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MAD RUSH FOR THE CHOPPER! | SOS #1 Survival Multiplayer Gameplay Ft. Delirious, Randoms
MAD RUSH FOR THE CHOPPER! | SOS #1 Survival Multiplayer Gameplay Ft. Delirious, Randoms
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: Ohmwrecker / Maskedgamer
SOS: The Ultimate Escape - Delirious
SOS: The Ultimate Escape - Delirious' Island Adventure! (Where's Ohmwrecker?)
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: H2ODelirious
CAN WE SURVIVE? | SOS: The Ultimate Escape (w/ H2O Delirious & Ohmwrecker)
CAN WE SURVIVE? | SOS: The Ultimate Escape (w/ H2O Delirious & Ohmwrecker)
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: CaRtOoNz
Rihanna - SOS
Rihanna - SOS
Published: 2009/10/07
Channel: RihannaVEVO
SOS The Ultimate Escape: WILL WE SURVIVE?! (Gameplay)
SOS The Ultimate Escape: WILL WE SURVIVE?! (Gameplay)
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: Daithi De Nogla
Abba - SOS
Abba - SOS
Published: 2009/10/08
Channel: AbbaVEVO
SOS: The Ultimate Escape — First Look — My First Win!?
SOS: The Ultimate Escape — First Look — My First Win!?
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: PsiSyn
Indila - S.O.S
Indila - S.O.S
Published: 2014/06/27
Channel: IndilaVEVO
CAN I SURVIVE THE ISLAND?!? | SOS (ft. H2O Delirious)
CAN I SURVIVE THE ISLAND?!? | SOS (ft. H2O Delirious)
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Bryce Games
Jonas Brothers - S.O.S.
Jonas Brothers - S.O.S.
Published: 2013/03/29
Channel: JonasBrothersVEVO
S.O.S. Band - Take Your Time (Do It Right)
S.O.S. Band - Take Your Time (Do It Right)
Published: 2009/11/20
Channel: fuerbeideohren1
SOS: The Ultimate Escape - FIGHTING FOR MY LIFE! (GIVE ME RELICS!!!)
SOS: The Ultimate Escape - FIGHTING FOR MY LIFE! (GIVE ME RELICS!!!)
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: H2ODelirious
SOS chapter 5 | 2017 Award Winning Hindi Movie HD | Arpita Singh, Imran Khan | New Hindi Hot Movie
SOS chapter 5 | 2017 Award Winning Hindi Movie HD | Arpita Singh, Imran Khan | New Hindi Hot Movie
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: Action Replay
"Never pony Marcelo pura sangre, sos el mejor", así motivo Serafín Dengra a Tinelli
"Never pony Marcelo pura sangre, sos el mejor", así motivo Serafín Dengra a Tinelli
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: eltrece
S.O.S. - 30. diel (celé časti)
S.O.S. - 30. diel (celé časti)
Published: 2013/10/13
Channel: Karsten E. Brennan
SOS Bros React - My Hero Academia Season 2 Episode 8 - Five Fights in One Episode!!
SOS Bros React - My Hero Academia Season 2 Episode 8 - Five Fights in One Episode!!
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Semblance of Sanity
BİBER SALÇASI KIVAMINDA KAHVALTILIK SOS TARİFİ
BİBER SALÇASI KIVAMINDA KAHVALTILIK SOS TARİFİ
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Anne İşleri Ev
I
I'll Remember You Banana Boy! (SOS: The Ultimate Escape #1)
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: SattelizerGames
#33 SOS - 10000
#33 SOS - 10000
Published: 2017/04/17
Channel: SOS
Rihanna - SOS - Lyrics
Rihanna - SOS - Lyrics
Published: 2009/11/27
Channel: alex
SOS: Trần Đại Quang ẩn náu căn cứ bí mật ở Cà Mau, triệu tập binh mã chuẩn bị đảo chánh
SOS: Trần Đại Quang ẩn náu căn cứ bí mật ở Cà Mau, triệu tập binh mã chuẩn bị đảo chánh
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: 108Tv Channel
SOS // Noloin asia mitä oon tehny? (Q&A)
SOS // Noloin asia mitä oon tehny? (Q&A)
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: HurHur
#37 SOS - նառկոմանիա
#37 SOS - նառկոմանիա
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: SOS
The S.O.S Band - Greatest Hits [2004]  Full Album
The S.O.S Band - Greatest Hits [2004] Full Album
Published: 2014/09/11
Channel: Luis Andrés Mendoza
S.O.S. Band - No One`s Gonna Love You
S.O.S. Band - No One`s Gonna Love You
Published: 2009/11/21
Channel: fuerbeideohren1
