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$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS
Published: 2015/05/31
Channel: TrillPhonk
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS III
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS III
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: TrillPhonk
RVMIRXZ x $UICIDEBOY$ - SARCOPHAGUS II (PROD. BAKER PHONK)
RVMIRXZ x $UICIDEBOY$ - SARCOPHAGUS II (PROD. BAKER PHONK)
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: SHROOM HEAD
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS III (LYRICS)
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS III (LYRICS)
Published: 2016/05/06
Channel: Promo Sound
Sarcophagus (feat. $Uicideboy$)
Sarcophagus (feat. $Uicideboy$)
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: Ramirez - Topic
Instant Deck Tech: Sarcophagus Control (Standard)
Instant Deck Tech: Sarcophagus Control (Standard)
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: MTGGoldfish
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ x ANBU - SARCOPHAGUS III
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ x ANBU - SARCOPHAGUS III
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Ape Trvp Visuals 猿
Lets Make a Sarcophagus (and a Mummy too!) - Craft & Project
Lets Make a Sarcophagus (and a Mummy too!) - Craft & Project
Published: 2013/05/07
Channel: thatcraftguy1
NILE - "Sarcophagus" (Official Music Video)
NILE - "Sarcophagus" (Official Music Video)
Published: 2007/04/10
Channel: RelapseRecords
Egypt - Archaeologists open priest
Egypt - Archaeologists open priest's sarcophagus
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
How to Make a Mummy & Sarcophagus | Ancient Egypt
How to Make a Mummy & Sarcophagus | Ancient Egypt
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: Pepper and Pine
Well-preserved Sarcophagus of 22nd Dynasty Unearthed in Egypt’s Luxor
Well-preserved Sarcophagus of 22nd Dynasty Unearthed in Egypt’s Luxor
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: ShantiUniverse
Sarcophagus - For We... Who Are Consumed by the Darkness (1996) full album
Sarcophagus - For We... Who Are Consumed by the Darkness (1996) full album
Published: 2014/08/03
Channel: Gerald Green
Prince of Persia The Forgotten Sands Sarcophagus Location Guide 1 to 21 HD
Prince of Persia The Forgotten Sands Sarcophagus Location Guide 1 to 21 HD
Published: 2010/05/21
Channel: PhDF1
The Sarcophagus - Beyond This World
The Sarcophagus - Beyond This World's Illusion (2017) [Full Album]
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Satanath Records
Excursion within the "Sarcophagus"
Excursion within the "Sarcophagus"
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Chernobyl NPP
The Sarcophagus - Legend Sleeps Behind The Mountains
The Sarcophagus - Legend Sleeps Behind The Mountains
Published: 2010/02/11
Channel: IstKriegUNM
Nile - Sarcophagus
Nile - Sarcophagus
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: Jack Warhead
Reptilian  Beings Were Found Inside A Sarcophagus
Reptilian Beings Were Found Inside A Sarcophagus
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Incredible News E3
Ramirez x $uicideboy$ - Sarcophagus II (Live in LA, 11/6/2016)
Ramirez x $uicideboy$ - Sarcophagus II (Live in LA, 11/6/2016)
Published: 2016/11/10
Channel: M2 GH2
Season 9, Episode 15 - The Sarcophagus | Red vs. Blue
Season 9, Episode 15 - The Sarcophagus | Red vs. Blue
Published: 2015/03/23
Channel: Red vs. Blue
Star Trek Discovery - USS Discovery vs Klingon
Star Trek Discovery - USS Discovery vs Klingon's Sarcophagus - Battle of Pahvo
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: WT Videoclip
Alexander Sarcophagus
Alexander Sarcophagus
Published: 2014/07/27
Channel: Smarthistory. art, history, conversation.
Assassin
Assassin's Creed Origins | WORLD FIRST: FULL - SIZED REPLICA SARCOPHAGUS PRINTED IN 3D
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: Assassin's Creed UK
Stolen 2,600-Year-Old Sarcophagus, Other Artifacts Return to Egypt | National Geographic
Stolen 2,600-Year-Old Sarcophagus, Other Artifacts Return to Egypt | National Geographic
