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What is the difference between bird and lizard hipped dinosaurs?
What is the difference between bird and lizard hipped dinosaurs?
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: Benjamin Burger
Saurischia - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Saurischia - Video Learning - WizScience.com
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Channel: Wiz Science™
Lecture 49 Saurischian vs. Ornithischian Dinosaurs
Lecture 49 Saurischian vs. Ornithischian Dinosaurs
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: Benjamin Burger
PL2: SAURISCHIAN DINOSAURS
PL2: SAURISCHIAN DINOSAURS
Published: 2012/11/06
Channel: Walter Jahn
✞ In Memoriam: Saurischia+Ornithischia ✞
✞ In Memoriam: Saurischia+Ornithischia ✞
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: AnomalousAlchemist
How to Pronounce Saurischia
How to Pronounce Saurischia
Published: 2013/03/08
Channel: Emma Saying
Saurischia
Saurischia
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Channel: Meara McIntosh
saurischia
saurischia
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1 4 Saurischians
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: Della Documentaries
Carnotauro - O Touro Carnívoro
Carnotauro - O Touro Carnívoro
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: One More
Lecture 50 Overview of Saurischian Dinosaurs
Lecture 50 Overview of Saurischian Dinosaurs
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Benjamin Burger
Ark: Survival of the Fittest FFA #50 (Saurischia)
Ark: Survival of the Fittest FFA #50 (Saurischia)
Published: 2016/05/26
Channel: TheTempestFunk
Tyrannosaurus sound effects
Tyrannosaurus sound effects
Published: 2015/07/16
Channel: CoreyStudios2000
Top 10 TERRIFYING Facts About DINOSAURS
Top 10 TERRIFYING Facts About DINOSAURS
Published: 2017/01/16
Channel: TopTenz
Saurischia: Penas X Escamas #2
Saurischia: Penas X Escamas #2
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: TudoSobreDinossauros
3 Mind-Blowing Recent Dinosaur Discoveries
3 Mind-Blowing Recent Dinosaur Discoveries
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: SciShow
Yugioh! GX Duel Academy (GBA) Saurischia Deck vs Beaureguard
Yugioh! GX Duel Academy (GBA) Saurischia Deck vs Beaureguard
Published: 2010/04/27
Channel: Andrés Prochnik
Hall of saurischian Dinosaurs Video
Hall of saurischian Dinosaurs Video
Published: 2013/04/12
Channel: Darrel Dowel
How to Pronounce Saurischia
How to Pronounce Saurischia
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: Dictionary Voice
How To Pronounce Saurischia
How To Pronounce Saurischia
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: Emma Saying
Tiranossauro Rex - O Rei dos Lagartos
Tiranossauro Rex - O Rei dos Lagartos
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: One More
archosaur anatomy 3
archosaur anatomy 3
Published: 2010/04/04
Channel: Albukhshi
Saurischian Meaning
Saurischian Meaning
Published: 2015/05/02
Channel: ADictionary
This Boring Taxonomical Change Is Making Dinosaur Nerds Go Crazy
This Boring Taxonomical Change Is Making Dinosaur Nerds Go Crazy
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Seeker
Dinosaurs Generations documentary english Part 3
Dinosaurs Generations documentary english Part 3
Published: 2013/11/11
Channel: Sven Fosten
Tyrannosaurus rex
Tyrannosaurus rex
Published: 2015/11/30
Channel: Animal education
Antimatter Light Spectrum Discovered!
Antimatter Light Spectrum Discovered!
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: SciShow
Surprising New Study Disproves Mainstream Theory About Dinosaur Origins And Evolution
Surprising New Study Disproves Mainstream Theory About Dinosaur Origins And Evolution
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: Wisdom Land
Are Birds Theropods?
