukraine association agreement
Russia: Putin speaks about negotiations on EU-Ukraine association agreement
Published: 2015/12/22
Channel: Ruptly TV
Fatih Birol: Challenges for European energy market
Fatih Birol: Challenges for European energy market
Published: 2014/11/06
Channel: NLFR
Transforming Energy Sector: Why does Ukraine buy coal from militant-held Donbas?
Transforming Energy Sector: Why does Ukraine buy coal from militant-held Donbas?
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: UKRAINE TODAY
Round Table: Russia after Putin (Russia -  ten-year horizon), October 2, 2017
Round Table: Russia after Putin (Russia - ten-year horizon), October 2, 2017
Published: 2017/10/10
Channel: Bulgaria Analytica
4th Vienna Forum on European Energy Law | Introduction & Keynote Speech
4th Vienna Forum on European Energy Law | Introduction & Keynote Speech
Published: 2016/07/21
Channel: Florence School of Regulation
EU officials agree on new package of sanctions against Russia
EU officials agree on new package of sanctions against Russia
Published: 2014/09/08
Channel: RT
Future of Energy -- wind. Solar, gas, oil -- Energy Industry Trends in Europe. Keynote Speaker
Future of Energy -- wind. Solar, gas, oil -- Energy Industry Trends in Europe. Keynote Speaker
Published: 2012/04/25
Channel: Patrick Dixon Futurist Keynote Speaker for Industry Conference
Interview: Polish EPP MEP Zalewski on Ukraine energy sector reforms
Interview: Polish EPP MEP Zalewski on Ukraine energy sector reforms
Published: 2011/07/18
Channel: EURACTIV
SKOLKOVO: Executive Education Programme for Oil and Gas Sector Executives in Russia
SKOLKOVO: Executive Education Programme for Oil and Gas Sector Executives in Russia
Published: 2009/12/22
Channel: skolkovoRU
Charles Ortel dissects the Russian Economy with Rachelle Akuffo
Charles Ortel dissects the Russian Economy with Rachelle Akuffo
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: CGTN America
Dr. Kent Moors: Low Oil Prices Not Sustainable
Dr. Kent Moors: Low Oil Prices Not Sustainable
Published: 2015/02/20
Channel: WallStForMainSt
Energy security and efficiency: Europe
Energy security and efficiency: Europe's delicate balance
Published: 2014/07/04
Channel: European Parliament
Poland: Energy Diversification Equals Energy Security | Opportunities In The EE Energy Sector
Poland: Energy Diversification Equals Energy Security | Opportunities In The EE Energy Sector
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: Emerging Europe — Emerging Markets Review And News
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Russian Federation supplies a significant volume of fossil fuels and is the largest exporter of oil and natural gas to the European Union. In 2007, the European Union imported from Russia 185 million tonnes of crude oil, which accounted for 32.6% of total oil import, and 100.7 million tonnes of oil equivalent of natural gas, which accounted 38.7% of total gas import.[1]

The Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline was constructed in 1982–1984 with Western financing to provide Soviet gas to the Western European market.[citation needed]

The Russian state-owned company Gazprom exports natural gas to Europe. It also controls a large number of subsidiaries, including various infrastructure assets. According to the study published by the Research Centre for East European Studies, the liberalization of the EU gas market has driven Gazprom's expansion in Europe by increasing its share in the European downstream market. It has established sale subsidiaries in many of its export markets, and has also invested in access to industrial and power generation sectors in Western and Central Europe. In addition, Gazprom has established joint ventures to build natural gas pipelines and storage depots in a number of European countries.[2] Transneft, a Russian state-owned company responsible for the national oil pipelines, is another Russian company supplying energy to Europe.[citation needed]

In September 2012 the European Commission has opened formal proceedings to investigate whether Gazprom is hindering competition in Central and Eastern European gas markets, in breach of EU competition law. In particular, the Commission is looking into Gazprom's usage of ‘no resale’ clauses in supply contracts, alleged prevention of diversification of gas supplies, and imposition of unfair pricing by linking oil and gas prices in long-term contracts.[3] The Russian Federation responded by issuing a blocking legislation, which introduced a default rule prohibiting Russian strategic firms, including Gazprom, to comply with any foreign measures or requests.[4] Compliance is made subject to a prior permission granted by the Russian government.

History[edit]

In the early 1980s there were American efforts, led by the Reagan administration, to convince European countries through which a proposed Soviet gas pipeline was to be built to deny firms responsible for construction the ability to purchase supplies and parts for the pipeline and associated facilities. The pipeline was built despite these protests and the rise of large Russian gas firms such as Gazprom as well as increased Russian fossil fuel production has facilitated a large expansion in the quantity of gas supplied to the European market since the 1990s.

