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ROASTED SEAWEED SNACKS 101 • Mukbang & Recipe
ROASTED SEAWEED SNACKS 101 • Mukbang & Recipe
Published: 2016/03/31
Channel: MommyTang
The Nutritional Benefits of Seaweed, The Ocean
The Nutritional Benefits of Seaweed, The Ocean's Superfood
Published: 2015/01/29
Channel: SuperfoodEvolution
Seaweed - Spanaway (Full Album)
Seaweed - Spanaway (Full Album)
Published: 2015/08/23
Channel: Mateo Salado
Harvesting Edible Seaweed (And Introducing the Kelly Kettle and Extreme Greens Seaweed Book )
Harvesting Edible Seaweed (And Introducing the Kelly Kettle and Extreme Greens Seaweed Book )
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: Way Out West Blow-in blog
Ocean Snack Dry Roasted Seaweed REVIEW (Eating The Dollar Stores, EP #20)
Ocean Snack Dry Roasted Seaweed REVIEW (Eating The Dollar Stores, EP #20)
Published: 2015/07/28
Channel: Old Nerd Reviews
Foraging Seaweed: Harvesting a French Coastal Superfood
Foraging Seaweed: Harvesting a French Coastal Superfood
Published: 2014/11/04
Channel: Foodie by Glam
Korean style roasted seaweed (Gim-Gui: 김구이)
Korean style roasted seaweed (Gim-Gui: 김구이)
Published: 2014/03/09
Channel: Maangchi
Seaweed: sea fuel? - futuris
Seaweed: sea fuel? - futuris
Published: 2013/05/27
Channel: euronews (in English)
Health Benefits of Seaweed
Health Benefits of Seaweed
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: Dr. Patrick Quillin, PhD,RD,CNS
BEGIN Japanology - Seaweed
BEGIN Japanology - Seaweed
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Japanology
Different Kinds of Seaweed for Cooking & Nutrition
Different Kinds of Seaweed for Cooking & Nutrition
Published: 2014/06/05
Channel: Yin & Yang Living
Sucking Superfood from the Ocean  - Wild Japan - BBC
Sucking Superfood from the Ocean - Wild Japan - BBC
Published: 2016/07/22
Channel: BBC Earth
How to Make Seaweed Salad (Wakame Salad)
How to Make Seaweed Salad (Wakame Salad)
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: The Art Of Cooking
Bad Baby Bloopers Kate & Lilly in Real Life, Eating Seaweed to Become a Mermaid Ballet Parent FAIL!
Bad Baby Bloopers Kate & Lilly in Real Life, Eating Seaweed to Become a Mermaid Ballet Parent FAIL!
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Twin Family Fun Vlogs
Is Seaweed a Healthy or Harmful Superfood ??  on a Raw Food Diet
Is Seaweed a Healthy or Harmful Superfood ?? on a Raw Food Diet
Published: 2016/06/10
Channel: okraw
This Happens To Your Skin When It
This Happens To Your Skin When It's Wrapped In Seaweed
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Foods4Health
Hockey Dad - Seaweed (Official Video)
Hockey Dad - Seaweed (Official Video)
Published: 2014/09/24
Channel: Farmer & The Owl
Top 6 Health Benefits of Seaweed
Top 6 Health Benefits of Seaweed
Published: 2015/12/10
Channel: Foods4Health
Seaweed - Crush Us All
Seaweed - Crush Us All
Published: 2010/02/23
Channel: Victor Toso
SEAWEED SOUP • Mukbang & Recipe (미역국 miyeokguk )
SEAWEED SOUP • Mukbang & Recipe (미역국 miyeokguk )
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: MommyTang
【MUKBANG】 1 Big Seasoned Rice Bowl Using Korean Seaweed! [Pulmuone Seasoning] 5Kg,7458kcal[Click CC]
【MUKBANG】 1 Big Seasoned Rice Bowl Using Korean Seaweed! [Pulmuone Seasoning] 5Kg,7458kcal[Click CC]
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: 木下ゆうか Yuka Kinoshita
"Seaweed" Creepypasta
"Seaweed" Creepypasta
Published: 2015/01/25
Channel: CreepsMcPasta
Seaweed Harvesting
Seaweed Harvesting
Published: 2011/08/02
Channel: Craig B Sommers
10 "BENEFITS OF SEAWEED" For Health !!
10 "BENEFITS OF SEAWEED" For Health !!