Sos pomidorowy pyszny do spaghetti lub zupy w słoikach na zimę
Sos pomidorowy pyszny do spaghetti lub zupy w słoikach na zimę
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: Weronika Domogród
#36 SOS - Երեւան
#36 SOS - Երեւան
Published: 2017/06/03
Channel: SOS
S.O.S TATA - La famiglia Evangelista (stagione 8)
S.O.S TATA - La famiglia Evangelista (stagione 8)
Published: 2014/05/01
Channel: S.O.S. TATA
S.O.S. Band - Just Be Good To Me
S.O.S. Band - Just Be Good To Me
Published: 2009/11/21
Channel: fuerbeideohren1
#26 SOS - Գ/7000 +1
#26 SOS - Գ/7000 +1
Published: 2016/12/05
Channel: SOS
Joseph - SOS (Overboard) (Official Music Video)
Joseph - SOS (Overboard) (Official Music Video)
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: JosephVEVO
Jordin Sparks - S.O.S. (Let The Music Play)
Jordin Sparks - S.O.S. (Let The Music Play)
Published: 2009/11/14
Channel: JordinSparksVEVO
S.O.S TATA - La famiglia Razzauti (stagione 5)
S.O.S TATA - La famiglia Razzauti (stagione 5)
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: S.O.S. TATA
LINE เกมเศรษฐี อีเว้นท์ ใหม่ล่าสุด ตามหา วอ SOS
LINE เกมเศรษฐี อีเว้นท์ ใหม่ล่าสุด ตามหา วอ SOS
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: SoCyber
¿Cómo quitar una mancha de café con Fabiola S.O.S?
¿Cómo quitar una mancha de café con Fabiola S.O.S?
Published: 2017/08/14
Channel: FAB COLOMBIA
#13 SOS - դուԳա
#13 SOS - դուԳա
Published: 2015/07/22
Channel: SOS
#35 SOS - յաթաղան
#35 SOS - յաթաղան
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: SOS
Ayam Madu Enak Terangkat dengan MAGGI® Sos Tiram
Ayam Madu Enak Terangkat dengan MAGGI® Sos Tiram
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Maggi Malaysia
Misión SOS - Quesadillas
Misión SOS - Quesadillas
Published: 2012/09/24
Channel: Bajada Armendariz
EPIC SHINY TOGEDEMARU REACTION | Pokémon Sun and Moon SOS Chaining Shiny
EPIC SHINY TOGEDEMARU REACTION | Pokémon Sun and Moon SOS Chaining Shiny
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: Ace Trainer Liam
Home SOS Ziemia (2009) HD lektor PL
Home SOS Ziemia (2009) HD lektor PL
Published: 2013/02/21
Channel: Marek Kamiński
SOS
SOS
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: Rihanna - Topic
S.O.S (Alvin and the chipmunks)
S.O.S (Alvin and the chipmunks)
Published: 2011/12/07
Channel: chipmunk51958
HIRO - S.O.S | OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO |
HIRO - S.O.S | OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO |
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: MONEY MAKER RECORDS
#32 SOS - ռեինխեռնացիա
#32 SOS - ռեինխեռնացիա
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: SOS
S.O.S TATA - La famiglia Popolare (stagione 5)
S.O.S TATA - La famiglia Popolare (stagione 5)
Published: 2014/03/03
Channel: S.O.S. TATA
#18 SOS - հեղափոխություն
#18 SOS - հեղափոխություն
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: SOS
LINE เกมเศรษฐี รีวิวอีเว้นท์ใหม่ จี้เครื่องราง วอ SOS S/S+
LINE เกมเศรษฐี รีวิวอีเว้นท์ใหม่ จี้เครื่องราง วอ SOS S/S+
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: essAyseeK TV
SOS API (Akademi Pelawak TPI)
SOS API (Akademi Pelawak TPI)
Published: 2013/09/01
Channel: Joko JMC
SOS (bocer chshti vrov)
SOS (bocer chshti vrov)
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: What's Up
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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SOS is the International Morse code distress signal (▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄). This distress signal was first adopted by the German government in radio regulations effective April 1, 1905, and became the worldwide standard under the second International Radiotelegraphic Convention, which was signed on November 3, 1906, and became effective on July 1, 1908. SOS remained the maritime radio distress signal until 1999, when it was replaced by the Global Maritime Distress and Safety System.[1] SOS is still recognized as a visual distress signal.[2]

