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$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS
Published: 2015/05/31
Channel: TrillPhonk
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS III
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS III
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: TrillPhonk
RVMIRXZ x $UICIDEBOY$ - SARCOPHAGUS II (PROD. BAKER PHONK)
RVMIRXZ x $UICIDEBOY$ - SARCOPHAGUS II (PROD. BAKER PHONK)
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: SHROOM HEAD
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS III (LYRICS)
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS III (LYRICS)
Published: 2016/05/06
Channel: Promo Sound
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ x ANBU - SARCOPHAGUS III
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ x ANBU - SARCOPHAGUS III
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Ape Trvp Visuals 猿
NILE - "Sarcophagus" (Official Music Video)
NILE - "Sarcophagus" (Official Music Video)
Published: 2007/04/10
Channel: RelapseRecords
The Sarcophagus – Episode 15 – Red vs. Blue Season 9
The Sarcophagus – Episode 15 – Red vs. Blue Season 9
Published: 2015/03/23
Channel: Red vs. Blue
Egypt - Archaeologists open priest
Egypt - Archaeologists open priest's sarcophagus
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
The Sarcophagus - Beyond This World
The Sarcophagus - Beyond This World's Illusion (2017) [Full Album]
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Satanath Records
Sarcophagus - For We... Who Are Consumed by the Darkness (1996) full album
Sarcophagus - For We... Who Are Consumed by the Darkness (1996) full album
Published: 2014/08/03
Channel: Gerald Green
Lets Make a Sarcophagus (and a Mummy too!) - Craft & Project
Lets Make a Sarcophagus (and a Mummy too!) - Craft & Project
Published: 2013/05/07
Channel: thatcraftguy1
Sarcophagus - TOWARDS THE ETERNAL CHAOS - Full Album
Sarcophagus - TOWARDS THE ETERNAL CHAOS - Full Album
Published: 2014/07/13
Channel: Melodious Bard
Well-preserved Sarcophagus of 22nd Dynasty Unearthed in Egypt’s Luxor
Well-preserved Sarcophagus of 22nd Dynasty Unearthed in Egypt’s Luxor
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: ShantiUniverse
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS I , II , III
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS I , II , III
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: ticefシ
Reptilian  Beings Were Found Inside A Sarcophagus
Reptilian Beings Were Found Inside A Sarcophagus
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Incredible News E3
In Verses - Sarcophagus (Lyric Video)
In Verses - Sarcophagus (Lyric Video)
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: DjentWorldwideTV
Sarcophagus
Sarcophagus
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: baze
Stolen 2,600-Year-Old Sarcophagus, Other Artifacts Return to Egypt | National Geographic
Stolen 2,600-Year-Old Sarcophagus, Other Artifacts Return to Egypt | National Geographic
Published: 2015/04/24
Channel: National Geographic
How to Make a Mummy & Sarcophagus | Ancient Egypt
How to Make a Mummy & Sarcophagus | Ancient Egypt
Published: 2016/03/16
Channel: Pepper and Pine
Stunning drone footage of the Chernobyl sarcophagus boasting ArcelorMittal steel
Stunning drone footage of the Chernobyl sarcophagus boasting ArcelorMittal steel
Published: 2016/01/08
Channel: ArcelorMittal corporate
Ramirez x $uicideboy$ - Sarcophagus II (Live in LA, 11/6/2016)
Ramirez x $uicideboy$ - Sarcophagus II (Live in LA, 11/6/2016)
Published: 2016/11/10
Channel: M2 GH2
Nile - Sarcophagus
Nile - Sarcophagus
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: Jack Warhead
The Sarcophagus - Legend Sleeps Behind The Mountains
The Sarcophagus - Legend Sleeps Behind The Mountains
Published: 2010/02/11
Channel: IstKriegUNM
Sarcophagus of the Spouses (Rome)
Sarcophagus of the Spouses (Rome)
Published: 2015/03/29
Channel: Smarthistory. art, history, conversation.
Blake
Blake's 7 - 3x09 - Sarcophagus
Published: 2014/03/20
Channel: Blakes 7
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS I , II , III (REACTION/REVIEW)
