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CAN'T STOP THE FEELING (PARODY) - Cajon Valley Union School District (Back to School)
Published: 2016/08/14
Channel: david miyashiro
Fidget toys are big in this school district
Fidget toys are big in this school district
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: CBS News
Westville School District Orientation 2017
Westville School District Orientation 2017
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: SETH MILLER
Lawmakers, school district officials say it
Lawmakers, school district officials say it's time to replace the school buses
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: WYFF News 4
Eudora School District given counterfeit eclipse glasses
Eudora School District given counterfeit eclipse glasses
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: 41 Action News
Poway Unified: Best Day of My Life Back to School Parody
Poway Unified: Best Day of My Life Back to School Parody
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Poway Unified School District
School District Bans Homework
School District Bans Homework
Published: 2017/07/29
Channel: Secular Talk
Parents Sue School District Saying Daughter, 12, Killed Herself Due to Bullying
Parents Sue School District Saying Daughter, 12, Killed Herself Due to Bullying
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: Inside Edition
Video: School district hosts first culture expo
Video: School district hosts first culture expo
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: WBAL-TV 11 Baltimore
PISSED AT THE SCHOOL DISTRICT {252}
PISSED AT THE SCHOOL DISTRICT {252}
Published: 2015/09/26
Channel: BaileyLiving
Soldier Father Surprises Daughter at Veteran’s Day Assembly in Independence School District
Soldier Father Surprises Daughter at Veteran’s Day Assembly in Independence School District
Published: 2016/11/14
Channel: Independence School District
Kearney School District removes 2 gay students’ quotes from yearbook
Kearney School District removes 2 gay students’ quotes from yearbook
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: KCTV5 News
We Are the Iowa City Community School District
We Are the Iowa City Community School District
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: IowaCitySchools
Family To Sue School District After 12-Year-Old Daughter’s Suicide | NBC Nightly News
Family To Sue School District After 12-Year-Old Daughter’s Suicide | NBC Nightly News
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: NBC News
South Fayette School District pushing back first day of class
South Fayette School District pushing back first day of class
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: WTAE-TV Pittsburgh
Florida School District Bans Homework, Thoughts/Commentary
Florida School District Bans Homework, Thoughts/Commentary
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: Louis Rossmann
White, wealthy communities form their own school districts
White, wealthy communities form their own school districts
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Coquitlam School District - International Student Program
Coquitlam School District - International Student Program
Published: 2015/03/06
Channel: Diamondhead Films
VIDEO:  DeKalb County School District Convocation
VIDEO: DeKalb County School District Convocation
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Marion County School District-Open Government Investigations
Marion County School District-Open Government Investigations
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: HonorYourOath Civil Rights Investigations
Pennsylvania School District Won’t Let Children Outside For Recess During Solar Eclipse
Pennsylvania School District Won’t Let Children Outside For Recess During Solar Eclipse
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: CBS Philly
Lees Summit R-7 School District cancels class for total solar eclipse
Lees Summit R-7 School District cancels class for total solar eclipse
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: 41 Action News
Parents suing school district after 12-year-old daughter
Parents suing school district after 12-year-old daughter's suicide
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: CBS Evening News
Blue Springs School District Positivity Project
Blue Springs School District Positivity Project
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Blue Springs School District
Clark County School District: Changing Physical Education
Clark County School District: Changing Physical Education
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: CrossFit®
Parents to sue school district over 12-year-old daughter
Parents to sue school district over 12-year-old daughter's suicide
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: ABC News
School District Accidentally Emails Out Student Info For Thousands
School District Accidentally Emails Out Student Info For Thousands
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: WCCO - CBS Minnesota
Examining Student Free Speech: Bethel School District v Fraser (1986)
Examining Student Free Speech: Bethel School District v Fraser (1986)
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: Keith Hughes
Burnaby School District - International Student Program
Burnaby School District - International Student Program
Published: 2013/03/14
Channel: Diamondhead Films
School District Blames ‘Employee Error’ For Data Release
School District Blames ‘Employee Error’ For Data Release
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: WCCO - CBS Minnesota
Pasadena,Tx-School District Police
Pasadena,Tx-School District Police
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: News Now Houston
Temecula Valley Unified School District Project
Temecula Valley Unified School District Project
Published: 2015/10/06
Channel: SolarCity
School district sues family over special needs boy
School district sues family over special needs boy
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: WXYZ-TV Detroit | Channel 7
Every 30 Minutes - Somerset Area School District 2017
Every 30 Minutes - Somerset Area School District 2017
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Jennifer Brougher
Fairfield County School District has gone Google
Fairfield County School District has gone Google
Published: 2014/06/25
Channel: G Suite
IKM Architects Chartiers Valley School District Design Animation
IKM Architects Chartiers Valley School District Design Animation
Published: 2016/05/31
Channel: ikminc
Welcome to West Bloomfield School District
Welcome to West Bloomfield School District
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: West Bloomfield School District
Star City School District First Day 2017
Star City School District First Day 2017
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Web Master
Wichita school district
Wichita school district's training video
Published: 2014/08/06
Channel: TheWichitaEagle
Mooresville: How one school district defied the odds
Mooresville: How one school district defied the odds
Published: 2013/12/03
Channel: American Enterprise Institute
Dr. Avossa proud of Palm Beach Co. school district on first day
Dr. Avossa proud of Palm Beach Co. school district on first day
Published: 2017/08/14
Channel: WPTV News | West Palm Beach Florida
UK School District Threaten Parents With Police If Their Kids Play M Rated Games
UK School District Threaten Parents With Police If Their Kids Play M Rated Games
Published: 2015/03/31
Channel: ReviewTechUSA
To fight student homelessness, this school district helps the whole family
To fight student homelessness, this school district helps the whole family
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Northville School District is hiring Substitute Teachers and Substitute Aides
Northville School District is hiring Substitute Teachers and Substitute Aides
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: WXYZ-TV Detroit | Channel 7
School District Uses Project Based Learning Over Testing
School District Uses Project Based Learning Over Testing
Published: 2013/04/04
Channel: PBS NewsHour
School District Warning Parents About Blue Whale Challenge
School District Warning Parents About Blue Whale Challenge
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: ABC 7 Sarasota - WWSB
Emergency Lockdown Drill Mt. Vernon School District
Emergency Lockdown Drill Mt. Vernon School District
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: Alli Hancock
Sumner School District Whole Child
Sumner School District Whole Child
Published: 2016/02/02
Channel: John Norlin
Riverview School District teachers are Happy
Riverview School District teachers are Happy
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: RiverviewRaiders
Community divided over order to desegregate Miss. school district
Community divided over order to desegregate Miss. school district
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: CBS This Morning
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A school district is a form of special-purpose district which serves to operate local public primary and secondary schools, for formal academic or scholastic teaching, in various nations.

