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Sac and Fox Song
Sac and Fox Song
Published: 2008/12/20
Channel: Patrick Littleshield
Sac and Fox Nation POW WOW 2015 drum
Sac and Fox Nation POW WOW 2015 drum
Published: 2015/09/28
Channel: Julio Martinez
Sac and Fox Powwow 2014: Grand Entry
Sac and Fox Powwow 2014: Grand Entry
Published: 2014/07/21
Channel: Hugh Foley
Croatan, Monominee, Sauk and Fox
Croatan, Monominee, Sauk and Fox
Published: 2015/10/03
Channel: Standing Wolf
2016 Traditional Night
2016 Traditional Night
Published: 2016/12/29
Channel: Sac and Fox Nation
Pashitoha
Pashitoha's Sauk Class
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: Sac and Fox Nation
Jr boys fancy@Sac and Fox powwow 2017
Jr boys fancy@Sac and Fox powwow 2017
Published: 2017/07/09
Channel: XL PoWWows
1989 Sac & Fox Promo
1989 Sac & Fox Promo
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: Sac and Fox Nation
Sauk and Fox Peyote Song
Sauk and Fox Peyote Song
Published: 2012/01/14
Channel: TheLonelyBearCub
Sac & Fox 5
Sac & Fox 5
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: Brian Stoner - Topic
Sac & Fox Nation officer killed in line of duty
Sac & Fox Nation officer killed in line of duty
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: KOCO 5 News
2009 46th Annual Sac-n-Fox Nation Pow-wow
2009 46th Annual Sac-n-Fox Nation Pow-wow
Published: 2009/07/14
Channel: Cathy Dickey
Sac & Fox
Sac & Fox
Published: 2014/09/24
Channel: Jake Tyner - Topic
Let
Let's Come Together - Kimachipena
Published: 2010/12/16
Channel: talksauk
52nd Annual SAC and FOX NATION POWWOW
52nd Annual SAC and FOX NATION POWWOW
Published: 2015/07/13
Channel: Sherry Tiger
Swan Dance 1989
Swan Dance 1989
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: Sac and Fox Nation
2015 Sac & Fox Traditional Night
2015 Sac & Fox Traditional Night
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: Sac and Fox Nation
Meskwaki Nation @ Sac & Fox Powwow 2013
Meskwaki Nation @ Sac & Fox Powwow 2013
Published: 2013/07/18
Channel: Jasa Lightfoot
Sac and Fox Nation Powwow 2006 Montage
Sac and Fox Nation Powwow 2006 Montage
Published: 2006/09/05
Channel: Hugh Foley
Sac & Fox Powwow 2012 - Women
Sac & Fox Powwow 2012 - Women's Sauk/Meskwaki traditional contest
Published: 2012/07/16
Channel: txndn
Meskwaki Nation at Sac n Fox
Meskwaki Nation at Sac n Fox '13
Published: 2013/10/10
Channel: FoxClan49
Sac & Fox
Sac & Fox
Published: 2014/08/27
Channel: Jeff McClellan - Topic
52nd Annual SAC and FOX NATION POWWOW
52nd Annual SAC and FOX NATION POWWOW
Published: 2015/07/13
Channel: Sherry Tiger
War Child @ Sac and Fox Nation Pow Wow 2013
War Child @ Sac and Fox Nation Pow Wow 2013
Published: 2013/07/16
Channel: marykay.com/ brandymarie
McClellan, Robedeaux and Stoner - Blessings - Healing Song sung in Sac & Fox
McClellan, Robedeaux and Stoner - Blessings - Healing Song sung in Sac & Fox
Published: 2014/07/11
Channel: Naughty Navajo
Learn the Sauk Language (Sac & Fox)
Learn the Sauk Language (Sac & Fox)
Published: 2010/12/16
Channel: talksauk
Sac and Fox
Sac and Fox
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: McClellan and Stoner - Topic