$UICIDEBOY$ x RAMIREZ - SARCOPHAGUS I , II , III (REACTION/REVIEW)
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: AlmightyLit T
Let
Let's Play S.T.A.L.K.E.R. Shadow of Chernobyl - 21 - The Sarcophagus
Published: 2012/05/09
Channel: CjuGames - Let's Plays & Walkthroughs
Pripyat. Inside the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant
Pripyat. Inside the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant's shelter/sarcophagus.
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: Some Stuff
$uicideboy$ - Sarcophagus III (Live @ The Regent - 3/13/16)
$uicideboy$ - Sarcophagus III (Live @ The Regent - 3/13/16)
Published: 2016/03/14
Channel: M2 GH2
Alexander Sarcophagus
Alexander Sarcophagus
Published: 2014/07/27
Channel: Smarthistory. art, history, conversation.
Ancient Roman sarcophagus found next to baby
Ancient Roman sarcophagus found next to baby's bones near Borough Market
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Stream Video
Chernobyl
Chernobyl's Giant Sarcophagus Is in Place
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: Futurism
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
Published: 2011/10/02
Channel: Smarthistory. art, history, conversation.
The Final Movement Chernobyl new safe confinement sarcophagus skidding
The Final Movement Chernobyl new safe confinement sarcophagus skidding
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: Serg Leshkovych
$uicideboy$ x RAMIREZ - Sarcophagus i (LYRICS)
$uicideboy$ x RAMIREZ - Sarcophagus i (LYRICS)
Published: 2017/06/12
Channel: LegitVerified
Make Your Own MINI SARCOPHAGUS Terrain (DM
Make Your Own MINI SARCOPHAGUS Terrain (DM's Craft #130/ part 1)
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: TheDMsCraft
Flash Challenge Preview: Sarcophagus: Part III - Ink Master, Season 6
Flash Challenge Preview: Sarcophagus: Part III - Ink Master, Season 6
Published: 2015/07/15
Channel: SPIKE
How to make an Egyptian Sarcophagus
How to make an Egyptian Sarcophagus
Published: 2012/11/28
Channel: sasanat8
Radiation Roll-Over: Giant sarcophagus built at Chernobyl nuclear plant
Radiation Roll-Over: Giant sarcophagus built at Chernobyl nuclear plant
Published: 2012/11/28
Channel: RT
Flash Challenge Preview: Sarcophagus: Part I - Ink Master, Season 6
Flash Challenge Preview: Sarcophagus: Part I - Ink Master, Season 6
Published: 2015/07/15
Channel: SPIKE
$UICIDEBOY$ x RVMIRXZ - SARCOPHAGUS III
$UICIDEBOY$ x RVMIRXZ - SARCOPHAGUS III
Published: 2016/01/05
Channel: Diamond Tracks
inside Chernobyl ЧАЭС sarcophagus 2016 - reactor #4 control room and lead-lined corridors
inside Chernobyl ЧАЭС sarcophagus 2016 - reactor #4 control room and lead-lined corridors
Published: 2016/11/21
Channel: bionerd23
Plants vs. Zombies 2 - Sarcophagus Zombie is a Nice Guy!
Plants vs. Zombies 2 - Sarcophagus Zombie is a Nice Guy!
Published: 2014/01/23
Channel: Rfm VS Games
CHNPP The Sarcophagus 1986.08
CHNPP The Sarcophagus 1986.08
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: Telecon Studio
Sarcophagus and Eye of Horus ON MARS’
Sarcophagus and Eye of Horus ON MARS’
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: Real Thingtv
Flash Challenge Preview: Sarcophagus: Part II - Ink Master, Season 6
Flash Challenge Preview: Sarcophagus: Part II - Ink Master, Season 6
Published: 2015/07/15
Channel: SPIKE
The Mummy 1 Soundtrack 02- The Sarcophagus
The Mummy 1 Soundtrack 02- The Sarcophagus
Published: 2010/10/03
Channel: iforgot87871
Stargate Deluxe OST - Sarcophagus Opens
Stargate Deluxe OST - Sarcophagus Opens
Published: 2015/07/10
Channel: Don't Fade Away
$uicideboy$ x Ramirez - Sarcophagus III (Live in LA, 11/6/2016)
$uicideboy$ x Ramirez - Sarcophagus III (Live in LA, 11/6/2016)
Published: 2016/11/10
Channel: M2 GH2
Exceptional discovery! Iran 3 tombs  sarcophagus 1
Exceptional discovery! Iran 3 tombs sarcophagus 1
Published: 2015/12/05
Channel: Martin Mikuaš
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Stone sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah.
Constantinople Christian sarcophagus with XI monogram, c. 400