United States[edit]

In the U.S, public schools belong to school districts, which are governed by school boards. Each district is an independent special-purpose government, or dependent school systems, under the guidelines of each U.S. state government and local school boards. A school district is a legally separate body corporate and politic. School districts are local governments with powers similar to that of a town or a county including taxation and eminent domain, except in Virginia, whose school divisions have no taxing authority and must depend on another local government (county, city, or town) for funding. Its governing body, which is typically elected by direct popular vote but may be appointed by other governmental officials, is called a school board, board of trustees, board of education, school committee, or the like. This body appoints a superintendent, usually an experienced public school administrator, to function as the district's chief executive for carrying out day-to-day decisions and policy implementations. The school board may also exercise a quasi-judicial function in serious employee or student discipline matters.

School districts in the Midwest and West tend to cross municipal boundaries, while school districts in New England and the Mid-Atlantic regions tend to adhere to city, township, and/or county boundaries.[1] As of 1951 school districts were independent governmental units in 26 states, while in 17 states there were mixes of independent school districts and school districts subordinate to other local governments. In nine states there were only school districts subordinate to local governments.[2]

Not all school systems constitute school districts as distinct bodies corporate. In most Southern states, school systems operate either as an arm of county government, or at least share coextensive boundaries with the state's counties. In Maryland, most school systems are run at the county level, but the Baltimore City system operates separately, at a county-equivalent level. Other states, such as New York, have both independent school districts and school systems that are subordinate to cities. The Hawaii State Department of Education functions as a single statewide school district. This is unique among the states, but the District of Columbia Public Schools operates district public schools in Washington, DC and the Puerto Rico Department of Education operates all public schools in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, thus they also function as single school districts.

History[edit]

From 1942 to 1951 the number of school districts declined from 108,579 to 70,452, a decrease by 38,127 or 35%.[3] Many states had passed laws facilitating school district consolidation. In 1951 the majority of the school districts in existence were rural school districts only providing elementary education, and some school districts did not operate schools but instead provided transportation to other schools. The Midwest (North Central U.S.) had a large number of rural school districts.[2]

Previously areas of the Unorganized Borough of Alaska were not served by school districts, but instead served by schools directly operated by the Alaska Department of Education and by Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools. The state schools were transferred to the Alaska State-Operated School System (SOS) after the Alaska Legislature created it in 1971; that agency was terminated in 1975, with its schools transferred to the newly created Alaska Unorganized Borough School District, which was broken apart into twenty-one school districts the following year.[4]

In the 2002 Census of Governments, the United States Census Bureau enumerated the following numbers of school systems in the United States:

  • 13,506 school district governments
  • 178 state-dependent school systems
  • 1,330 local-dependent school systems
  • 1,196 education service agencies and (agencies providing support services to public school systems)

