San Miguel, Bulacan (Filipino: Bayan ng San Miguel; Kapampangan: Balen ning San Miguel; Ilocano: Ili ti San Miguel) is a first class, urban municipality located in the third district of the province of Bulacan, Philippines. It was the 2nd largest municipality (area) in Bulacan. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 142,854 people.
San Miguel de Arkanghel Parish Church built during Spanish Regime
The municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo was established in 1763 with Carlos Agustin Maniquiz, Maria Juana Puno - wife of Carlos Agustin Maniquiz and Miguel Pineda as the first town mayor of San Miguel. Miguel Pineda was a native of Angat, Bulacan who decided to settle permanently in the barrio of San Bartolome (now named Barangay Tartaro). He found the place ideal for hunting and was later chosen as the leader of other settlers. He formed an alliance with Mariano Puno, the recognized leader of the adjacent prosperous village called Sto. Rosario (now named Barangay Mandile). The two leaders decided to form a town named Miguel De Mayumo after the name of Miguel Pineda and Mayumo, a Kapampangan word for sweets, for the goodwill and generosity of Mariano Puno. The town was supposed to be part of Pampanga. San Miguel’s culture drifted from Kapampangan influence. San Miguel used to be the biggest town in Bulacan but when San Ildefonso, Bulacan was proclaimed a town during the 1900s and during the Marcos Regime, he made Doña Remedios Trinidad a town (named after his wife's mother), San Miguel was right as the 2nd.
During the Philippine Revolution in 1897, newly appointed Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera decided to crush Emilio Aguinaldo and his troops in Cavite, but Aguinaldo fled to Batangas and joined forces with Gen. Miguel Malvar. The Spaniards continue their pursuit but the troops outwitted them by going to the province of Morong (now Rizal) and finally to Biak-na-Bato in San Miguel de Mayumo (San Miguel), Bulacan. Aguinaldo made the mountain caves into his headquarters.
On August 26, 2007, residents at the foot of the Biak-na-Bato mountains petitioned president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to declare the mountains protected areas to stop marble quarrying and mining there. Biak-na-Bato (21.17 km² in the villages of Kalawakan and Talbak in Doña Remedios Trinidad town and the villages of Biak-na-Bato and Sibul) was one of the camps of the revolutionary Katipunan forces in the 19th century, was declared a national park by Manuel L. Quezon on Nov. 16, 1937 through Proclamation No. 223.
Founded during World War II, Japanese Imperial ground troops entered and occupied the town municipality of San Miguel on 1942. Local Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary units retreated into the nearby mountains to become the Bulakeño guerrilla resistance against the Japanese occupation forces until the province's liberation.
The town of San Miguel is bounded by Nueva Ecija Province in the northernmost area, Pampanga Province in the west, the town is bounded by two provinces with land borders. The town of San Ildefonso, Bulacan lies next to San Miguel in the southernmost area, Doña Remedios Trinidad in the eastmost area which also borders San Rafael and Angat. San Miguel then was the biggest municipality in the province of Bulacan before some areas were taken and annexed to Doña Remedios Trinidad during the term of Ferdinand Marcos. The geographic nature of the town is diversified and multi-faceted, rich in nature's beauty like waterfall, rivers, caves, few mountains, hilly areas and springs. The mainland are plain agricultural lands, some part of which was substantially eroded due to commercialization and urbanization.
Roman Catholic is the predominant religion in this town with 89% of the population. The second is the Members Church of God International with 4%, Iglesia ni Cristo with 1%, Evangelicals With 4% and other religious groups with 2%.
Sibul Springs - The area is famous for the springs coming directly from the mountains, which attracted a lot of people including the past Philippine president like Manuel L. Quezon and famous artists during the pre-war and post-war era.
Madlum Caves and River - The area is in barangay Madlum where Mount Manalmon, a hilly landscape, possess these novel landscapes of Madlum River (Manalmon River and Caves). The river is a snaky river with shallow clear water along the left side deepening to the right side. The rightmost portion has towering rock walls lining the riverside, past the walls are widening riverbanks with sandy shore. Another hilly elevation in the area is Mount Gola. Various caves with dark portals are within the area, namely Bayukbok Cave and Victoria Cave and numerous caves, some of which are inhibited by bats.
Mount Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast Mountain)
Banal na Bundok (Holy Mountain)
Biak-na-Bato - Biak-na-Bato is an historical spot rich in nostalgic echoes of heroic past. This landscape is a hilly cave fortress that looks like a big, spreading rock covered with cracks and splits inside and out, with some pieces sprawled out the vicinity and along the river. This historic spot, the Aguinaldo Cave, the main cave of a network of caves, used to be the headquarters of Emilio Aguinaldo and the First Philippine Republic Cabinet Officials and its arm. It actually has more than a hundred caves, many of which remain unexplored. Underneath the Aguinaldo Cave runs an underground natural spring with cool and refreshing water. Outside, the crystal clear river runs smoothly, blocked currently, and then by boulders scattered indiscriminately on the river. Along the riverbeds lie sections of cracks and openings of the giant rock, and one opening, called the “Cuarto Cuarto” or “room partitions” has plenty of stalactites as its “chandeliers” on the cave’s ceiling. This opening is one of the cave networks issuing from Aguinaldo's Cave. A further stroll following the riverbed uphill and downhill leads to the majestic “Bahay Paniki Cave” (House of Bats) whose ceiling is 50 meters high. A swarm of Paniki, (bats), regularly hovers on the ceiling of this awesome mouth which looks like the main crack of this hilly rock. Going farther on this trek along the riverbed, one will discover that this river is where several natural springs in the area congregate. Also, a large contributory is the spring water from the mountain systems of Sierra Madre Mountain Range - Sierra Madre Mountains of Luzon island. This natural spring serves the local communities around Biak-na-Bato, and partly, Metro Manila residents. This historical spot, Biak-na-Bato, was the headquarters of the first Philippine Republic. It was a cave fortress affording seclusion and protection. Up to the present time this historical spot continues to offer a hideaway haven amid cool natural springs and a thought-provoking labyrinth of cave networks.
San Miguel Leisure Farm Resort - A resort situated in barangay Biak-na-Bato.
San Miguel de Mayumo Arc - An arch in the entrance of the town, a welcome arc.
San Miguel Municipal Hall
Don Felipe Buencamino Marker - A historical marker in honor of Felipe S. Buencamino Sr. who was a revolutionary leader.
San Miguel de Arkanghel Church - (St. Michael the Archangel Parish Church) - The province of Bulacan is not only rich in history but it is one of the earliest, about 1572 to be Christianized. A testimony to this are various churches of colonial period in many cities and towns like San Miguel, Bulacan.
Tecson House: The house of Simon Tecson - Simon Ocampo Tecson of Siege of Baler. It is the house where the ratification of the first Philippine Constitution took place, and signed with Emilio Aguinaldo, the revolutionary general who became the first Philippine president: Tecson House.
Camp Tecson - A military camp in Sibul Spring, which has become the central garrison of military training of Philippine Armed Forces - 1st Scout Ranger Regiment. The land was donated by Pablo Tecson (1902-1906 governor of Bulacan province and a revolutionary hero.)