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Mining for Salt | How to Make Everything
Mining for Salt | How to Make Everything
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: How To Make Everything
Salt Mine Documentary: History Of Salt Mining - Classic Docs
Salt Mine Documentary: History Of Salt Mining - Classic Docs
Published: 2017/07/24
Channel: ClassicDocs
HowStuffWorks - Dry Salt Mining
HowStuffWorks - Dry Salt Mining
Published: 2009/04/14
Channel: Discovery
underground salt mine.
underground salt mine.
Published: 2013/05/14
Channel: EarthmoversWorks
World
World's Toughest Jobs: Salt Miner | National Geographic
Published: 2007/06/14
Channel: National Geographic
Discovery How Stuff Works : Salt
Discovery How Stuff Works : Salt
Published: 2013/04/16
Channel: Manu John
Trump Saltmining Inc.
Trump Saltmining Inc.
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: Sargon of Akkad
Arma 3: Mining For Salt
Arma 3: Mining For Salt
Published: 2017/10/18
Channel: DominantChris
Himalayan Salt Cutting process
Himalayan Salt Cutting process
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: Folk Market
Meepo goes salt mining in EU West (feat. Sheepsticked) Dota 2
Meepo goes salt mining in EU West (feat. Sheepsticked) Dota 2
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: mid or meepo
Ethiopia
Ethiopia's Extreme Salt Mines - Danakil Depression, Afar Desert
Published: 2015/12/19
Channel: Jiri VonDrak
Khewra Salt Mine and Origin of Pink Himalayan Salt - A natural asthma treatment
Khewra Salt Mine and Origin of Pink Himalayan Salt - A natural asthma treatment
Published: 2013/05/16
Channel: himalayansaltlamps
The Danakil Depression : Salt mining in one of the hottest places on earth
The Danakil Depression : Salt mining in one of the hottest places on earth
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: Al Jazeera English
Oil Driller Breaches Salt Mine Under Louisana Lake
Oil Driller Breaches Salt Mine Under Louisana Lake
Published: 2007/05/25
Channel: Michael Freudiger
The world
The world's largest salt mine
Published: 2014/08/15
Channel: Toronto Star
Abandoned Salt Mine 1200 Feet Under Detroit Is The Size Of An Entire City
Abandoned Salt Mine 1200 Feet Under Detroit Is The Size Of An Entire City
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: Factosiya
Salt: From Mine To Your Street
Salt: From Mine To Your Street
Published: 2015/02/06
Channel: CBS Chicago
Great Lakes Today - Lake Erie Salt Mine on Newsdepth 12-8
Great Lakes Today - Lake Erie Salt Mine on Newsdepth 12-8
Published: 2016/12/12
Channel: Elizabeth Miller
SALT MINES Guerrero Negro Baja California Mexico 09 Alfonso Jimenez
SALT MINES Guerrero Negro Baja California Mexico 09 Alfonso Jimenez
Published: 2009/11/15
Channel: alfonso jimenez
Salt Mining Underground 1958
Salt Mining Underground 1958
Published: 2008/10/11
Channel: markdcatlin
The History of Salt Mines documentary
The History of Salt Mines documentary
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Manufacturing Intellect: Documentaries
Abandoned Salt Mine In Russia Is As Beautiful As It Is Terrifying
Abandoned Salt Mine In Russia Is As Beautiful As It Is Terrifying
Published: 2017/07/31
Channel: Did You Know ?
Lake Peigneur sinkhole disaster
Lake Peigneur sinkhole disaster
Published: 2008/12/05
Channel: Tebbie85
Northernlion
Northernlion's Salt Mines
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: Mozumin
From Salt Mine to Subterranean Theme Park
From Salt Mine to Subterranean Theme Park
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: Great Big Story
Ohio salt miners relishing harsh winter weather
Ohio salt miners relishing harsh winter weather
Published: 2014/02/27
Channel: CBS Evening News
Khewra Salt Mines Trip Jhelum Pakistan
Khewra Salt Mines Trip Jhelum Pakistan
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: Desi Tv
Salt mine keeps Goderich alive
Salt mine keeps Goderich alive
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: The National
Wieliczka salt mine: Underground Salt Cathedral of Poland
Wieliczka salt mine: Underground Salt Cathedral of Poland
Published: 2012/09/24
Channel: Mat Siems
Lake Peigneur Salt Mine drilling accident
Lake Peigneur Salt Mine drilling accident
Published: 2011/08/07
Channel: JustMining
Kripp - 2 Hour Salt Compilation [A Year of Salt Mining] Full Season 6 [Ep. 51 - 60]
Kripp - 2 Hour Salt Compilation [A Year of Salt Mining] Full Season 6 [Ep. 51 - 60]
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Salt Chronicles - Hearthstone Arena
Ethiopia - Salt mining by the Afar people in the Danakil
Ethiopia - Salt mining by the Afar people in the Danakil
Published: 2014/03/24
Channel: Jan van Bekkum
Salina Turda (Salt Mines) of Turda, Romania
Salina Turda (Salt Mines) of Turda, Romania
Published: 2016/03/09
Channel: Jeffery Foster
Winsford Salt Mine
Winsford Salt Mine
Published: 2008/01/31
Channel: Colin Morris
Khewra Salt Mines (PTV)
Khewra Salt Mines (PTV)
Published: 2011/12/08
Channel: hassanhayatkhan
RAIDING SALT MINES: Destiny 2 Playthrough Episode 1!
RAIDING SALT MINES: Destiny 2 Playthrough Episode 1!
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: The Reviled
The Salt Mines of Poland
The Salt Mines of Poland
Published: 2015/07/22
Channel: travelpulse
Descending into the salt mines Pro KingGeorge
Descending into the salt mines Pro KingGeorge
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: KingGeorgeTV
Welcome to the Salt Mines
Welcome to the Salt Mines
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: Savjz
Salt Mining - For Honor
Salt Mining - For Honor
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Green Potion Studios
Exploring the salt mines of Star Citizen 3.0
Exploring the salt mines of Star Citizen 3.0
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Phsyro Day-to-Day
Khewra Salt Mine: The Origin of Himalayan Salt
Khewra Salt Mine: The Origin of Himalayan Salt
Published: 2015/03/17
Channel: thehimalayansaltlampstore
Resident Evil 7: Biohazard playthrough pt28 - Into the Salt Mines: MAJOR Plot Exposition Time!
Resident Evil 7: Biohazard playthrough pt28 - Into the Salt Mines: MAJOR Plot Exposition Time!
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: DSPGaming
HALLSTATT - Going Down the Salt Mine (Salzwelten)
HALLSTATT - Going Down the Salt Mine (Salzwelten)
Published: 2008/04/07
Channel: grindelwaldprods
Salt Mining Avery Island 2002
Salt Mining Avery Island 2002
Published: 2015/06/16
Channel: Darrell Baudoin
Poland - Wieliczka Salt Mine
Poland - Wieliczka Salt Mine
Published: 2012/01/29
Channel: Sandalsand M
Bavaria:Salt Mines Tour
Bavaria:Salt Mines Tour
Published: 2012/06/10
Channel: AdventureSportsS
Smash 4 - Salt Mines #1
Smash 4 - Salt Mines #1
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: Pheonixmaster1
Redmond Salt Mine - America
Redmond Salt Mine - America's Heartland
Published: 2009/11/05
Channel: America's Heartland
The Wieliczka Salt Mine: An Amazing Underground Monument in Krakow, Poland
The Wieliczka Salt Mine: An Amazing Underground Monument in Krakow, Poland
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: Jason Jose
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Modern rock-salt mine near Mount Morris, New York