The SOS distress signal is a continuous spaceless sequence of three dots, three dashes, and three dots. In International Morse Code, three dots form the letter S, and three dashes make the letter O, so "SOS" became an easy way to remember the order of the dots and dashes. In modern terminology, SOS is a Morse "procedural signal" or "prosign",[3] and the formal way to write it is with a bar above the letters: SOS.

In popular usage, SOS became associated with such phrases as "Save Our Ship" or "Send Out Succour" or "Save our Souls". SOS is only one of several ways that the combination could have been written; VTB, for example, would produce exactly the same sound, but SOS was chosen to describe this combination. SOS is the only nine-element signal in Morse code, making it more easily recognizable, as no other symbol uses more than eight elements.

Formalization[edit]

The use of the SOS signal was first introduced in Germany as part of a set of national radio regulations, effective April 1, 1905. These regulations introduced three new Morse code sequences, including the SOS distress signal.

In 1906, at the second International Radiotelegraphic Convention in Berlin, an extensive collection of Service Regulations was developed to supplement the main agreement, which was signed on November 3, 1906, becoming effective on July 1, 1908. Article XVI of the regulations adopted Germany's Notzeichen (distress signal) as the international standard, reading: "Ships in distress shall use the following signal: ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ repeated at brief intervals". The first ship to transmit an SOS distress call appears to have been either the Cunard liner RMS Slavonia on June 10, 1909, according to "Notable Achievements of Wireless" in the September, 1910 Modern Electrics, or the steamer SS Arapahoe on August 11, 1909.[4] The signal of the Arapahoe was received by the United Wireless Telegraph Company station at Hatteras, North Carolina, and forwarded to the steamer company's offices.[5] However, there was some resistance among the Marconi operators to the adoption of the new signal, and, as late as the April 1912 sinking of the RMS Titanic, the ship's Marconi operators intermixed CQD and SOS distress calls. However, in the interests of consistency and water safety, the use of CQD appears to have died out thereafter.

In both the April 1, 1905, German law, and the 1906 International regulations, the distress signal was specified as a continuous Morse code sequence of three-dots/three-dashes/three-dots, with no mention of any alphabetic equivalents. However, in International Morse, three dots comprise the letter S, and three dashes the letter O. It therefore soon became common to refer to the distress signal as "SOS". An early report on "The International Radio-Telegraphic Convention" in the January 12, 1907, Electrical World stated that "Vessels in distress use the special signal, SOS, repeated at short intervals." (In American Morse code, which was used by many coastal ships in the United States through the first part of the twentieth century, three dashes stood for the numeral "5", so in a few cases the distress signal was informally referred to as "S5S".)