Sac and Fox Tribe
Sac and Fox Tribe
Published: 2013/09/04
Channel: Bonnie Jones
Fun and Fancy at Sac and Fox 2012.MP4
Fun and Fancy at Sac and Fox 2012.MP4
Published: 2012/07/21
Channel: Avis Ballard
Sac And Fox Journal
Sac And Fox Journal
Published: 2016/02/25
Channel: Anika Jop
Sac and Fox
Sac and Fox
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: Jeff McClellan - Topic
Northern Traditional at Stroud 2016
Northern Traditional at Stroud 2016
Published: 2016/07/13
Channel: Avis Ballard
49 contestant at Stroud 2017
49 contestant at Stroud 2017
Published: 2017/07/09
Channel: Avis Ballard
Sac and Fox
Sac and Fox
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: McClellan and Stoner - Topic
sac and fox history porster/not
sac and fox history porster/not
Published: 2014/09/18
Channel: Sam Petrie
Young Gunz at Stroud 2017
Young Gunz at Stroud 2017
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Avis Ballard
Language Revitalization Workshop 2010: Terrie Kinsey of the Sac and Fox Nation
Language Revitalization Workshop 2010: Terrie Kinsey of the Sac and Fox Nation
Published: 2010/10/20
Channel: EnduringVoices
Sac and Fox
Sac and Fox
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: McClellan and Stoner - Topic
Jingle Dress Contest 2014 Sac and Fox Powwow
Jingle Dress Contest 2014 Sac and Fox Powwow
Published: 2014/07/31
Channel: Hugh Foley
Sac & Fox Powwow 2012 - Lyndee
Sac & Fox Powwow 2012 - Lyndee's special
Published: 2012/07/19
Channel: txndn
YellowHammer at Sac & Fox 2012.MP4
YellowHammer at Sac & Fox 2012.MP4
Published: 2012/07/21
Channel: Avis Ballard
Sac and Fox Powwow
Sac and Fox Powwow
Published: 2016/02/13
Channel: Laughterfirst
Sac and Fox
Sac and Fox
Published: 2008/10/25
Channel: lakatia83
Cuckoo for Cloth at Sac & Fox 2012.MP4
Cuckoo for Cloth at Sac & Fox 2012.MP4
Published: 2012/07/21
Channel: Avis Ballard
sac and fox rd kids
sac and fox rd kids
Published: 2013/03/22
Channel: ksonnyd
Wild Band of Comanches Intertribal @ Sac and Fox Powwow 2013
Wild Band of Comanches Intertribal @ Sac and Fox Powwow 2013
Published: 2013/07/14
Channel: Hugh Foley
History of the War between the United States and the Sac and Fox Nations of Indians
History of the War between the United States and the Sac and Fox Nations of Indians
Published: 2016/03/03
Channel: Dorothy M
Eric Bird vs Joe Bointy Sac and Fox Powwow Kansas 8 23 09
Eric Bird vs Joe Bointy Sac and Fox Powwow Kansas 8 23 09
Published: 2009/08/25
Channel: Cecil Gray
Mens Straight at Sac & Fox 2012.MP4
Mens Straight at Sac & Fox 2012.MP4
Published: 2012/07/17
Channel: Avis Ballard
2008 Sac-n-Fox Powwow - Mens Straight Dance
2008 Sac-n-Fox Powwow - Mens Straight Dance
Published: 2013/10/21
Channel: powwowjourney
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Sac and Fox Nation
Flag of the Sac & Fox Nation of Oklahoma.PNG
tribal flag
Total population
3,794[1]
Regions with significant populations
 United States ( Oklahoma)
Languages
English, Sauk
Religion
Drum Society, Native American Church,
and Christianity[2]
Related ethnic groups
Sac, Meskwaki, Kickapoo,
and other Algonquian peoples