Published: 2015/04/24
Channel: National Geographic
Sarcophagus of the Spouses (Rome)
Sarcophagus of the Spouses (Rome)
Published: 2015/03/29
Channel: Smarthistory. art, history, conversation.
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
Published: 2011/10/02
Channel: Smarthistory. art, history, conversation.
Make Your Own MINI SARCOPHAGUS Terrain (DM
Make Your Own MINI SARCOPHAGUS Terrain (DM's Craft #130/ part 1)
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: TheDMsCraft
Let
Let's Play S.T.A.L.K.E.R. Shadow of Chernobyl - 21 - The Sarcophagus
Published: 2012/05/09
Channel: CjuGames
Sarcophagus - TOWARDS THE ETERNAL CHAOS - Full Album
Sarcophagus - TOWARDS THE ETERNAL CHAOS - Full Album
Published: 2014/07/13
Channel: Melodious Bard
How to make an Egyptian Sarcophagus
How to make an Egyptian Sarcophagus
Published: 2012/11/28
Channel: sasanat8
Sarcophagus
Sarcophagus
Published: 2015/02/21
Channel: Nile - Topic
Flash Challenge Preview: Sarcophagus: Part II - Ink Master, Season 6
Flash Challenge Preview: Sarcophagus: Part II - Ink Master, Season 6
Published: 2015/07/15
Channel: SPIKE
Santa Maria Antiqua Sarcophagus
Santa Maria Antiqua Sarcophagus
Published: 2017/01/25
Channel: Smarthistory. art, history, conversation.
Sarcophagus (USA) - Requiem To The Death Of Passion (Full Album) [1998]
Sarcophagus (USA) - Requiem To The Death Of Passion (Full Album) [1998]
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: Adriano Vicente 2.0
6th Grade Mummy Sarcophagus Clay Art Project - Part 1
6th Grade Mummy Sarcophagus Clay Art Project - Part 1
Published: 2015/12/04
Channel: Angela Davidson
inside Chernobyl
inside Chernobyl's sarcophagus - the turbine hall & ventilation stack (chimney)
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: bionerd23
Black Arts Toneworks Sarcophagus Fuzz - Demo by Just Nick for Rock n Roll Vintage
Black Arts Toneworks Sarcophagus Fuzz - Demo by Just Nick for Rock n Roll Vintage
Published: 2012/09/18
Channel: JustNickMusic
The Final Movement Chernobyl new safe confinement sarcophagus skidding
The Final Movement Chernobyl new safe confinement sarcophagus skidding
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: Serg Leshkovych
Plants vs. Zombies 2 - Sarcophagus Zombie is a Nice Guy!
Plants vs. Zombies 2 - Sarcophagus Zombie is a Nice Guy!
Published: 2014/01/23
Channel: Rfm VS Games
$UICIDEBOY$xRVMIRXZ- sarcophagus ii (Reaction)
$UICIDEBOY$xRVMIRXZ- sarcophagus ii (Reaction)
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: KEEM
Pripyat. Inside the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant
Pripyat. Inside the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's shelter/sarcophagus.
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: Some Stuff
Stunning drone footage of the Chernobyl sarcophagus boasting ArcelorMittal steel
Stunning drone footage of the Chernobyl sarcophagus boasting ArcelorMittal steel
Published: 2016/01/08
Channel: ArcelorMittal corporate
Brother N Cousin Reacts: $UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS ll
Brother N Cousin Reacts: $UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS ll
Published: 2016/11/22
Channel: Kel & Zaria
How to make a Sarcophagus - ZogCast
How to make a Sarcophagus - ZogCast
Published: 2008/10/11
Channel: ZogCast
The Mars Volta - Sarcophagi
The Mars Volta - Sarcophagi
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: eeeeeeettttttrr
The Sarcophagus - Ain Sof
The Sarcophagus - Ain Sof
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Satanath Records
Sarcophagus
Sarcophagus
Published: 2015/01/16
Channel: Federale - Topic
Stolen Sarcophagus Handed Over to Egypt | National Geographic
Stolen Sarcophagus Handed Over to Egypt | National Geographic
Published: 2010/03/15
Channel: National Geographic
SARCOPHAGUS SURPRISE - Rimworld Alpha 13 (Season 2) - #17
SARCOPHAGUS SURPRISE - Rimworld Alpha 13 (Season 2) - #17
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: WeaselZone
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Stone sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah.
Constantinople Christian sarcophagus with XI monogram, c. 400

