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Russia in the European energy sector
Russia in the European energy sector
Published: 2015/10/18
Channel: Audiopedia
Ukrainian Energy Reform and European Gas Supply
Ukrainian Energy Reform and European Gas Supply
Published: 2015/07/13
Channel: Europe Documentary
E.U. WORRIED re RUSSIAN GAS CUT says
E.U. WORRIED re RUSSIAN GAS CUT says 'DE-ESCALATE UKRAINE CRISIS'
Published: 2014/08/30
Channel: MLordandGod
Will sanctions hurt energy sector in Russia?
Will sanctions hurt energy sector in Russia?
Published: 2014/08/02
Channel: CGTN America
Portfolio: Russian Energy Windfall
Portfolio: Russian Energy Windfall
Published: 2015/02/17
Channel: STRATFORvideo
European Energy Visions -  Decreasing dependence on Russia | Made in Germany
European Energy Visions - Decreasing dependence on Russia | Made in Germany
Published: 2014/05/14
Channel: DW English
EU-Russia energy and trade ties block sanctions - economy
EU-Russia energy and trade ties block sanctions - economy
Published: 2014/05/28
Channel: euronews (in English)
CGEP - Impact of Sanctions on Russia
CGEP - Impact of Sanctions on Russia's Energy Economy
Published: 2014/12/05
Channel: Columbia SIPA
Alan Greenspan: Economic Perspectives on Russia and Eastern Europe (1990)
Alan Greenspan: Economic Perspectives on Russia and Eastern Europe (1990)
Published: 2015/03/23
Channel: Way Back
Transforming Energy Sector: Why does Ukraine buy coal from militant-held Donbas?
Transforming Energy Sector: Why does Ukraine buy coal from militant-held Donbas?
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: UKRAINE TODAY
EU Sanctions - Impact on Europe’s economy | Made in Germany
EU Sanctions - Impact on Europe’s economy | Made in Germany
Published: 2014/08/06
Channel: DW English
EU Rules Out Russia Energy Sanctions: Gazprom head Miller in Berlin for energy talks on 19 May
EU Rules Out Russia Energy Sanctions: Gazprom head Miller in Berlin for energy talks on 19 May
Published: 2014/05/17
Channel: Ukraine News One
Barroso on Russia
Barroso on Russia's energy partnership with EU
Published: 2015/07/30
Channel: AP Archive
An End to South Stream Russia’s New Relations with Southern Europe
An End to South Stream Russia’s New Relations with Southern Europe
Published: 2014/12/17
Channel: SAIS events
CGEP: European Energy Security, Russian Policy and US LNG Exports
CGEP: European Energy Security, Russian Policy and US LNG Exports
Published: 2014/09/23
Channel: Columbia SIPA
ALDE Workshop - The EU Energy Security Strategy - How to use less Russian Gas?
ALDE Workshop - The EU Energy Security Strategy - How to use less Russian Gas?
Published: 2015/01/29
Channel: ALDEGroup
Energy Geopolitics after the Elections: The Struggle for Energy Security in Europe
Energy Geopolitics after the Elections: The Struggle for Energy Security in Europe
Published: 2016/11/21
Channel: Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs
Europe Тeeds Gazprom: Europe
Europe Тeeds Gazprom: Europe's Leading Energy Firms Rekindle Business Ties With Russia
Published: 2015/09/09
Channel: UKRAINE TODAY
Rebalancing the EU-Russia-Ukraine Gas Relationship
Rebalancing the EU-Russia-Ukraine Gas Relationship
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: Norsk utenrikspolitisk institutt NUPI
US and EU to impose tough sanctions on Russia
US and EU to impose tough sanctions on Russia
Published: 2014/07/30
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Clashes in Ukraine, while it looks to Europe for gas supplies
Clashes in Ukraine, while it looks to Europe for gas supplies
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: zafer yıldız
Europe Delays Russia Sanctions: EU defence officials discuss Ukraine crisis
Europe Delays Russia Sanctions: EU defence officials discuss Ukraine crisis
Published: 2014/09/10
Channel: UKRAINE TODAY
More countries join EU Russia sanctions: Ukraine, Norway and Albania introduce penalties
More countries join EU Russia sanctions: Ukraine, Norway and Albania introduce penalties
Published: 2014/10/16
Channel: UKRAINE TODAY
US adds Russian oil fields to list of energy sanctions
US adds Russian oil fields to list of energy sanctions
Published: 2015/08/08
Channel: PressTV News Videos
Russia refuses to warm up to EU
Russia refuses to warm up to EU's demands on energy
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
US and EU agree to ratchet up economic pressure on Russia over its support for Ukraine rebels
