San Miguel, Bulacan is a first class, urban municipality located in the third district of the province of Bulacan, Philippines. It was the 2nd largest municipality (area) in Bulacan and also known as the "Vigan of Bulacan" due to the ancestral houses build during the Spanish Era. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 142,854 people.
San Miguel de Arkanghel Parish Church built during Spanish Regime
The municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo was established in 1763 with Carlos Agustin Maniquiz, Maria Juana Puno - wife of Carlos Agustin Maniquiz and Miguel Pineda as the first town mayor of San Miguel. Miguel Pineda was a native of Angat, Bulacan who decided to settle permanently in the barrio of San Bartolome now named barangay Tartaro. He found the place ideal for hunting and was later chosen as the leader of other settlers. He formed an alliance with Mariano Puno, the recognized leader of the adjacent prosperous village called Sto. Rosario now named barangay Mandile. The two leaders decided to form a town named Miguel De Mayumo after the name of Miguel Pineda and Mayumo, a Kapampangan word for sweets for the goodwill and generosity of Mariano Puno. The town was supposed to be part of Pampanga. San Miguel’s culture drifted from Kapampangan influence. San Miguel used to be the biggest town in Bulacan but when San Ildefonso, Bulacan was proclaimed a town during the 1900s and during the Marcos Regime, he made Doña Remedios Trinidad a town (named after his wife's mother), San Miguel was right as the 2nd.
During the Philippine Revolution in 1897, newly appointed Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera decided to crush Emilio Aguinaldo and his troops in Cavite, but Aguinaldo fled to Batangas and joined forces with Gen. Miguel Malvar. The Spaniards continue their pursuit but the troops outwitted them by going to the province of Rizal (formerly Morong) and finally to Biak-na-Bato in San Miguel de Mayumo (San Miguel), Bulacan. Aguinaldo made the mountain caves into his headquarters.
On August 26, 2007, residents at the foot of the Biak-na-Bato mountains petitioned president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo to declare the mountains protected areas to stop marble quarrying and mining there. Biak-na-Bato (21.17 km² in the villages of Kalawakan and Talbak in Doña Remedios Trinidad town and the villages of Biak-na-Bato and Sibul) was one of the camps of the revolutionary Katipunan forces in the 19th century, was declared a national park by Manuel L. Quezon on Nov. 16, 1937 through Proclamation No. 223.
Baler, Aurora is a small town located on the eastern coast of Luzon, part of the jurisdiction of the District of El Principe. In June 1898, the Spanish forces holding Baler continued to resist whereas most of the other towns had already surrendered to Emilio Aguinaldo’s forces. Captain Enrique de las Morenas was in charge of the defense of Baler. For fear of attack, he ordered his men to seek refuge inside the church of Baler on June 27, 1898. Providing themselves with arms, ammunition and food, the Spaniards turned the church into a formidable fortress.
The end of the Siege of Baler occurred on June 2, 1899. The Spaniards went outside of the church to negotiate the terms of surrender. Representing Emilio Aguinaldo and the newly established Philippine Republic was Revolutionary Colonel Simon O. Tecson who negotiated that the Spanish troops would not be treated as prisoners of war. With the terms of surrender completed, the rest of the Spanish troops marched out of the church with their weapons while Filipino troops lined up the pathway. Out of the more than 50 soldiers who sought refuge in the church of Baler before the siege, only 35 survived.
The Siege of Baler represents the culmination of the more than three hundred-year hostility between Filipinos and Spaniards. It ended in forgiveness and reconciliation. This event is made even more memorable through the passage of Republic Act No. 9187 on February 5, 2003 calling for the celebration of Philippine–Spanish Friendship Day every June 30. The historic Siege of Baler honors the Filipino and Spanish heroes who fought and died for their principles.
Founded during World War II, Japanese Imperial ground troops entered and occupied the town municipality of San Miguel on 1942. Local Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary units retreated into the nearby mountains to become the Bulakeño guerrilla resistance against the Japanese occupation forces until the province's liberation.
The town of San Miguel is bounded by Nueva Ecija Province in the northernmost area, Pampanga Province in the west, the town is bounded by two provinces with land borders. The town of San Ildefonso, Bulacan lies next to San Miguel in the southernmost area, Doña Remedios Trinidad in the eastmost area which also borders San Rafael and Angat. San Miguel then was the biggest municipality in the province of Bulacan before some areas were taken and annexed to Doña Remedios Trinidad during the term of Ferdinand Marcos. The geographic nature of the town is diversified and multi-faceted, rich in nature's beauty like waterfall, rivers, caves, few mountains, hilly areas and springs. The mainland are plain agricultural lands, some part of which was substantially eroded due to commercialization and urbanization.
