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Sauk and Fox Peyote Song
Sauk and Fox Peyote Song
Published: 2012/01/14
Channel: TheLonelyBearCub
The Last Tribe of Iowa: Leadership of the Meskwaki People in a Struggle for Survival
The Last Tribe of Iowa: Leadership of the Meskwaki People in a Struggle for Survival
Published: 2015/08/05
Channel: Alex Bare
Sauk-Suittle 2009 Powwow Saturday PM Grand Entry
Sauk-Suittle 2009 Powwow Saturday PM Grand Entry
Published: 2009/08/25
Channel: MistofRain752
Black Hawk  I am a Sauk
Black Hawk I am a Sauk
Published: 2008/11/30
Channel: Thomas Lindström
Croatan, Monominee, Sauk and Fox
Croatan, Monominee, Sauk and Fox
Published: 2015/10/03
Channel: Standing Wolf
Sauk people
Sauk people
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: WikiWikiup
Learn the Sauk Language (Sac & Fox)
Learn the Sauk Language (Sac & Fox)
Published: 2010/12/16
Channel: talksauk
Sauk 20 Survival Words
Sauk 20 Survival Words
Published: 2012/06/19
Channel: Katie Grant
Sauk City Rail Trestle DANGER!
Sauk City Rail Trestle DANGER!
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: WisconsinRiverFriends
Sauk Centre football at Benson
Sauk Centre football at Benson
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: midmnsports
Mosiah and Christine Sauk for Voices
Mosiah and Christine Sauk for Voices
Published: 2012/02/09
Channel: sacandfoxit
Katie   Sauk for Voices
Katie Sauk for Voices
Published: 2012/02/09
Channel: sacandfoxit
Sauk Centre Historical Society Presents A Walk To Remember
Sauk Centre Historical Society Presents A Walk To Remember
Published: 2010/01/14
Channel: jlwilber123
Sauk Centre baseball vs Milaca
Sauk Centre baseball vs Milaca
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: midmnsports
The Fox Tribe
The Fox Tribe
Published: 2013/02/14
Channel: Mary Campbell
Katie and Maxine Sauk for Voices
Katie and Maxine Sauk for Voices
Published: 2012/02/09
Channel: sacandfoxit
Sauk 49 News
Sauk 49 News
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: Nicole Watashe
Sauk River, Washington
Sauk River, Washington
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: Jimmymac
Basketball Legend Hosts Basketball Academy In Sauk Rapids
Basketball Legend Hosts Basketball Academy In Sauk Rapids
Published: 2017/10/22
Channel: AM 1240 WJON
SAUK RIVER RAZOR
SAUK RIVER RAZOR
Published: 2017/06/18
Channel: David Mork
Sauk River Description
Sauk River Description
Published: 2017/05/23
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Sauk Centre boys basketball
Sauk Centre boys basketball
Published: 2016/11/27
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk Centre vs Montevideo
Sauk Centre vs Montevideo
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk Centre vs Melrose VB
Sauk Centre vs Melrose VB
Published: 2017/10/08
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Sauk Centre baseball vs Holdingford
Sauk Centre baseball vs Holdingford
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk Adjectives
Sauk Adjectives
Published: 2012/06/21
Channel: Katie Grant
Sauk Centre tennis
Sauk Centre tennis
Published: 2017/08/30
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk Centre FB at Melrose
Sauk Centre FB at Melrose
Published: 2016/09/03
Channel: midmnsports
Melrose softball at Sauk Centre
Melrose softball at Sauk Centre
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk Centre vs W:DC
Sauk Centre vs W:DC
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk: Conjugating "Happy".m4v
Sauk: Conjugating "Happy".m4v
Published: 2012/08/02
Channel: Katie Grant
Creekside Village of Sauk Rapids!
Creekside Village of Sauk Rapids!
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: Premier Property Management LLC St. Cloud , MN
Sauk Centre FB vs Royalton
Sauk Centre FB vs Royalton
Published: 2017/09/02
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk Centre baseball
Sauk Centre baseball
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: midmnsports
Native American National Anthem Sauk-Suittle2009 PM Grand Entry
Native American National Anthem Sauk-Suittle2009 PM Grand Entry
Published: 2009/08/25
Channel: MistofRain752
Sauk
Sauk
Published: 2013/08/24
Channel: Howard Young
Brainerd Volleyball Falls To Sauk Rapids-Rice
Brainerd Volleyball Falls To Sauk Rapids-Rice
Published: 2017/09/29
Channel: LPTV - Lakeland Public Television
Sauk Centre softball
Sauk Centre softball
Published: 2016/03/23
Channel: midmnsports
Brainerd Girls Swimming Gets Win Against Sauk Rapids-Rice
Brainerd Girls Swimming Gets Win Against Sauk Rapids-Rice
Published: 2017/09/22
Channel: LPTV - Lakeland Public Television
Sauk Centre SB vs Staples Motley
Sauk Centre SB vs Staples Motley
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk Centre Legion vs LPGE
Sauk Centre Legion vs LPGE
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk: Teaching Verb Conjuncts in Immersion.m4v
Sauk: Teaching Verb Conjuncts in Immersion.m4v
Published: 2012/06/27
Channel: Katie Grant
Sauk Centre at Minnewaska
Sauk Centre at Minnewaska
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk Centre softball
Sauk Centre softball
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk City 2017 Eagle Days Eagle Release
Sauk City 2017 Eagle Days Eagle Release
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: Heather Schumacher
Sauk city dam/dej loj2
Sauk city dam/dej loj2
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: niveK Auod
2011 Sauk Traditional Night 1
2011 Sauk Traditional Night 1
Published: 2015/02/15
Channel: Sac and Fox Nation
Sauk Centre Minnesota
Sauk Centre Minnesota's The Outpost Mercantile On Our Story's The Celebrities
Published: 2015/02/16
Channel: Jeff Rouse
Sauk Centre VB vs Morris
Sauk Centre VB vs Morris
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: midmnsports
Sauk Centre VB vs Morris
Sauk Centre VB vs Morris
Published: 2017/09/20
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Massika, a Sauk Indian, left, and Wakusasse, right, of the Meskwaki. By Karl Bodmer, aquatint made at St. Louis, Missouri in March or April 1833 when Massika pleaded for the release of war chief, Blackhawk, following the Black Hawk War.