US and EU agree to ratchet up economic pressure on Russia over its support for Ukraine rebels
Published: 2014/07/30
Channel: euronews (in English)
Russian sanctions against the West is collapsing EU Food & Agriculture Sector
Russian sanctions against the West is collapsing EU Food & Agriculture Sector
Published: 2014/08/15
Channel: PowerRossiya
"Power of Siberia" will bring Russian gas to China
"Power of Siberia" will bring Russian gas to China
Published: 2014/09/02
Channel: euronews Business
Implication of Russian Sanctions on Armenia
Implication of Russian Sanctions on Armenia
Published: 2014/08/13
Channel: CivilNet
Problems of Harmonization of Energy Law in Russia, EU and Eurasian Economic Union
Problems of Harmonization of Energy Law in Russia, EU and Eurasian Economic Union
Published: 2015/08/04
Channel: SpbLegalForum
Polish PM refuses to lift ban on Russian energy plans
Polish PM refuses to lift ban on Russian energy plans
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: AP Archive
EU sick and tired of
EU sick and tired of 'tan suit' rhetoric
Published: 2014/09/02
Channel: Pravda Report
Pres. Obama talks Russian sanctions with European leaders
Pres. Obama talks Russian sanctions with European leaders
Published: 2014/04/25
Channel: CBS Evening News
Final presser of Russia/EU summit, Barroso, Putin bites
Final presser of Russia/EU summit, Barroso, Putin bites
Published: 2015/07/28
Channel: AP Archive
Putin arrives to sign energy deals in Baku
Putin arrives to sign energy deals in Baku
Published: 2013/08/13
Channel: EpsilonNewsNetwork
US slaps sanctions on Russian energy, arms and finance
US slaps sanctions on Russian energy, arms and finance
Published: 2014/07/29
Channel: AFP news agency
Putin says sanction could hit Western companies active in Russia
Putin says sanction could hit Western companies active in Russia
Published: 2014/04/30
Channel: PressTV News Videos
Ukraine crisis: EU extends sanctions on Russia for six months - TomoNews
Ukraine crisis: EU extends sanctions on Russia for six months - TomoNews
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: TomoWorld
Russia: Berlusconi arrives for visit
Russia: Berlusconi arrives for visit
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Russian ENERGY GIANT Gazprom Launches GIANT GAS FIELD in Arctic
Russian ENERGY GIANT Gazprom Launches GIANT GAS FIELD in Arctic
Published: 2012/10/24
Channel: WestEndNews
Eurasian Dynamics Russian Energy Forum 2015
Eurasian Dynamics Russian Energy Forum 2015
Published: 2015/07/13
Channel: Eurasian Dynamics Ltd
Medvedev hosts Barroso for talks on Russia
Medvedev hosts Barroso for talks on Russia's role as energy supplier
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Europe showing fresh interest in Russian trade
Europe showing fresh interest in Russian trade
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: AP Archive
Russia hits back at US and EU with new embargo on food items | NATW International News
Russia hits back at US and EU with new embargo on food items | NATW International News
Published: 2014/08/08
Channel: News Around The Web
Global Journalist Radio: Gas politics in Eastern Europe
Global Journalist Radio: Gas politics in Eastern Europe
Published: 2014/05/02
Channel: Global Journalist
WRAP EU summit on energy, relations with Russia ADDS presser
WRAP EU summit on energy, relations with Russia ADDS presser
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: AP Archive
Russia and Hungary Sign Nuclear Power Agreement
Russia and Hungary Sign Nuclear Power Agreement
Published: 2014/01/15
Channel: NTDTV
Energy Sector Report: Gazprom Seen Cutting Gas Output on Weak European Demand
Energy Sector Report: Gazprom Seen Cutting Gas Output on Weak European Demand
Published: 2010/06/18
Channel: TradeTheTrend
EU sanctions against Russia to be adopted next week
EU sanctions against Russia to be adopted next week
Published: 2014/07/24
Channel: EURACTIV
Gazprom accuses Ukraine of diverting $25m worth of gas
Gazprom accuses Ukraine of diverting $25m worth of gas
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Russian Federation supplies a significant volume of fossil fuels and is the largest exporter of oil and natural gas to the European Union. In 2007, the European Union imported from Russia 185 million tonnes of crude oil, which accounted for 32.6% of total oil import, and 100.7 million tonnes of oil equivalent of natural gas, which accounted 38.7% of total gas import.[1]