Are Birds Theropods?
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: Cicero Cicero
Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum: Saurischians
Fukui Prefectural Dinosaur Museum: Saurischians
Published: 2009/07/15
Channel: iLikeBaroqueMusic
Saurischian Designer Channel Trailer
Saurischian Designer Channel Trailer
Published: 2017/08/14
Channel: Saurischian Designer
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jurassic park 17 08 2017 22 47uur
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Christ Mars
SAURISCHIAN HALL QUICK TOUR - AMNH - NEW YORK - video by Rogerio Favilla
SAURISCHIAN HALL QUICK TOUR - AMNH - NEW YORK - video by Rogerio Favilla
Published: 2014/04/27
Channel: rofavilla
Hall of Dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History - The Saurischians
Hall of Dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History - The Saurischians
Published: 2012/08/28
Channel: Justin Grubich
How to pronounce Saurischia
How to pronounce Saurischia
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: How to pronounce
What does saurischian mean?
What does saurischian mean?
Published: 2015/04/18
Channel: What Does That Mean?
Espinossauro - O primeiro Dinossauro Semiaquático
Espinossauro - O primeiro Dinossauro Semiaquático
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: One More
How to Pronounce Saurischians
How to Pronounce Saurischians
Published: 2013/03/08
Channel: Emma Saying
How to Pronounce Saurischians
How to Pronounce Saurischians
Published: 2015/06/01
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
How to Pronounce Saurischian
How to Pronounce Saurischian
Published: 2013/03/08
Channel: Emma Saying
How to Pronounce Saurischian
How to Pronounce Saurischian
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: Dictionary Voice
Ark: Dino Survival #05 - Caçada com Yutyrannus. MOD Play as Dino (Gameplay PT/BR)
Ark: Dino Survival #05 - Caçada com Yutyrannus. MOD Play as Dino (Gameplay PT/BR)
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: SlimShady Games
The Isle - Caçando Com Herrerasaurus, Bebê Dryosaurus! | Dinossauros Caçando (#89) (Gameplay/PT-BR)
The Isle - Caçando Com Herrerasaurus, Bebê Dryosaurus! | Dinossauros Caçando (#89) (Gameplay/PT-BR)
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: SpartanGamer
Ancient Reptile Tribute Four: Tyrannosaurus Rex / Tyrannosaurid - Dinosaur.
Ancient Reptile Tribute Four: Tyrannosaurus Rex / Tyrannosaurid - Dinosaur.
Published: 2011/07/25
Channel: EdenCinematics
Huge Carnivorous Dinosaur Tooth | Spinosaurus aegyptiacus | Fossil Dinosaur Tooth for Sale
Huge Carnivorous Dinosaur Tooth | Spinosaurus aegyptiacus | Fossil Dinosaur Tooth for Sale
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: Fossil Showcase
Ancient Reptile Tribute Three - Suchomimus / Spinosaurid - Dinosaur.
Ancient Reptile Tribute Three - Suchomimus / Spinosaurid - Dinosaur.
Published: 2011/07/14
Channel: EdenCinematics
Desmistificando o Velociraptor
Desmistificando o Velociraptor
Published: 2016/05/30
Channel: Colecionadores de Ossos
Heron taking off
Heron taking off
Published: 2012/09/17
Channel: Stephen Barnard
Dinosaurs Reclassified
Dinosaurs Reclassified
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Supernova Style Science News
Dinosaurios, Ornithoscelida y ¿nueva clasificación?
Dinosaurios, Ornithoscelida y ¿nueva clasificación?
Published: 2017/03/23
Channel: El Pakozoico
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Saurischians
Temporal range:
Late TriassicPresent, 231.4–0 Ma
Herrerasaurusskeleton.jpg
Herrerasaurus (large), Eoraptor (small), and Plateosaurus (skull), three early saurischians
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Seeley, 1888
Subgroups
Alwalkeria
Eusaurischia
Eoraptor
Herrerasauridae
Sauropodomorpha
 ?Theropoda