The Sac or Sauk are a group of Native Americans of the Eastern Woodlands culture group. Their autonym is oθaakiiwaki, and their exonym is Ozaagii(-wag) in Ojibwe. The latter name was transliterated into French and English by colonists of those cultures.

Today they have three federally recognized tribes, together with the Meskwaki (Fox), located in Iowa, Oklahoma and Kansas.

History[edit]

Sac Indian family photographed by Frank Rinehart in 1899

The Sauk, an Algonquian languages people, are believed to have developed as a people along the St. Lawrence River. They were driven by pressure from other tribes, especially the powerful Iroquois League or Haudenosaunee, to migrate to Michigan, where they settled around Saginaw Bay. Due to the yellow-clay soils found around Saginaw Bay, they called themselves the autonym of Oθaakiiwaki (often interpreted to mean "yellow-earth".)

The neighboring Ojibwe and Ottawa peoples referred to them by the exonym Ozaagii, meaning "those at the outlet". French colonists transliterated that as Sac and the English as "Sauk". Anishinaabe expansion and the Huron attempt to gain regional stability drove the Sac out of their territory. The Huron were armed with guns supplied by their French trading partners. The Sac moved south to territory in parts of what are now northern Illinois and Wisconsin.

A closely allied tribe, the Meskwaki (Fox), were noted for resisting French encroachment, having fought two wars against them in the early 18th century. After a devastating battle of September 9, 1730, in Illinois, in which hundreds of warriors were killed and many women and children taken captive by French allies, Fox refugees took shelter with the Sac, making them subject to French attack. The Sac continued moving west to Iowa and Kansas. Two important leaders arose among the Sac: Keokuk and Black Hawk. At first Keokuk accepted the loss of land as inevitable in the face of the vast numbers of white soldiers and settlers coming west. He tried to preserve tribal land and his people, and to keep the peace.