The Urengoy–Pomary–Uzhgorod pipeline was constructed in 1982–1984 with Western financing to provide Soviet gas to the Western European market.[citation needed]

The Russian state-owned company Gazprom exports natural gas to Europe. It also controls a large number of subsidiaries, including various infrastructure assets. According to the study published by the Research Centre for East European Studies, the liberalization of the EU gas market has driven Gazprom's expansion in Europe by increasing its share in the European downstream market. It has established sale subsidiaries in many of its export markets, and has also invested in access to industrial and power generation sectors in Western and Central Europe. In addition, Gazprom has established joint ventures to build natural gas pipelines and storage depots in a number of European countries.[2] Transneft, a Russian state-owned company responsible for the national oil pipelines, is another Russian company supplying energy to Europe.[citation needed]

In September 2012 the European Commission has opened formal proceedings to investigate whether Gazprom is hindering competition in Central and Eastern European gas markets, in breach of EU competition law. In particular, the Commission is looking into Gazprom's usage of ‘no resale’ clauses in supply contracts, alleged prevention of diversification of gas supplies, and imposition of unfair pricing by linking oil and gas prices in long-term contracts.[3] The Russian Federation responded by issuing a blocking legislation, which introduced a default rule prohibiting Russian strategic firms, including Gazprom, to comply with any foreign measures or requests.[4] Compliance is made subject to a prior permission granted by the Russian government.

History[edit]

In the early 1980s there were American efforts, led by the Reagan administration, to convince European countries through which a proposed Soviet gas pipeline was to be built to deny firms responsible for construction the ability to purchase supplies and parts for the pipeline and associated facilities. The pipeline was built despite these protests and the rise of large Russian gas firms such as Gazprom as well as increased Russian fossil fuel production has facilitated a large expansion in the quantity of gas supplied to the European market since the 1990s.

Natural gas deliveries[edit]

Major existing and planned natural gas pipelines supplying Russian gas to Europe

In 2007, 38.7% of the European Union's natural gas total imports and 24.3% of consumed natural gas originated from Russia.[1][5] As of 2009, Russian natural gas was delivered to Europe through 12 pipelines, of which three were direct pipelines (to Finland, Estonia and Latvia), four through Belarus (to Lithuania and Poland) and five through Ukraine (to Slovakia, Romania, Hungary and Poland).[5] In 2011, an additional pipeline, Nord Stream (directly to Germany through the Baltic Sea), opened.[6]

The largest importers of Russian gas in the European Union are Germany and Italy, accounting together for almost half of the EU gas imports from Russia. Other larger Russian gas importers (over 5 billion cubic meter per year) in the European Union are France, Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, Austria and Slovakia.[7][8] The largest non-EU importers of Russian natural gas are Ukraine, Turkey and Belarus.[7]