Saurischia (/sɔːˈrɪskiə/ saw-RIS-kee-ə, from the Greek sauros (σαυρος) meaning 'lizard' and ischion (ισχιον) meaning "hip joint")[1] is one of the two basic divisions of dinosaurs (the other being Ornithischia). In 1888, Harry Seeley classified dinosaurs into two orders, based on their hip structure,[2] though today most paleontologists classify Saurischia as an unranked clade rather than an order.[3]

Description[edit]

All carnivorous dinosaurs (certain types of theropods) are traditionally classified as saurischians, as are all of the birds and one of the two primary lineages of herbivorous dinosaurs, the sauropodomorphs. At the end of the Cretaceous Period, all saurischians except the birds became extinct in the course of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Birds, as direct descendants of one group of theropod dinosaurs, are a sub-clade of saurischian dinosaurs in phylogenetic classification.[4]

Saurischian dinosaurs are traditionally distinguished from ornithischian dinosaurs by their three-pronged pelvic structure, with the pubis pointed forward. The ornithischians' pelvis is arranged with the pubis rotated backward, parallel with the ischium, often also with a forward-pointing process, giving a four-pronged structure. The saurischian hip structure led Seeley to name them "lizard-hipped" dinosaurs, because they retained the ancestral hip anatomy also found in modern lizards and other reptiles. He named ornithischians "bird-hipped" dinosaurs because their hip arrangement was superficially similar to that of birds, though he did not propose any specific relationship between ornithischians and birds. However, in the view which has long been held, this "bird-hipped" arrangement evolved several times independently in dinosaurs, first in the ornithischians, then in the lineage of saurischians including birds (Avialae), and lastly in the therizinosaurians. This would then be an example of convergent evolution, avialans, therizinosaurians, and ornithischian dinosaurs all developed a similar hip anatomy independently of each other, possibly as an adaptation to their herbivorous or omnivorous diets.[5]

Classification[edit]

In his paper naming the two groups, Seeley reviewed previous classification schemes put forth by other paleontologists to divide up the traditional order Dinosauria. He preferred one that had been put forward by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1878, which divided dinosaurs into four orders: Sauropoda, Theropoda, Ornithopoda, and Stegosauria (these names are still used today in much the same way to refer to suborders or clades within Saurischia and Ornithischia).[2]

Seeley, however, wanted to formulate a classification that would take into account a single primary difference between major dinosaurian groups based on a characteristic that also differentiated them from other reptiles. He found this in the configuration of the hip bones, and found that all four of Marsh's orders could be divided neatly into two major groups based on this feature. He placed the Stegosauria and Ornithopoda in the Ornithischia, and the Theropoda and Sauropoda in the Saurischia. Furthermore, Seeley used this major difference in the hip bones, along with many other noted differences between the two groups, to argue that "dinosaurs" were not a natural grouping at all, but rather two distinct orders that had arisen independently from more primitive archosaurs.[2] This concept that "dinosaur" was an outdated term for two distinct orders lasted many decades in the scientific and popular literature, and it was not until the 1960s that scientists began to again consider the possibility that saurischians and ornithischians were more closely related to each other than they were to other archosaurs.

Although his concept of a polyphyletic Dinosauria is no longer accepted by most paleontologists, Seeley's basic division of the two dinosaurian groups has stood the test of time, and has been supported by modern cladistic analysis of relationships among dinosaurs.[6] One alternate hypothesis challenging Seeley's classification was proposed by Robert T. Bakker in his 1986 book The Dinosaur Heresies. Bakker's classification separated the theropods into their own group and placed the two groups of herbivorous dinosaurs (the sauropodomorphs and ornithischians) together in a separate group he named the Phytodinosauria ("plant dinosaurs").[7] The Phytodinosauria hypothesis was based partly on the supposed link between ornithischians and prosauropods, and the idea that the former had evolved directly from the later, possibly by way of an enigmatic family that seemed to possess characters of both groups, the segnosaurs.[8] However, it was later found that segnosaurs were an unusual type of herbivorous theropod saurischian closely related to birds, and the Phytodinosauria hypothesis fell out of favor.

A 2017 paper[9] has put theropods in a proposed clade Ornithoscelida, along with the Ornithischia. In this picture, there would be convergent evolution of the hips between some theropods and saurischians.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  2. ^ a b c Seeley, H.G. (1888). "On the classification of the fossil animals commonly named Dinosauria". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 43: 165–171. doi:10.1098/rspl.1887.0117. 
  3. ^ Weishampel, D.B., Dodson, P., and Osmólska, H. (eds.). (2004). The Dinosauria. 2nd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley. 833 pp.
  4. ^ Padian, K. (2004). "Basal Avialae". In Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; Osmólska, Halszka. The Dinosauria (Second ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 210–231. ISBN 0-520-24209-2. 
  5. ^ Zanno, L. E.; Gillette, D. D.; Albright, L. B.; Titus, A. L. (2009). "A new North American therizinosaurid and the role of herbivory in 'predatory' dinosaur evolution". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1672): 3505. PMC 2817200Freely accessible. PMID 19605396. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1029. 
  6. ^ Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; Osmólska, Halszka (eds.) (2004). The Dinosauria, Second Edition. University of California Press., 861 pp.
  7. ^ Bakker, R.T. (1986). The Dinosaur Heresies. New York: William Morrow. p. 203. ISBN 0-14-010055-5.
  8. ^ Paul, G.S. (1988). Predatory Dinosaurs of the World, a Complete Illustrated Guide. New York: Simon & Schuster. 464 p.
  9. ^ Baron, M.G., Norman, D.B., and Barrett, P.M. (2017). A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution. Nature, 543: 501–506. doi:10.1038/nature21700

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