Having failed to receive expected supplies from the Americans on credit, Black Hawk wanted to fight, saying his people were "forced into war by being deceived."[1] Led by Black Hawk in 1832, the mainly Sac band resisted the continued loss of lands (in western Illinois, this time.) Their warfare with United States forces resulted in defeat at the hands of General Edmund P. Gaines in the Black Hawk War.

About this time, one group of Sac moved into Missouri, and later to Kansas and Nebraska. In 1869 the larger group of Sac moved into reservations in Oklahoma, where they merged with the Meskwaki as the federally recognized Sac and Fox Nation. (The United States had been making treaties with them together since their residency in the Midwest.) A smaller number returned to the Midwest from Oklahoma (or resisted leaving.) They joined the Mesquakie at the Mesqwaki Settlement, Iowa.

Clan system[edit]

Originally, the Sauk had a patrilineal clan system, in which descent and inheritance was traced through the father. Clans which continue are: Fish, Ocean/Sea, Thunder, Bear, Fox, Potato, Deer, Beaver, Snow, and Wolf. The tribe was governed by a council of sacred clan chiefs, a war chief, the head of families, and the warriors. Chiefs were recognized in three categories: civil, war, and ceremonial. Only the civil chiefs were hereditary. The other two chiefs were recognized by bands after they demonstrated their ability or spiritual power.

This traditional manner of selecting historic clan chiefs and governance was replaced in the 19th century by the United States appointing leaders through their agents at the Sac and Fox Agency, or reservation in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma). In the 20th century, the tribe adopted a constitutional government patterned after the United States form. They elect their chiefs.[citation needed]

Federally recognized tribes[edit]

Today the federally recognized Sac and Fox tribes are:

Language[edit]

Sauk is one of the many Algonquian languages. It is very closely related to the varieties spoken by the Meskwaki and the Kickapoo tribes; linguists often describe these three as dialects of the same language. Each of the dialects contains archaisms and innovations that distinguish them from each other. Sauk and Meskwaki appear to be the most closely related of the three, reflecting the peoples' long relationship.[3] Sauk is considered to be mutually intelligible, to a point, with Fox.

In their own language, the Sauk at one time called themselves asakiwaki [a-‘sak-i-wa-ki], "people of the outlet."[4]

The Sauk people have a syllabic orthography for their language. They published a Primer Book in 1975,[5] based on a "traditional" syllabary that existed in 1906. It is intended to help modern-day Sauk to learn to write and speak their ancestral tongue. A newer orthography was proposed around 1994 to aid in language revival. The former syllabary was aimed at remaining native speakers of Sauk; the more recent orthography was developed for native English speakers, as many Sauk grow up with English as their first language (Müller 1994).

Sauk has so few speakers that it is considered an endangered language, as are numerous others native to North America.

In 2012, Shawnee High School in Shawnee, Oklahoma began to offer a Sauk language course.[6]

Phonology[edit]

Sauk does not have many phonemes in comparison to many other languages: four vowels, two semivowels, and eight consonants.

Consonants[edit]

Sauk consonant phonemes[page needed]
Bilabial Dental Alveolar Velar Glottal
Stop p t k
Fricative θ s h
Nasal m n

The representation of /h/ was omitted in the 1977 syllabary. It was added back in later editions because it is an important distinctive sound in the Sauk language[page needed].

All three stops have at least two allophones each, one voiceless and one voiced[page needed]:

/p/[p, b]
/t/[t, d]
/k/[k, ɡ]

Semivowels[edit]

Sauk semivowel phonemes[page needed]
Palatal Velar
Central approximant j w

Müller (1994)[7] symbolizes /j/ as /y/, following Americanist practice.