A salt mine is a mine from which halite, commonly known as rock salt, is extracted from evaporite formations.[1]

History[edit]

Diorama of an underground salt mine in Germany.
Inside Salina Veche, Europe's largest salt mine, in Slănic, Prahova, Romania. The railing (lower middle) gives the viewer an idea of scale.

Before the advent of the modern internal combustion engine and earth moving equipment, mining salt was one of the most expensive and dangerous of operations, due to rapid dehydration caused by constant contact with the salt (both in the mine passages and scattered in the air as salt dust), among other problems borne of accidental excessive sodium intake. While salt is now plentiful, until the Industrial Revolution it was difficult to come by, and salt mining was often done by slave or prison labor and life expectancy among those sentenced was low.

In ancient Rome, salt on the table was a mark of a rich patron; those who sat nearer the host were "above the salt", and those less favored were "below the salt". The Roman historian Pliny the Elder stated as an aside in his Natural History's discussion of sea water, that "[I]n Rome ... the soldier's pay was originally salt and the word 'salary' derives from it ..."[2]

Ancient China was among the earliest civilizations in the world with cultivation and trade of salt mining.[3] They first discovered natural gas when they excavated rock salt as the Chinese writer, poet, and politician Zhang Hua of the Jin Dynasty wrote in his book Bowuzhi how people in Zigong, Sichuan excavated natural gas and used it to boil a rock salt solution.[4] The ancient Chinese gradually mastered and advanced the techniques of producing salt. Salt mining was an arduous task for the ancient Chinese, where they faced geographical and technological constraints. Salt was mainly extracted from the sea and salt works in the coastal areas in late imperial China equated to more than 80 percent of national production.[5] In conjunction to this, the Chinese made use of natural crystallization of salt lakes and constructed some artificial evaporation basins close to the shores.[3] In 1041, during the medieval Song dynasty, the Chinese drilled a well with a diameter about the size of a bowl and several dozen feet deep was drilled for salt production.[6] In Southwestern China, natural salt deposits were mined with bores that could reach to a depth of more than 1000 meters but the yields of ground and salt were relatively low.[5] As salt was a necessity of life for human civilization, salt mining played a pivotal role as one of the most important sources of Imperial Chinese government revenue and state development.[5]

Most modern salt mines are privately operated or operated by large multinational companies such K+S, AkzoNobel, Cargill, and Compass Minerals.

