1
EU Rules Out Russia Energy Sanctions: Gazprom head Miller in Berlin for energy talks on 19 May
EU Rules Out Russia Energy Sanctions: Gazprom head Miller in Berlin for energy talks on 19 May
DATE: 2014/05/17::
2
Will sanctions hurt energy sector in Russia?
Will sanctions hurt energy sector in Russia?
DATE: 2014/08/01::
3
EU energy union to decrease dependence on Russia
EU energy union to decrease dependence on Russia
DATE: 2015/02/25::
4
Russian sanctions against the West is collapsing EU Food & Agriculture Sector
Russian sanctions against the West is collapsing EU Food & Agriculture Sector
DATE: 2014/08/15::
5
Ukrainian Energy Reforms and European Gas Supply
Ukrainian Energy Reforms and European Gas Supply
DATE: 2015/04/20::
6
Rebalancing the EU-Russia-Ukraine Gas Relationship
Rebalancing the EU-Russia-Ukraine Gas Relationship
DATE: 2015/03/11::
7
Obama Speech Russia Sanctions over Ukraine | EU and US impose Energy Finance Arms Sanctions
Obama Speech Russia Sanctions over Ukraine | EU and US impose Energy Finance Arms Sanctions
DATE: 2014/07/29::
8
ENERGLOBE.EU/ Russia
ENERGLOBE.EU/ Russia's Energy Industry - It is all about deficiencies in cost controlling
DATE: 2013/12/09::
9
Russia sanctions threaten to rebound on EU
Russia sanctions threaten to rebound on EU
DATE: 2014/07/30::
10
Russia:
Russia: 'The EU won't sanction gas, it is not a political tool,' EU energy chief Oettinger
DATE: 2014/08/29::
11
An End to South Stream Russia’s New Relations with Southern Europe
An End to South Stream Russia’s New Relations with Southern Europe
DATE: 2014/12/17::
12
Obama announces new sanctions against Russia as EU falls in line with US
Obama announces new sanctions against Russia as EU falls in line with US
DATE: 2014/07/30::
13
CGEP: European Energy Security, Russian Policy and US LNG Exports
CGEP: European Energy Security, Russian Policy and US LNG Exports
DATE: 2014/09/23::
14
Europe Delays Russia Sanctions: EU defence officials discuss Ukraine crisis
Europe Delays Russia Sanctions: EU defence officials discuss Ukraine crisis
DATE: 2014/09/10::
15
EU sanctions against Russia to be adopted next week
EU sanctions against Russia to be adopted next week
DATE: 2014/07/24::
16
EU Sanctions - Impact on Europe’s economy | Made in Germany
EU Sanctions - Impact on Europe’s economy | Made in Germany
DATE: 2014/08/06::
17
EU - USA Summit : Obama, Van Rompuy, and Barroso press conference (recorded live feed)
EU - USA Summit : Obama, Van Rompuy, and Barroso press conference (recorded live feed)
DATE: 2014/03/26::
18
Russian envoy says EU sanctions will
Russian envoy says EU sanctions will 'backfire'
DATE: 2014/07/30::
19
European Union Widens Sanctions For Russia.
European Union Widens Sanctions For Russia.
DATE: 2014/07/29::
20
US follows Europe with new sanctions against Russia
US follows Europe with new sanctions against Russia
DATE: 2014/09/12::
21
Alan Greenspan: Economic Perspectives on Russia and Eastern Europe (1990)
Alan Greenspan: Economic Perspectives on Russia and Eastern Europe (1990)
DATE: 2015/03/23::
22
European Union To Expand Sanctions On Russia.
European Union To Expand Sanctions On Russia.
DATE: 2014/07/22::
23
US and EU agree to ratchet up economic pressure on Russia over its support for Ukraine rebels
US and EU agree to ratchet up economic pressure on Russia over its support for Ukraine rebels
DATE: 2014/07/30::
24
Ukraine News Dec 19-EU asks Russia continue South Stream
Ukraine News Dec 19-EU asks Russia continue South Stream
DATE: 2014/12/20::
25
EU set to widen SANCTIONS on Russia over Ukraine  BREAKING NEWS   29 JULY 2014
EU set to widen SANCTIONS on Russia over Ukraine BREAKING NEWS 29 JULY 2014
DATE: 2014/07/29::
26
US slaps sanctions on Russian energy, arms and finance
US slaps sanctions on Russian energy, arms and finance
DATE: 2014/07/29::
27
How the US Government is Collapsing the EU Economy - Russian Sanctions
How the US Government is Collapsing the EU Economy - Russian Sanctions
DATE: 2014/12/20::
28
EU sick and tired of
EU sick and tired of 'tan suit' rhetoric
DATE: 2014/09/02::
29
Europe Commits to Renewable Energy
Europe Commits to Renewable Energy
DATE: 2012/02/27::
30
Russia hits back at US and EU with new embargo on food items | NATW International News
Russia hits back at US and EU with new embargo on food items | NATW International News
DATE: 2014/08/08::
31
Putin,Greece did not seek financial aid from Russia
Putin,Greece did not seek financial aid from Russia
DATE: 2015/04/08::
32
West Readies Package Of Sector Sanctions On Russia
West Readies Package Of Sector Sanctions On Russia
DATE: 2014/06/24::
33
Implication of Russian Sanctions on Armenia
Implication of Russian Sanctions on Armenia
DATE: 2014/08/13::
34
NATO Warns Russia Over Ukraine as Obama Mulls Delaying Sanctions
NATO Warns Russia Over Ukraine as Obama Mulls Delaying Sanctions
DATE: 2014/06/27::
35
European Union
European Union's Common Security and Defence Policy
DATE: 2010/05/23::
36
Obama warns Russia on Ukraine: "Next step" is sector-wide sanctions
Obama warns Russia on Ukraine: "Next step" is sector-wide sanctions
DATE: 2014/05/06::
37
US and EU agree to ratchet up economic pressure on Russia over its support for Ukraine reb
US and EU agree to ratchet up economic pressure on Russia over its support for Ukraine reb
DATE: 2014/07/30::
38
West Readies Package Of Sector Sanctions On Russia
West Readies Package Of Sector Sanctions On Russia
DATE: 2014/06/24::
39
Security of European Gas Supply
Security of European Gas Supply
DATE: 2014/12/03::
40
Global Journalist Radio: Gas politics in Eastern Europe
Global Journalist Radio: Gas politics in Eastern Europe
DATE: 2014/05/02::
41
Russia and Hungary Sign Nuclear Power Agreement
Russia and Hungary Sign Nuclear Power Agreement
DATE: 2014/01/15::
42
Putin says sanction could hit Western companies active in Russia
Putin says sanction could hit Western companies active in Russia
DATE: 2014/04/30::
43
EU unveils plans for historic single energy market
EU unveils plans for historic single energy market
DATE: 2015/02/26::
44
Commission wants a 30% energy reduction target by 2030
Commission wants a 30% energy reduction target by 2030
DATE: 2014/07/28::
45
Tougher Sanctions On Russia Announced By The West.
Tougher Sanctions On Russia Announced By The West.
DATE: 2014/07/29::
46
Germany:
Germany: 'Germany is partner number one' - Gazprom's Miller
DATE: 2014/03/15::
47
The Debate - Ukraine Crisis (P.1)
The Debate - Ukraine Crisis (P.1)
DATE: 2014/04/25::
48
Varying European Priorities in Ukraine with Ralf Fücks
Varying European Priorities in Ukraine with Ralf Fücks
DATE: 2014/05/29::
49
Forex Response to Russian Invasion of Ukraine
Forex Response to Russian Invasion of Ukraine
DATE: 2014/08/17::
50
CGEP - Impact of Sanctions on Russia
CGEP - Impact of Sanctions on Russia's Energy Economy
DATE: 2014/12/05::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
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The Russian Federation supplies a significant volume of fossil fuels and is the largest exporter of oil and natural gas to the European Union. In 2007, the European Union imported from Russia 185 million tonnes of crude oil, which accounted for 32.6% of total oil import, and 100.7 million tonnes of oil equivalent of natural gas, which accounted 38.7% of total gas import.[1]

The Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline was constructed in 1982–1984 with Western financing to provide Soviet gas to the Western European market.[citation needed]

The Russian state-owned company Gazprom exports natural gas to Europe. It also controls a large number of subsidiaries, including various infrastructure assets. According to the study published by the Research Centre for East European Studies, the liberalization of the EU gas market has driven Gazprom's expansion in Europe by increasing its share in the European downstream market. It has established sale subsidiaries in many of its export markets, and has also invested in access to industrial and power generation sectors in Western and Central Europe. In addition, Gazprom has established joint ventures to build natural gas pipelines and storage depots in a number of European countries.[2] Transneft, a Russian state-owned company responsible for the national oil pipelines, is another Russian company supplying energy to Europe.[citation needed]

In September 2002 the European Commission has opened formal proceedings to investigate whether Gazprom is hindering competition in Central and Eastern European gas markets, in breach of EU competition law. In particular, the Commission is looking into Gazprom's usage of ‘no resale’ clauses in supply contracts, alleged prevention of diversification of gas supplies, and imposition of unfair pricing by linking oil and gas prices in long-term contacts.[3] The Russian Federation responded by issuing a blocking legislation, which introduced a default rule prohibiting Russian strategic firms, including Gazprom, to comply with any foreign measures or requests.[4] Compliance is made subject to a prior permission granted by the Russian government.