A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried. The word "sarcophagus" comes from the Greek σάρξ sarx meaning "flesh", and φαγεῖν phagein meaning "to eat", hence sarcophagus means "flesh-eating"; from the phrase lithos sarkophagos (λίθος σαρκοφάγος). Since lithos is Greek for "stone", lithos sarcophagos means, "flesh-eating stone". The word also came to refer to a particular kind of limestone that was thought to decompose the flesh of corpses trapped within it.[1][2]

History[edit]

Roman-era sarcophagi at Worms, Germany.

Sarcophagi were most often designed to remain above ground. In Ancient Egypt, a sarcophagus acted like an outer shell.

The Hagia Triada sarcophagus is a stone sarcophagus elaborately painted in fresco; one style of later Ancient Greek sarcophagus in painted pottery is seen in Klazomenian sarcophagi, produced around the Ionian Greek city of Klazomenai, where most examples were found, between 550 BC (Late Archaic) and 470 BC. They are made of coarse clay in shades of brown to pink. Added to the basin-like main sarcophagus is a broad, rectangular frame, often covered with a white slip and then painted. The huge Lycian Tomb of Payava, now in the British Museum, is a royal tomb monument of about 360 BC designed for an open-air placing, a grand example of a common Lycian style.

Ancient Roman sarcophagi—sometimes metal or plaster as well as limestone—were popular from about the reign of Trajan,[3] and often elaborately carved, until the early Christian burial preference for interment underground, often in a limestone sepulchre, led to their falling out of favor.[2] However, there are many important Early Christian sarcophagi from the 3rd to 4th centuries.

The limestone relief on this Roman sarcophagus, c. AD 190, depicts the Triumph of Dionysus. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, Maryland.

Most Roman examples were designed to be placed against a wall and are decorated on three of the sides only. Sarcophagi continued to be used in Christian Europe for important figures, especially rulers and leading church figures, and by the High Middle Ages often had a recumbent tomb effigy lying on the lid. More plain sarcophagi were placed in crypts, of which the most famous examples include the Habsburg Imperial Crypt in Vienna, Austria. The term tends to be less often used to describe Medieval, Renaissance, and later examples.

In the early modern period, lack of space tended to make sarcophagi impractical in churches, but chest tombs or false sarcophagi, empty and usually bottomless cases placed over an underground burial, became popular in outside locations such as cemeteries and churchyards, especially in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries, where memorials were mostly not highly decorated and the extra cost of a false sarcophagus over a headstone acted as an indication of social status.

United States[edit]

Warner Tomb in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Sarcophagi, usually "false", made a return to the cemeteries of America during the last quarter of the 19th century, at which time, according to a New York company which built sarcophagi, "it was decidedly the most prevalent of all memorials in our cemeteries".[4] They continued to be popular into the 1950s, at which time the popularity of flat memorials (making for easier grounds maintenance) made them obsolete. Nonetheless, a 1952 catalog from the memorial industry still included 8 pages of them, broken down into Georgian and Classical detail, a Gothic and Renaissance adaptation, and a Modern variant.[5] Shown on the right are sarcophagi from the late 19th century located in Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The one in the back, the Warner Monument created by Alexander Milne Calder (1879), features the spirit or soul of the deceased being released.

Asia[edit]

In the Mekong Delta in southwestern Vietnam, it is common for families to inter their members in sarcophagi near their homes, thus allowing ready access for visits as a part of the indigenous tradition of ancestor worship.

In Sulawesi, Indonesia, waruga are a traditional form of sarcophagus.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ WordInfo etymology. As a noun the Greek term was further adopted to mean "coffin" and was carried over into LATIN, where it was used in the phrase lapis sarcophagus, "flesh-eating stone", referring to those same properties of limestone.
  2. ^ a b Columbia University Department of Archaeology
  3. ^ Presbrey - Leland, ‘’Commemoration: The Book of Presbrey - Leland Memorials’’, Presbrey-Leland Incorporated, 1952 p. 79
  4. ^ Veit, Richard Francis (2008). New Jersey Cemeteries and Tombstones: History in the Landscape. Rutgers University Press/Rivergate Books. p. 169. ISBN 978-0813542362. 
  5. ^ Presbrey - Leland, ‘’Commemoration: The Book of Presbrey - Leland Memorials’’, Presbrey-Leland Incorporated, 1952 pp. 79–85

Bibliography[edit]

  • Mont Allen, "Sarcophagus", in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome, edited by Michael Gagarin, vol. 6, p. 214–218 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).
  • Robert Manuel Cook, Clazomenian Sarcophagi (Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 1981).
  • R. R. R. Smith, Sculptured for Eternity: Treasures of Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Art from Istanbul Archaeological Museum (Istanbul: Ertuǧ and Kocabıyık, 2001).
  • Paul Zanker and Björn C. Ewald, Living with Myths: The Imagery of Roman Sarcophagi (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).

External links[edit]

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