The Sac and Fox Nation is the largest of three federally recognized tribes of Sauk and Meskwaki (Fox) Native Americans. They were relocated to Oklahoma and are predominantly Sauk.[2]

The two other Sac and Fox tribes are the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa and the Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska. The Sac and Fox tribes were always closely allied and speak very similar Algonquian languages, sometimes considered two dialects, instead of two languages. The Sauk call themselves Thakiwaki or Sa ki wa ki, which means "people coming forth from the water."[2]

Government[edit]

The Sac and Fox Nation is headquartered in Stroud, Oklahoma, and their tribal jurisdictional area covers Lincoln, Payne, and Pottawatomie Counties. Their Principal Chief is Kay Rhoads.[1] Five elected officials, each elected for a four-year term, govern the tribe. Elections are held in odd-numbered years in August.[2]

Of the 3,794 enrolled tribal members, 2,557 live in Oklahoma. Membership to the tribe requires a minimum 1/8 blood quantum.[1]

Economic development[edit]

The tribe's housing authority is located in Shawnee, Oklahoma. They issue their own tribal vehicle tags and operate eleven smoke shops and two casinos,[1] the Sac and Fox Nation Casino Shawnee and the Sac and Fox Nation Casino Stroud. The Stroud casino features the Center Sky Stage, a live entertainment venue.[3]

History[edit]

April Holder, enrolled Sac and Fox artist from Oklahoma[4]

The Sac or Thakiwaki lived near Lake Huron and Lake Michigan at the time of European contact. In 1832 they participated in the Black Hawk War against the United States. Military leader Black Hawk remains a cultural hero today, as does the Sac diplomat Keokuk. After the war, the tribe relocated several times from Illinois to Iowa, Kansas, and finally Indian Territory in the 1870s.[2]

Their current lands were part of the larger, historical Sac and Fox Reservation of 1867-1891, which was 480,000 acres (1,900 km2).[2] These tribal land holdings were broken into individual allotments under the Dawes Act, which was to encourage the Indians to assimilate to European-American cultural ways, with a June 12, 1890 agreement with the Cherokee Commission.[5] Under the Curtis Act of 1893, the tribal government and its institutions were dismantled.

The tribe was previously known as the Sac and Fox Tribe of Indians of the Mississippi River.[2] In 1937, they organized as a federally recognized tribe under the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1934. They allowed tribal membership to everyone listed on the tribal Dawes Rolls and their descendants, as long as individuals had a minimum blood quantum of one-eighth Sac and Fox blood (equivalent to one great-grandparent).[6]

In 1983, the tribal government established its own system for registering vehicles and issuing license plates for tribal members. The state of Oklahoma tried to collect registration fees anyway and the tribe sued. The US Supreme Court ruled in the tribe's favor on May 17, 1993, in Oklahoma Tax Commission v. Sac & Fox Nation allowing other tribes to follow suit. May 17 is now celebrated by the Sac and Fox Nation as "Victory Day."[2]

On May 16, 1989 a tribal representative group that included Elmer Manatowa, Principal Chief, Truman Carter, Treasurer, William Rice, Attorney General, James L. Welsh III, Director of Real Estate and Curtis Cunard, Petroleum Consultant, testified before the One Hundred First Congress, Special Committee on Investigations of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United State Senate. The testimony examined the federal government's management of water and natural resources of the Sac and Fox Nation, the extensive surface damages and permanent contamination of the tribal drinking water destroyed by waterflooding techniques and the injection well process used by the oil companies. Testimony from the group also revealed the lack of federal oversight and trust management responsibilities including fraudulent real estate appraisals as evidenced by Mr. Welsh's testimony. This historic testimony by the tribe's representatives, and their internal investigations, revealed the extensive mismanagement of the BIA and the lack of trust responsibilities that led to significant trust management changes and historic legal settlements for the Sac and Fox Nation and its tribal members.

Notable members[edit]

Jim Thorpe, Sac and Fox Nation Olympic athlete

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d 2011 Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. 2011: 31. Retrieved 29 Jan 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h McCollum, Timothy James. "Sac and Fox." Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. (retrieved 12 April 2010)
  3. ^ "Sac & Fox Casino Stroud." 500 Nations. (retrieved 12 April 2010)
  4. ^ "Bare Nation: Student Sculptors from IAIA." News from Indian County. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  5. ^ Deloria Jr., Vine J; DeMaille, Raymond J (1999). Documents of American Indian Diplomacy Treaties, Agreements, and Conventions, 1775-1979. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 323–326. ISBN 978-0-8061-3118-4. 
  6. ^ "Constitution." Sac and Fox Nation. (retrieved 12 April 2010)
  7. ^ Breslauer, Jan (February 20, 1996). "The Spirit Moves Him in New and Traditional Ways". Los Angeles Times.
  8. ^ Biography. Jim Thorpe: World's Greatest Athlete. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
  9. ^ Hearings (May 16, 1989). "Federal Government's relationship with the American Indians". U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Senate. 
  10. ^ Hearings (May 16, 1989). "Federal Government's relationship with American Indians" (Part 9): 31–54. 

External links[edit]


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