History[edit]

In the early 1980s there were American efforts, led by the Reagan administration, to convince European countries through which a proposed Soviet gas pipeline was to be built to deny firms responsible for construction the ability to purchase supplies and parts for the pipeline and associated facilities. The pipeline was built despite these protests and the rise of large Russian gas firms such as Gazprom as well as increased Russian fossil fuel production has facilitated a large expansion in the quantity of gas supplied to the European market since the 1990s.

Natural gas deliveries[edit]

Major existing and planned natural gas pipelines supplying Russian gas to Europe

In 2007, 38.7% of the European Union's natural gas total imports and 24.3% of consumed natural gas originated from Russia.[1][5] As of 2009, Russian natural gas was delivered to Europe through 12 pipelines, of which three were direct pipelines (to Finland, Estonia and Latvia), four through Belarus (to Lithuania and Poland) and five through Ukraine (to Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland).[5] In 2011, an additional pipeline, Nord Stream (directly to Germany through the Baltic Sea), opened.[6]

The largest importers of Russian gas in the European Union are Germany and Italy, accounting together for almost half of the EU gas imports from Russia. Other larger Russian gas importers (over 5 billion cubic meter per year) in the European Union are France, Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, Austria and Slovakia.[7][8] The largest non-EU importers of Russian natural gas are Ukraine, Turkey and Belarus.[7]

According to the European Commission, the share of Russian natural gas in the member states' domestic gas consumption in 2007 was the following:[5]

  •  Estonia 100%
  •  Finland 100%
  •  Latvia 100%
  •  Lithuania 100%
  •  Slovakia 98%
  •  Bulgaria 92%
  •  Czech Republic 77.6%
  •  Greece 76%
  •  Hungary 60%
  •  Slovenia 52%
  •  Austria 49%
  •  Poland 48.15%
  •  Croatia 37%
  •  Germany 36%
  •  Italy 27%
  •  Romania 27%
  •  France 14%
  •  Belgium 5%

The shares of Russian natural gas in the domestic gas consumption in non-EU countries in Europe were in 2006:[7]

  •  Republic of Macedonia 100%
  •  Belarus 98%
  •  Montenegro 87%
  •  Serbia 87%
  •  Ukraine 66%
  •  Turkey 64%
  •   Switzerland 12%

At the same time, the variety of national policies and stances of larger exporters versus larger dependents of Russian gas, together with the segmentation of the European gas market, has become a prominent issue in European politics toward Russia, with significant geopolitical implications for economic and political ties between the EU and Russia. These ties have occasionally led to calls for greater European energy diversity, although such efforts are complicated by the fact that many European customers have long term legal contracts for gas deliveries despite the disputes, most of which stretch beyond 2025–2030.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Energy Dialogue EU–Russia. The Tenth Progress Report." (PDF). European Commission. November 2009. pp. 4–6. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  2. ^ Koszalin, Andreas Heinrich (5 February 2008). "Gazprom's Expansion Strategy in Europe and the Liberalization of EU Energy Markets" (PDF). Russian Analytical Digest (Research Centre for East European Studies) (34 Russian Business Expansion). Retrieved 23 February 2008. 
  3. ^ European Commission, Antitrust: Commission Opens Proceedings Against Gazprom, IP/12/937
  4. ^ Marek Martyniszyn, Legislation Blocking Antitrust Investigations and the September 2012 Russian Executive Order, 37(1) World Competition 103 (2014)
  5. ^ a b c "Commission staff working document–Accompanying document to the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply and repealing Directive 2004/67/EC. Assessment report of directive 2004/67/EC on security of gas supply {COM(2009) 363}" (PDF). European Commission. 16 July 2009. pp. 33; 56; 63–76. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  6. ^ Juergen Baetz (8 November 2011). "Merkel, Medvedev inaugurate new gas pipeline". Associated Press. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c "Country analysis briefs: Russia" (PDF). Energy Information Administration. May 2008. p. 11. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  8. ^ Noël, Pierre (May 2009). "A Market Between Us: Reducing the Political Cost of Europe's Dependence on Russian Gas" (PDF). EPRG Working Paper Series. University of Cambridge Electricity Policy Research Group. p. 2; 38. EPRG0916. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  9. ^ Pirani, Simon; Yafimova, Katja (February 2009). The Russo-Ukrainian gas dispute of January 2009: a comprehensive assessment (PDF). NG 27. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-901795-85-1. Retrieved 13 October 2009. 
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