School districts in the US have reduced the number of their employees by 3.3%, or 270,000 between 2008 and 2012, owing to a decline in property tax revenues during and after the Great Recession.[5]

Terminology[edit]

Although these terms can vary slightly between various states and regions, these are typical definitions for school district constitution:

Schools[edit]

  • An elementary or primary school usually includes kindergarten and grades one through five or six. In some school districts, these grades are divided into two schools. Primary school is most commonly used for schools housing students in kindergarten through grade two or three in districts where the older elementary students are in intermediate schools (see below).
  • A middle school usually includes grades six or seven through eight or nine. In some places, the alternative terms junior high school or intermediate school are still used. Junior high school often refers to schools that cover grades seven through nine. Intermediate school is also used for schools that cover grades three through five (or so) when they are separated from elementary schools.
  • A high school usually includes grades nine or ten through twelve and may also include grades seven and eight. There are many high schools that cover only grades ten to twelve; this type of school is sometimes referred to as a senior high school.

Districts[edit]

These terms may not appear in a district's name, even though the condition may apply.

  • A unified school district includes elementary and secondary (middle school and high school) educational levels.
  • The word central in a district's name indicates that there is one central administration that oversees the entire district.[clarification needed]
  • The word free in a district's name indicates that no tuition is charged to attend district schools. In New York, it is used in conjunction with union to indicate a district composed of multiple, formerly independent common school districts now free of restrictions placed on New York State's common school districts.
  • The word union or consolidated in a district's name indicates that it was formed from two or more districts.
    • In Missouri, most district names include a C- (for "consolidated") or, more commonly, an R- (for "reorganized") followed by a number, commonly in Roman numerals.[6]
  • The word joint in a district's name indicates that it includes territory from more than one county. By extension, a joint state school district, such as Union County–College Corner JSD, includes territory in more than one state.
  • The word independent can have different meanings, depending on the state.
    • Kentucky — Under Kentucky Revised Statutes § 160.020, an "Independent" district is defined as one whose jurisdiction does not cover an entire county.[7] If a county has no independent district, its school district boundaries coincide exactly with its borders.[8] Since 2013, the state has 53 independent districts scattered throughout the state, with major concentrations in Northern Kentucky and the Eastern Coalfield region. These districts are generally associated with a city, or sometimes with a cluster of adjoining cities. Unlike county districts, independent districts can cross county lines, as in the Caverna Independent Schools centered on Cave City and Horse Cave and the Corbin Independent Schools. Note that some districts in the state are independent despite not having "Independent" in their official name, as in the Owensboro Public Schools and Paducah Public Schools.
    • Minnesota — Per Minnesota Statute 120A.05, "Independent" denotes any school district validly created and existing as an independent, consolidated, joint independent, county or a ten or more township district as of July 1, 1957, or pursuant to the Education Code.[9]
    • Texas — Here, "Independent" denotes that the district is separate from any county- or municipal-level entity. All of the state's school districts, with only one exception (Stafford Municipal School District), are independent of any municipal or county control. Moreover, school district boundaries rarely coincide with municipal limits or county lines. Most districts use the term "Independent School District" in their name; in the few cases where the term "Common School District" is used the district is still an independent governmental entity.
  • In Ohio, school districts are classified as either city school districts, exempted village school districts, or local school districts. City and exempted village school districts are exempted from county boards of education, while local school districts remain under county school board supervision. School districts may combine resources to form a fourth type of school district, the joint vocational school district, which focuses on a technical skills–based curriculum.[10]
  • In Michigan there are Intermediate School Districts (ISD), Regional Education Service Districts (RESD), or Regional Education Service Agencies (RESA) largely at the county level. The local schools districts run the schools and most programs, but often bilingual aides, programs for the deaf and blind, special education for the severely impaired, and career and technical education programs are run by the Intermediate School District or equivalent.
  • In Maryland school districts are broken up by county.
Teacher assignment practices in school districts[edit]

There are many approaches can when making decisions in assigning teachers. The deciding in assigning teachers can ccur with the collaboration of human resource staff or decisions from the collaboration with principals and teachers.[11] Although the decisions for teacher assignment can vary base on school districts, there are two most popular approaches that are currently occurring in assigning teachers. The first popular approach is assigning students to teachers based on sharing the same characteristics as their students.[12] For instance, principals assign teachers to students based on academic performance, teachers’ personalities, teachers teaching styles, and teachers’ classroom management skills. During this assignment practices, there are some collaboration with teachers and principals. The second most popular approach is that teachers can be assigned based on their ability to improve students’ standardized test scores. This is identified as “staffing to the test”[13] in which principals observe the influence teachers have on students’ standardized test scores and then strategically move teachers to certain subjects or grades where standardized test are given.[13] 

Even though two approaches are used to assign teachers to students, there are some obstacles that principals encounter when making teacher assignment decisions. For instance, one conflict is parents demand that their child be assigned to a specific teacher.[14] The second conflict is that principals need to take into consideration policies, such as tenure or collective bargaining, which can influence teacher assignment practices.[15] Due to these challenges, many have suggested that principals should collaborate with teacher unions in order to address these conflicts.[15][16]

Europe[edit]

Outside the United States, autonomous districts or equivalent authorities often represent various groups seeking education autonomy. In European history, as in much of the world, religious (confessional), linguistic, and ethnic divisions have been a significant factor in school organization. This paradigm is shifting.[how?]