Roman Catholic is the predominant religion in this town with 89% of the population. The second is the Members Church of God International with 4%, Iglesia ni Cristo with 1%, Evangelicals With 4% and other religious groups with 2%.
Sibul Springs - The area is famous for the springs coming directly from the mountains, which attracted a lot of people including the past Philippine president like Manuel L. Quezon and famous artists during the pre-war and post-war era.
Madlum Caves and River - The area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Madlum River and Madlum Caves. The area is in barangay Madlum where Mount Manalmon, a hilly landscape, possess these novel landscapes of Madlum River (Manalmon River and Caves). The river is a snaky river with shallow clear water along the left side deepening to the right side. The rightmost portion has towering rock walls lining the riverside, past the walls are widening riverbanks with sandy shore. Another hilly elevation in the area is Mount Gola. Various caves with dark portals are within the area, namely Bayukbok Cave and Victoria Cave and numerous caves, some of which are inhibited by bats.
Mount Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast Mountain)
Banal na Bundok (Holy Mountain)
Biak-na-Bato - Biak-na-Bato is an historical spot rich in nostalgic echoes of heroic past. This landscape is a hilly cave fortress that looks like a big, spreading rock covered with cracks and splits inside and out, with some pieces sprawled out the vicinity and along the river. This historic spot, the Aguinaldo Cave, the main cave of a network of caves, used to be the headquarters of Emilio Aguinaldo and the First Philippine Republic Cabinet Officials and its arm. It actually has more than a hundred caves, many of which remain unexplored. Underneath the Aguinaldo Cave runs an underground natural spring with cool and refreshing water. Outside, the crystal clear river runs smoothly, blocked currently, and then by boulders scattered indiscriminately on the river. Along the riverbeds lie sections of cracks and openings of the giant rock, and one opening, called the “Cuarto Cuarto” or “room partitions” has plenty of stalactites as its “chandeliers” on the cave’s ceiling. This opening is one of the cave networks issuing from Aguinaldo's Cave. A further stroll following the riverbed uphill and downhill leads to the majestic “Bahay Paniki Cave” (House of Bats) whose ceiling is 50 meters high. A swarm of Paniki, (bats), regularly hovers on the ceiling of this awesome mouth which looks like the main crack of this hilly rock. Going farther on this trek along the riverbed, one will discover that this river is where several natural springs in the area congregate. Also, a large contributory is the spring water from the mountain systems of Sierra Madre Mountain Range - Sierra Madre Mountains of Luzon island. This natural spring serves the local communities around Biak-na-Bato, and partly, Metro Manila residents. This historical spot, Biak-na-Bato, was the headquarters of the first Philippine Republic. It was a cave fortress affording seclusion and protection. Up to the present time this historical spot continues to offer a hideaway haven amid cool natural springs and a thought-provoking labyrinth of cave networks.
San Miguel Leisure Farm Resort - A resort situated in barangay Biak-na-Bato.
San Miguel de Mayumo Arc - An arch in the entrance of the town, a welcome arc.
San Miguel Municipal Hall
Don Felipe Buencamino Marker - A historical marker in honor of Felipe S. Buencamino Sr. who was a revolutionary leader.
San Miguel de Arkanghel Church - (St. Michael the Archangel Parish Church) - The province of Bulacan is not only rich in history but it is one of the earliest, about 1572 to be Christianized. A testimony to this are various churches of colonial period in many cities and towns like San Miguel, Bulacan. The churches were built as part of missionary enterprise of Spanish Regime. In 1899, the last Spanish fleet left the Philippines for the last time, but not the stone churches that once belong to the glory of Spain, the global colonizer that introduced Christianity to many nations.
Tecson House: The house of Simon Tecson - Simon Ocampo Tecson of Siege of Baler. It is the house where the ratification of the first Philippine Constitution took place, and signed with Emilio Aguinaldo, the revolutionary general who became the first Philippine president: Tecson House.
Camp Tecson - A military camp in Sibul Spring, which has become the central garrison of military training of Philippine Armed Forces - 1st Scout Ranger Regiment. The land was donated by Pablo Tecson (1902-1906 governor of Bulacan province and a revolutionary hero.)
Felipe S. Buencamino Sr. [1848–1929] - Born in this town on September 22, 1848. Leader of the revolutionaries, and became 'Kalihim ng Suliraning Panlabas' - [Secretary of Foreign Affairs] of the first Republic of the Philippines. One of the founders of Iglesia Filipina Independiente. He joined the Revolutionary Movement and fought in the battles of 'Battle of Kamansi' and 'Battle of Arayat' - Arayat, Pampanga. He was part and member of Malolos Congress. He was named to the Aguinaldo Cabinet as "Secretario de Fomento" or Secretary of Development. He died on February 6, 1929.