Natural gas deliveries[edit]

Major existing and planned natural gas pipelines supplying Russian gas to Europe

In 2007, 38.7% of the European Union's natural gas total imports and 24.3% of consumed natural gas originated from Russia.[1][5] As of 2009, Russian natural gas was delivered to Europe through 12 pipelines, of which three were direct pipelines (to Finland, Estonia and Latvia), four through Belarus (to Lithuania and Poland) and five through Ukraine (to Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland).[5] In 2011, an additional pipeline, Nord Stream (directly to Germany through the Baltic Sea), opened.[6]

The largest importers of Russian gas in the European Union are Germany and Italy, accounting together for almost half of the EU gas imports from Russia. Other larger Russian gas importers (over 5 billion cubic meter per year) in the European Union are France, Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, Austria and Slovakia.[7][8] The largest non-EU importers of Russian natural gas are Ukraine, Turkey and Belarus.[7]

According to the European Commission, the share of Russian natural gas in the member states' domestic gas consumption in 2007 was the following:[5]

  •  Estonia 100%
  •  Finland 100%
  •  Latvia 100%
  •  Lithuania 100%
  •  Slovakia 98%
  •  Bulgaria 92%
  •  Czech Republic 77.6%
  •  Greece 76%
  •  Hungary 60%
  •  Slovenia 52%
  •  Austria 49%
  •  Poland 48.15%
  •  Croatia 37%
  •  Germany 36%
  •  Italy 27%
  •  Romania 27%
  •  France 14%
  •  Belgium 5%

The shares of Russian natural gas in the domestic gas consumption in non-EU countries in Europe were in 2006:[7]

  •  Republic of Macedonia 100%
  •  Belarus 98%
  •  Montenegro 87%
  •  Serbia 87%
  •  Ukraine 66%
  •  Turkey 64%
  •   Switzerland 12%

Disputes and diversification efforts[edit]

At the same time, the variety of national policies and stances of larger exporters versus larger dependents of Russian gas, together with the segmentation of the European gas market, has become a prominent issue in European politics toward Russia, with significant geopolitical implications for economic and political ties between the EU and Russia. These ties have occasionally led to calls for greater European energy diversity, although such efforts are complicated by the fact that many European customers have long term legal contracts for gas deliveries despite the disputes, most of which stretch beyond 2025–2030.[9]

A number of disputes in which Russia was using pipeline shutdowns in what was described as "tool for intimidation and blackmail"[10] caused European Union to significantly increase efforts to diversify its energy sources.[11]

Part of the aim of the Energy Union is to diversify the EU’s gas supplies away from Russia, which has already proved to be an unreliable partner, first in 2006 and then in 2009, and which threatened to become one again at the outbreak of the conflict in Ukraine in 2013-2014.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Energy Dialogue EU–Russia. The Tenth Progress Report." (PDF). European Commission. November 2009: 4–6. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  2. ^ Koszalin, Andreas Heinrich (5 February 2008). "Gazprom's Expansion Strategy in Europe and the Liberalization of EU Energy Markets" (PDF). Russian Analytical Digest. Research Centre for East European Studies (34 Russian Business Expansion). Retrieved 23 February 2008. 
  3. ^ European Commission, Antitrust: Commission Opens Proceedings Against Gazprom, IP/12/937
  4. ^ Marek Martyniszyn, Legislation Blocking Antitrust Investigations and the September 2012 Russian Executive Order, 37(1) World Competition 103 (2014)
  5. ^ a b c "Commission staff working document–Accompanying document to the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply and repealing Directive 2004/67/EC. Assessment report of directive 2004/67/EC on security of gas supply {COM(2009) 363}" (PDF). European Commission. 16 July 2009: 33; 56; 63–76. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  6. ^ Juergen Baetz (8 November 2011). "Merkel, Medvedev inaugurate new gas pipeline". Associated Press. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c "Country analysis briefs: Russia" (PDF). Energy Information Administration. May 2008: 11. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  8. ^ Noël, Pierre (May 2009). "A Market Between Us: Reducing the Political Cost of Europe's Dependence on Russian Gas" (PDF). EPRG Working Paper Series. University of Cambridge Electricity Policy Research Group: 2; 38. EPRG0916. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  9. ^ Simon Pirani; Jonathan Stern; Katja Yafimava (February 2009). The Russo-Ukrainian gas dispute of January 2009: a comprehensive assessment (PDF). NG 27. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-901795-85-1. Retrieved 13 October 2009. 
  10. ^ "Lithuania suspects Russian oil grab". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved March 17, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Europe’s alternatives to Russian gas". European Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved March 17, 2016. 

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