In England and Wales, school boards were established in 1870, and abolished in 1902, with county council and county borough councils becoming the local education authorities.[17]

In France, the system of the carte scolaire was dismantled by the beginning of the 2007 school year. More school choice has been given to French students; however, priority is given to those who meet the following criteria:

  • students with disabilities
  • students on scholarships or special academic merit
  • students who meet "social cohesion" criteria (essentially to diversify the school population)
  • students who require specialized medical attention from a hospital
  • students who want to study a course offered only by the school
  • students who have siblings that attend the school
  • students who live close to the school

In Italy, school districts were established in 1974 by the "Provvedimenti Delegati sulla scuola" ("Assigned Laws [to the Government] about the school").[18] Each district must contain a minimum of 10,000 inhabitants. The national government attempted to link the local schools with local society and culture and local governments. The school districts were dissolved in 2003 by the "legge finanziaria" (law about the government budget) in an attempt to trim the national budget.[19]

Examples[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "School Districts" (Archive) U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on June 20, 2015.
  2. ^ a b "State and Local Government Special Studies: Governments in the United States 1951." Property Taxation 1941. U.S. Census Bureau. G-SS-No. 29, March 1952. p. 2 (Google Books RA3-PA56).
  3. ^ "State and Local Government Special Studies: Governments in the United States 1951." Property Taxation 1941. U.S. Census Bureau. G-SS-No. 29, March 1952. p. 1-2 (Google Books RA3-PA55 and PA56).
  4. ^ Barnhardt, Carol. "Historical Status of Elementary Schools in Rural Alaskan Communities 1867-1980." Alaska Native Knowledge Network (ANKN), University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on March 13, 2017.
  5. ^ USA Today published March 13, 2012, page A1,"Property taxes start to decline"
  6. ^ "Answer Man: What's 'R' mean in school district names?". Retrieved 10 Mar 2017. 
  7. ^ Kentucky Revised Statutes § 160.020.
  8. ^ Kentucky Revised Statutes § 160.010.
  9. ^ "120A.05 - 2014 Minnesota Statutes". mn.gov. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  10. ^ Special Purpose Governments, Ohio State University. Accessed 2008-01-05.
  11. ^ Monk, D. H. (1987). "Assigning elementary pupils to their teachers."The Elementary School Journal. 88(2): 166–187.
  12. ^  Kraemer, S., Worth, R., & Meyer, R. H. (2011, April). Classroom assignment practices in urban school districts using teacher level value-added systems. In Association for Education Finance and Policy Annual Conference.
  13. ^ a b  Cohen-Vogel, L. (2011). “Staffing to the test” are today’s school personnel practices evidence based? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33(4), 483-505. doi: 10.3102/0162373711419845.
  14. ^ Clotfelter, C.T., Ladd, H.F., & Vigdor, J. (2005). Who teaches whom? Race and the distribution of novice teachers. Economics of Education Review, 24(4), 377-392. doi:10.1016/j.econedurev.2004.06.008
  15. ^ a b Youngs, P., Pogodzinski, B., & Galey, S. (2015). How Labor Management Relations and Human Resource Policies Affect the Process of Teacher Assignment in Urban School Districts. Educational Administration Quarterly, 51(2), 214-246. doi: 10.1177/0013161X14529148
  16. ^  Useem, E., & Farley, E. (2004). Philadelphia’s teacher hiring and school assignment practices: Comparisons with other districts. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED485310.pdf Youngs, P., Pogodzinski, B., & Galey, S. (2015). How Labor Management Relations and Human Resource Policies Affect the Process of Teacher Assignment in Urban School Districts. Educational
  17. ^ "Find archives & local records". powys.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 July 2015. 
  18. ^ "Text of the DPR n° 416 del 31 maggio 1974 ("Assigned Laws about the school")" (in Italian). 1994 [31 May 1974]. Retrieved 2016-03-30. 
  19. ^ "L 289/2002: Text of the law n° 289 del 27 dicembre 2002 ("legge finanziaria 2003")" (in Italian). 2003 [27 Dec 2002]. Retrieved 2016-03-30. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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