In contrast to CQD, which was sent as three separate letters with spaces between each letter, the SOS distress call has always been transmitted as a continuous sequence of dits and dahs, and not as individual letters. There was no problem as long as operators were aware that "SOS" was technically just a convenient way for remembering the proper sequence of the distress signal's total of nine dits and dahs. In later years, the number of special Morse symbols increased. In order to designate the proper sequence of dits and dahs for a long special symbol, the standard practice is to list alphabetic characters that contain the same dits and dahs in the same order, with a bar atop the character sequence to indicate that there should not be any internal spaces in the transmission.[citation needed] Thus, under the modern notation, the distress signal becomes SOS. (In International Morse Code,[citation needed] VTB, IJS, VGI, and SMB, among others, would also correctly translate into the ▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄ distress call sequence, but traditionally only SOS is used.)

It has also sometimes been used as a visual distress signal, consisting of three short, three long, and three more short flashes of light, such as from a survival mirror, or with "SOS" spelled out in individual letters (for example, stamped in a snowbank or formed out of logs on a beach). The fact that SOS can be read right side up as well as upside down (as an ambigram) became important for visual recognition if viewed from above.

Later developments[edit]

Additional warning and distress signals followed the introduction of SOS. On January 20, 1914, the London International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea adopted the Morse code signal TTT (▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄), three letter Ts (▄▄▄▄▄) spaced correctly as three letters so as not to be confused with the letter O (▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄▄), as the "Safety Signal", used for messages to ships "involving safety of navigation and being of an urgent character".

With the development of audio radio transmitters, there was a need for a spoken distress phrase, and "Mayday" was adopted by the 1927 International Radio Convention as the equivalent of SOS. For TTT, the equivalent audio signal is "Sécurité" for navigational safety. It is interesting to note that "Mayday" actually originated as the French m'aidez ("help me") and that there is a third, lesser distress call (before securité and after Mayday): "panne" (French for "breakdown"), spelled "pan" in English. French was the international language at the time that these were formalized.

During World War II, additional codes were employed to include immediate details about attacks by enemy vessels, especially in the Battle of the Atlantic. The signal SSS signaled attacked by submarines, while RRR warned of an attack by a surface raider, QQQ warned of an unknown raider (usually an auxiliary cruiser), and AAA indicated an attack by aircraft. They were usually sent in conjunction with the SOS distress code. All of these codes later switched from three repeats of the letter to four repeats, e.g., "RRRR".

None of these signals were used on their own. Sending SOS as well as other warning signals (TTT, XXX etc.) used similar procedures for effectiveness. These were always followed correctly. Here is an example of an SOS signal; the portions in parentheses are an explanation only.

SOS SOS SOS (urgent distress call follows) DE (from) GBTT GBTT GBTT (call sign of the Queen Elizabeth 2 radio room, repeated 3 times) QUEEN ELIZABETH 2 (name of ship) PSN (position is) 49.06.30 N (north), 04.30.20 W (west). (Ship is) ON FIRE, (crew) ABANDONING SHIP AR (end of transmission) K (reply, anyone)

Ships and coastal stations would normally have required quiet times twice an hour to listen for priority signals. However, many merchant vessels carried only one or two radio operators, in which case the SOS may not be heard by operators off duty. Eventually, equipment was invented to summon off-duty operators by ringing an alarm in the operator's berth. This was triggered by the operator of the ship in distress transmitting twelve long dashes of four seconds duration each. These were sent prior to the SOS in the hope of ringing the automatic alarm in ships so equipped. If possible, a short delay was given before transmission of the SOS proper. This was to give those off-watch operators time to get to their radio room.

Historical SOS calls[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "GMDSS Resolution COM/Circ.115 "Discontinuation of morse code services in the MF radiotelegraphy band" 10.02.93". GMDSS. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  2. ^ US Coast Guard Visual Distress Signals
  3. ^ Weik, Martin (2012). Communications Standard Dictionary (3rd ed.). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 760. ISBN 9781461304296. Retrieved 9 September 2015. 
  4. ^ Kemp, Peter Kemp (1976). The Oxford companion to ships & the sea. Oxford University Press. p. 249. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  5. ^ "STEAMER ARAPAHOE BREAKS SHAFT AT SEA". The New York Times. August 11, 1909. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

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