Mining regions around the world[edit]

The Crystal Valley region of the Khewra Salt Mines in Pakistan. With around 250,000 visitors a year, the site is a major tourist attraction.
A small mosque made of salt bricks inside the Khewra Salt Mines complex

Areas known for their salt mines include:

Country Site/s
Austria Hallstatt and Salzkammergut.
Bosnia Tuzla
Bulgaria Provadiya; and Solnitsata, an ancient town believed by Bulgarian archaeologists to be the oldest in Europe and the site of a salt production facility approximately six millennia ago.[7]
Canada Sifto Salt Mine in Goderich, Ontario, which, at 1.5 miles (2.4 km) wide and 2 miles (3.2 km) long,[8] is one of the largest salt mines in the world extending 7 km2 (2.7 sq mi) .[9]
Colombia Zipaquirá
England The "-wich towns" of Cheshire and Worcestershire.
Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti Danakil Desert, where manual labor is used.[10]
Germany Rheinberg, Berchtesgaden, Heilbronn
Italy Racalmuto, Realmonte and Petralia Soprana[11] within the production sites managed by Italkali.
Morocco JMS salt mine in Khemisset.
N. Ireland Kilroot, near Carrickfergus, more than a century old and containing passages whose combined length exceeds 25 km.
Pakistan Khewra Salt Mines, the world's second largest salt-mining operation, spanning over 300 km.
Poland Wieliczka and Bochnia, both established in the mid-13th century and still operating, mostly as museums. Kłodawa Salt Mine.
Romania Slănic (with Salina Veche, Europe's largest salt mine), Cacica, Ocnele Mari, Salina Turda, Târgu Ocna, Ocna Sibiului, Praid and Salina Ocna Dej.
Russia Solikamsk
United States
  • Hutchinson, Kansas, Underground mining began at Hutchinson in 1923. In 1990 the Hutchinson Salt Company was formed and purchased the mine.
  • Avery Island, Louisiana;
  • Detroit, Michigan, 1,100 feet (340 m) beneath which the Detroit Salt Company's 1,500-acre (10 km2) subterranean complex extends;[12]
  • Saltville, Virginia, which served as the site of one of the Confederacy's main saltworks.
  • Western New York and Central New York, location of American Rock Salt, the largest operating salt mine in the United States with a capacity for producing up to 18,000 tons each day.[13] Syracuse earned the nickname "The Salt City" for its salt mining, an activity that continues in the region to the present day.[14]

Houston, Texas, near Minute Maid Park is a newly discovered saltworks. Grand Saline in East Texas has a Morton Salt mine. It is one of the largest in the world.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Oilfield Glossary: Term 'evaporite'". Glossary.oilfield.slb.com. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  2. ^ "''Plinius Naturalis Historia XXXI.''". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  3. ^ a b Harris, Peter (2017). Studies in the History of Tax Law. 8. Hart Publications (published August 10, 2017). p. 518. ISBN 978-1509908370. 
  4. ^ Deng, Yinke (2011). "Ancient Chinese Inventions". p. 41. ISBN 978-0521186926. 
  5. ^ a b c Höllmann, Thomas O. (2013). The Land of the Five Flavors: A Cultural History of Chinese Cuisine. Columbia University Press (published November 26, 2013). p. 33. ISBN 978-0231161862. 
  6. ^ Deng, Yinke (2011). "Ancient Chinese Inventions". p. 41. ISBN 978-0521186926. 
  7. ^ Maugh II, Thomas H. (1 November 2012). "Bulgarians find oldest European town, a salt production center". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 December 2012. 
  8. ^ "Industries in Godrich". Archived from the original on December 26, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  9. ^ "CBC-TV - Geologic Journey - Goderich, Ontario and Detroit Michigan". CBC 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2012. 
  10. ^ "Salt mine in the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia, 2015". Independent Travellers. independent-travellers.com. Retrieved July 14, 2017. 
  11. ^ "Italkali Spa - Production Sites". Archived from the original (online) on 2012-03-31. Retrieved 2011-05-09. 
  12. ^ "The Detroit Salt Company -- Explore the City under the City". Archived from the original (online) on 2009-04-12. Retrieved 2008-02-08. 
  13. ^ Spector, Joseph (13 Jan 2015). "American Rock Salt to expand in LIvingston". Democrat and Chronicle. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  14. ^ "All 17 Cargill Salt Miners Trapped on Underground Elevator Freed". NBC News. January 7, 2016. Retrieved January 7, 2016. 

External links[edit]

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