Vowels[edit]

Sauk vowel phonemes[page needed]
Front Back
unrounded rounded
High i o
Mid e
Low ɑ

Vowel length is important in the Sauk language.[how?] Müller presents four vowels, each with two allophones[page needed]:

/ɑ/[ɑ, ɑː]
/e/[e, eː]
/i/[i, iː]
/o/[o, oː]

Pitch and tone[edit]

Pitch and tone are also important when speaking Sauk.[how?]

Syllables[edit]

Both the Sauk and Fox languages are known for "swallowing" syllables in word-final position, which can make identification of individual sounds more difficult for the language learner.[page needed]

Morphology[edit]

Sauk is a polysynthetic language. Because this can easily pose great difficulties to learners with little to no experience with highly synthetic languages[8][9][10][citation needed], the Sauk orthography has words written by identifying each syllable.[clarification needed]

Orthography[edit]

Two samples of written Sauk language, as they appear in Müller (1994)[page needed]:

Ho! Ne nu ta ma!

'Hi! I speak Sauk!'

Ni swi me cli ke a ki a la se te ke wa ki a la te ki ki

e ka ta wi ke mi yak i e we li ke mi ya ki ne ko ti

me cle ke a e cla gwe ne mo tti wi ne li wi tti cle we na

li ta ske wa ne li se ke

"Two turtles were sunning on a bank when a thunderstorm approached. When it began to rain, one turtle said to the other, 'I don’t want to get wet,' and jumped into the lake."

Geographical names[edit]

[1]Lake Osakis in west-central Minnesota, the Sauk River,[11] which flows from Lake Osakis, and the towns of Osakis, Sauk Centre, and Sauk Rapids all were named for association historically with a small party of Sac who made camp on the shores of Lake Osakis. They had been banished from their tribe for murder. According to Anishinaabe oral tradition, these five Sac were killed by local Dakota in the late 18th century.[12]

Place names with "Sauk" references include:

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b J. B. Patterson, Autobiography of Black Hawk or Ma-Ka-Tai-Me-She-Kia-Kiak, 1882, Access Genealogy
  2. ^ "Tribal Governments by Tribe: S." National Congress of the American Indian.. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
  3. ^ Goddard, Ives. "Central Algonquin languages". In Sturtevant, William, C.; Trigger, Bruce G. Handbook of North American Indians. 15: Northeast. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. pp. 583–587.  (As quoted in Müller 1994)
  4. ^ Bonvillain, Nancy (1995). The Sac and Fox. Chelsea House Publishers. pp. 13, 17. 
  5. ^ McCormick, Mary F. (1975). Sac and Fox Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Primer Book Sac and Fox Language compiled and edited by Mary F. McCormick
  6. ^ Carmen Bourlon (2012-08-11). "Shawnee High School to offer new course on endangered Sauk language". The Shawnee News-Star. Shawnee, OK. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  7. ^ Müller Reinschmidt, Kerstin. 1994. "Language preservation with the help of written language: The Sauk language of the Sac and Fox of Oklahoma," in Papers of the Twenty-Sixth Algonquin Conference. pp 413-430
  8. ^ "I love Sauk Language | Cultural Survival". www.culturalsurvival.org. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  9. ^ "Mesquakie-Sauk Pronunciation Guide, Alphabet and Phonology (Sac and Fox)". www.native-languages.org. Retrieved 2017-03-16. 
  10. ^ Müller, Reinschmidt, Kerstin (1995-01-01). "Language Preservation With The Help Of Written Language: The Sauk Language Of The Sac And Fox Of Oklahoma". ISSN 0831-5671. 
  11. ^ The name of the Sauk River in Washington State, however, comes from the Sah-kee-ma-hu (Sauk-Suiattle tribe), a group related to the Skagit tribes, not from the Sac tribe of the Midwestern U.S. (James W. Phillips, Washington State Place Names, University of Washington Press, September 1976)
  12. ^ Upham, Warren (2001). Minnesota Place Names, A Geographical Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition. Saint Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society. p. 53. ISBN 0-87351-396-7. 
  13. ^ Morrison, Roger L. (Autumn 1937). "The History and Development of Michigan Highways". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Bureau of Alumni Relations. 39 (54): 59–73. OCLC 698029175. 

External links[edit]

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