According to the European Commission, the share of Russian natural gas in the member states' domestic gas consumption in 2007 was the following:[5]

  •  Estonia 100%
  •  Finland 100%
  •  Latvia 100%
  •  Lithuania 100%
  •  Slovakia 98%
  •  Bulgaria 92%
  •  Czech Republic 77.6%
  •  Greece 76%
  •  Hungary 60%
  •  Slovenia 52%
  •  Austria 49%
  •  Poland 48.15%
  •  Croatia 37%
  •  Germany 36%
  •  Italy 27%
  •  Romania 27%
  •  France 14%
  •  Belgium 5%

The shares of Russian natural gas in the domestic gas consumption in non-EU countries in Europe were in 2006:[7]

  •  Republic of Macedonia 100%
  •  Belarus 98%
  •  Montenegro 87%
  •  Serbia 87%
  •  Ukraine 66%
  •  Turkey 64%
  •   Switzerland 12%

Disputes and diversification efforts[edit]

At the same time, the variety of national policies and stances of larger exporters versus larger dependents of Russian gas, together with the segmentation of the European gas market, has become a prominent issue in European politics toward Russia, with significant geopolitical implications for economic and political ties between the EU and Russia. These ties have occasionally led to calls for greater European energy diversity, although such efforts are complicated by the fact that many European customers have long term legal contracts for gas deliveries despite the disputes, most of which stretch beyond 2025–2030.[9]

A number of disputes in which Russia was using pipeline shutdowns in what was described as "tool for intimidation and blackmail"[10] caused European Union to significantly increase efforts to diversify its energy sources.[11]

Part of the aim of the Energy Union is to diversify the EU’s gas supplies away from Russia, which has already proved to be an unreliable partner, first in 2006 and then in 2009, and which threatened to become one again at the outbreak of the conflict in Ukraine in 2013-2014.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Energy Dialogue EU–Russia. The Tenth Progress Report." (PDF). European Commission. November 2009: 4–6. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  2. ^ Koszalin, Andreas Heinrich (5 February 2008). "Gazprom's Expansion Strategy in Europe and the Liberalization of EU Energy Markets" (PDF). Russian Analytical Digest. Research Centre for East European Studies (34 Russian Business Expansion). Retrieved 23 February 2008. 
  3. ^ European Commission, Antitrust: Commission Opens Proceedings Against Gazprom, IP/12/937
  4. ^ Marek Martyniszyn, Legislation Blocking Antitrust Investigations and the September 2012 Russian Executive Order, 37(1) World Competition 103 (2014)
  5. ^ a b c "Commission staff working document–Accompanying document to the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply and repealing Directive 2004/67/EC. Assessment report of directive 2004/67/EC on security of gas supply {COM(2009) 363}" (PDF). European Commission. 16 July 2009: 33; 56; 63–76. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  6. ^ Juergen Baetz (8 November 2011). "Merkel, Medvedev inaugurate new gas pipeline". Associated Press. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c "Country analysis briefs: Russia" (PDF). Energy Information Administration. May 2008: 11. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  8. ^ Noël, Pierre (May 2009). "A Market Between Us: Reducing the Political Cost of Europe's Dependence on Russian Gas" (PDF). EPRG Working Paper Series. University of Cambridge Electricity Policy Research Group: 2; 38. EPRG0916. Retrieved 30 January 2010. 
  9. ^ Simon Pirani; Jonathan Stern; Katja Yafimava (February 2009). The Russo-Ukrainian gas dispute of January 2009: a comprehensive assessment (PDF). NG 27. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-901795-85-1. Retrieved 13 October 2009. 
  10. ^ "Lithuania suspects Russian oil grab". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved March 17, 2016. 
  11. ^ "Europe’s alternatives to Russian gas". European Council of Foreign Relations. Retrieved March 17, 2016. 

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