Tecson House - The house where Emilio Aguinaldo slept before he departed to Pangasinan. The house of Simon Tecson
Simon Tecson (1861-1903) – The revolutionary Colonel of the 'Siege of Baler' - Siege of Baler. Simon Ocampo Tecson fought in the Philippine–American War. He surrendered to the Americans on February 12, 1901 in San Miguel de Mayumo. He refused to take the oath of allegiance to the United States, resulting in his deportation to Guam on June 16, 1901. When a general amnesty was offered to all Filipino insurgents on July 4, 1902, Simon O. Tecson was one of those who availed of this opportunity. On September 21, 1902, he took his oath of allegiance and was allowed to return to the Philippines. He was appointed Mayor of San Miguel, Bulacan. He died on November 15, 1903, of tuberculosis, at the age of 43 in his beloved hometown of San Miguel de Mayumo, his remains are buried in the church of San Miguel. His house, Tecson House, is the house where the first Philippine Constitution was ratified with Emilio Aguinaldo. It was built by his wife Tomasa Mossegeld-Santiago Tecson. The son of Simon and Tomasa, their youngest son Pedro Tecson was born after his death, the son of Pedro Tecson wrote a book, 2011, about the Siege of Baler - Luis Zamora Tecson - The grandson of Simon Tecson. Philippine–Spanish Friendship Day is celebrated every year in this house as a commemoration of the 'Siege of Baler' that ended the Spanish Global Colonization in the entire world, that ended in peace. List of Filipino Generals in the Philippine Revolution of 1896 and the Filipino-American War of 1899. The 'Tecson' of San Miguel, Bulacan, the Tecson of Balanga, Bataan, the Tecson of Candaba, Pampanga, the Tecson of Cabiao, Nueva Ecija, the Tecson of San Quintin, Pangasinan and the 'Ticzon' of San Pablo City, Laguna, the Tecson of San Jose, Batangas, and the Tecson of Tanay, Rizal are descendants of the three 'Tek Sun' brothers from Guangzhou, China. The tombstone of Jose Tecson who passed 1728 is in the church of Saint Patrick Church of Candaba, Pampanga, his name is written in Chinese character. Jose Tecson - 'Hu Si Tek Sun Bu', the place is 'Immortal Torch'. Guangzhou, China is called 'Immortals City'.
Trinidad Tecson (1848–1928) is one of the revolutionaries during Philippine Revolution who is famous for being the 'The Mother of Biak-na-Bato': Katipunan - Pact of Biak-na-Bato and 'The Mother of Philippine Red Cross' - Philippine Red Cross and 'Mother of Mercy'. She was born in this town on November 18, 1848. She is the daughter of Rafael Tecson and Monica Perez. She was trained to do 'Arnis' (Sword fighting) at a young age by a man named 'Tangkad' (Tall). Trinidad was called Babaing lalaki (Woman that acts like a man). During the Philippine Revolution she joined the rebellion, took care of the sick and wounded in the mountains. Along with three other companions, she went to the courthouse in Kalookan (Caloocan) to seize firearms. They overpowered the Guardia Civil and carried away their guns. She was with the revolutionaries in 12 battles under five Filipino generals and organized groups of women to nurse wounded the Filipino soldiers. Trinidad was Brigadaire General during Philippine Revolution, List of Filipino Generals in the Philippine Revolution of 1896 and the Filipino-American War of 1899. Emilio Aguinaldo called her 'The Mother of Philippine Red Cross' - Philippine Red Cross, Mother of Mercy. She died on January 28, 1928 in Philippine General Hospital. Her remains are buried in Veterans Plot of La Loma Cemetery. Trinidad is cousin of Emiliano Tecson, Pablo Tecson and Simon Tecson. Trinidad Tecson Elementary School is a Memorial School for her, District IV Manila - Division of City Schools-Manila. The 'Tecson' of San Miguel, Bulacan, the Tecson of San Jose, Batangas, the Tecson of Tanay, Rizal, the Tecson of Balanga, Bataan, the Tecson of Candaba, Pampanga, the Tecson of Tanauan, Leyte, and the 'Ticzon' of San Pablo City, Laguna are descendants of the three 'Tek Sun' brothers from Guangzhou, China - 'Immortals City'. The tombstone of Jose Tecson who passed 1728 is in the church of Saint Andrew Church of Candaba, Pampanga, Jose Tecson - 'Hu Si Tek Sun Bu'. It is written in Chinese character which also denotes a place 'Immortal Torch'.