A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried. The word "sarcophagus" comes from the Greek σάρξ sarx meaning "flesh", and φαγεῖν phagein meaning "to eat", hence sarcophagus means "flesh-eating"; from the phrase lithos sarkophagos (λίθος σαρκοφάγος). Since lithos is Greek for "stone", lithos sarcophagos means, "flesh-eating stone". The word also came to refer to a particular kind of limestone that was thought to rapidly facilitate the decomposition of the flesh of corpses contained within it due to the chemical properties of the limestone itself.[1][2]

History[edit]

Roman-era sarcophagi at Worms, Germany.

Sarcophagi were most often designed to remain above ground. In Ancient Egypt, a sarcophagus acted like an outer shell.

The Hagia Triada sarcophagus is a stone sarcophagus elaborately painted in fresco; one style of later Ancient Greek sarcophagus in painted pottery is seen in Klazomenian sarcophagi, produced around the Ionian Greek city of Klazomenai, where most examples were found, between 550 BC (Late Archaic) and 470 BC. They are made of coarse clay in shades of brown to pink. Added to the basin-like main sarcophagus is a broad, rectangular frame, often covered with a white slip and then painted. The huge Lycian Tomb of Payava, now in the British Museum, is a royal tomb monument of about 360 BC designed for an open-air placing, a grand example of a common Lycian style.

Ancient Roman sarcophagi—sometimes metal or plaster as well as limestone—were popular from about the reign of Trajan,[3] and often elaborately carved, until the early Christian burial preference for interment underground, often in a limestone sepulchre, led to their falling out of favor.[2] However, there are many important Early Christian sarcophagi from the 3rd to 4th centuries.

The limestone relief on this Roman sarcophagus, c. AD 190, depicts the Triumph of Dionysus. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.

Most Roman examples were designed to be placed against a wall and are decorated on three of the sides only. Sarcophagi continued to be used in Christian Europe for important figures, especially rulers and leading church figures, and by the High Middle Ages often had a recumbent tomb effigy lying on the lid. More plain sarcophagi were placed in crypts, of which the most famous examples include the Habsburg Imperial Crypt in Vienna, Austria. The term tends to be less often used to describe Medieval, Renaissance, and later examples.

In the early modern period, lack of space tended to make sarcophagi impractical in churches, but chest tombs or false sarcophagi, empty and usually bottomless cases placed over an underground burial, became popular in outside locations such as cemeteries and churchyards, especially in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries, where memorials were mostly not highly decorated and the extra cost of a false sarcophagus over a headstone acted as an indication of social status.

United States[edit]

Warner Tomb in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Sarcophagi, usually "false", made a return to the cemeteries of America during the last quarter of the 19th century, at which time, according to a New York company which built sarcophagi, "it was decidedly the most prevalent of all memorials in our cemeteries".[4] They continued to be popular into the 1950s, at which time the popularity of flat memorials (making for easier grounds maintenance) made them obsolete. Nonetheless, a 1952 catalog from the memorial industry still included 8 pages of them, broken down into Georgian and Classical detail, a Gothic and Renaissance adaptation, and a Modern variant.[5] Shown on the right are sarcophagi from the late 19th century located in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The one in the back, the Warner Monument created by Alexander Milne Calder (1879), features the spirit or soul of the deceased being released.

Asia[edit]

In the Mekong Delta in southwestern Vietnam, it is common for families to inter their members in sarcophagi near their homes, thus allowing ready access for visits as a part of the indigenous tradition of ancestor worship.

In Sulawesi, Indonesia, waruga are a traditional form of sarcophagus.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WordInfo etymology. As a noun the Greek term was further adopted to mean "coffin" and was carried over into LATIN, where it was used in the phrase lapis sarcophagus, "flesh-eating stone", referring to those same properties of limestone.
  2. ^ a b Columbia University Department of Archaeology
  3. ^ Presbrey - Leland, ‘’Commemoration: The Book of Presbrey - Leland Memorials’’, Presbrey-Leland Incorporated, 1952 p. 79
  4. ^ Veit, Richard Francis (2008). New Jersey Cemeteries and Tombstones: History in the Landscape. Rutgers University Press/Rivergate Books. p. 169. ISBN 978-0813542362. 
  5. ^ Presbrey - Leland, ‘’Commemoration: The Book of Presbrey - Leland Memorials’’, Presbrey-Leland Incorporated, 1952 pp. 79–85

Bibliography[edit]

  • Mont Allen, "Sarcophagus", in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by Michael Gagarin, vol. 6, p. 214–218 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
  • Robert Manuel Cook, Clazomenian Sarcophagi (Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1981).
  • R. R. R. Smith, Sculptured for Eternity: Treasures of Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Art from Istanbul Archaeological Museum (Istanbul: Ertuǧ and Kocabıyık, 2001).
  • Paul Zanker and Björn C. Ewald, Living with Myths: The Imagery of Roman Sarcophagi (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).

External links[edit]

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