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: Benefits Video
The Health Benefits of Seaweed Medical Course
The Health Benefits of Seaweed Medical Course
Published: 2013/12/18
Channel: Abiezer Abigail
How to Make Roasted Seaweed Snacks | Cooking Light
How to Make Roasted Seaweed Snacks | Cooking Light
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Cooking Light
Sweet & sour seaweed salad (Miyeok-muchim: 미역무침)
Sweet & sour seaweed salad (Miyeok-muchim: 미역무침)
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: Maangchi
Eat Seaweed w/ MATTHIAS! Dollar Store Challenge
Eat Seaweed w/ MATTHIAS! Dollar Store Challenge
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Chad Wild Clay
Empyrion Galactic Survival  - Tutorial/Let
Empyrion Galactic Survival - Tutorial/Let's Play - Episode 2 - Gathering Seaweed & Corn Dogs!!
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Gamester4life
Seaweed Soup Mukbang and Recipe 😋
Seaweed Soup Mukbang and Recipe 😋
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Boyoung's World
Seaweed Rangup | Try Masak | iCookAsia
Seaweed Rangup | Try Masak | iCookAsia
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: iCookAsia
TOASTED  SEAWEED RICE BALL • Mukbang & Recipe
TOASTED SEAWEED RICE BALL • Mukbang & Recipe
Published: 2016/06/30
Channel: MommyTang
★ How to: Make Seaweed Fertiliser (A Complete Step by Step Guide)
★ How to: Make Seaweed Fertiliser (A Complete Step by Step Guide)
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: Project Diaries
Seaweed Harvest
Seaweed Harvest
Published: 2013/06/21
Channel: gorednaga
Eating Seaweed In The Philippines
Eating Seaweed In The Philippines
Published: 2015/11/13
Channel: Life In The Philippines: A Black Person's Viewpoint
The Gits - Seaweed
The Gits - Seaweed
Published: 2012/12/05
Channel: meltingwax
ASMR EATING: CRUNCHY OREOS, CHIPS and SEAWEED junk food
ASMR EATING: CRUNCHY OREOS, CHIPS and SEAWEED junk food
Published: 2014/09/23
Channel: Blytheats
SEAWEED T.B.A. (full album)
SEAWEED T.B.A. (full album)
Published: 2013/09/23
Channel: Don Quixote
deep fried seaweed ( spring cabbage )
deep fried seaweed ( spring cabbage )
Published: 2011/08/01
Channel: Khoan Vong
♥ ♥ ♥ LIVE NEAR THE OCEAN? ♥ ♥ ♥ How To Harvest & Dry Your Own Seaweed Tutorial Video
♥ ♥ ♥ LIVE NEAR THE OCEAN? ♥ ♥ ♥ How To Harvest & Dry Your Own Seaweed Tutorial Video
Published: 2013/09/28
Channel: LIVER FLUSH MAN
Tasting Big Bang DURIAN SEAWEED?!!
Tasting Big Bang DURIAN SEAWEED?!!
Published: 2017/07/16
Channel: TiffwithMi
Seaweed - Kid Candy (OFFICIAL VIDEO)
Seaweed - Kid Candy (OFFICIAL VIDEO)
Published: 2008/07/01
Channel: Sub Pop
Popiah Seaweed Chinese New Year 2016
Popiah Seaweed Chinese New Year 2016
Published: 2016/01/31
Channel: MELAKA
How to Make Seaweed Fertilizer at Home! Cheap Easy & Organic!
How to Make Seaweed Fertilizer at Home! Cheap Easy & Organic!
Published: 2016/12/29
Channel: MIgardener | Simple Organic Gardening & Sustainable Living
Day Off: Janine Gutierrez vs Ken Chan sa seaweed farming challenge
Day Off: Janine Gutierrez vs Ken Chan sa seaweed farming challenge
Published: 2017/04/24
Channel: GMA Public Affairs
[NO TALKING] ASMR Eating Crispy Seaweed (mouth sounds, crunchy)
[NO TALKING] ASMR Eating Crispy Seaweed (mouth sounds, crunchy)
Published: 2016/01/31
Channel: RaffyTaphyASMR
Good News: Seaweed Sarap
Good News: Seaweed Sarap
Published: 2014/11/17
Channel: GMA Public Affairs
Kelp Seaweed, A Concentrated Source of Dietary Minerals
Kelp Seaweed, A Concentrated Source of Dietary Minerals
Published: 2016/09/14
Channel: SuperfoodEvolution
Tindersticks - Seaweed
Tindersticks - Seaweed
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: narcolepsy cow
Mukbang Recipe | 4 ingredient Korean Seaweed Birthday Soup | Miyeokguk
Mukbang Recipe | 4 ingredient Korean Seaweed Birthday Soup | Miyeokguk
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: Megan Bowen
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Photo of seaweed with small swollen areas at the end of each frond
Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada
Photo of detached seaweed frond lying on sand
Dead man's fingers (Codium fragile) off the Massachusetts coast in the United States
Photo of seaweed with the tip floating at the surface
The top of a kelp forest in Otago, New Zealand

Seaweed refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.[1]

The term includes some types of red, brown, and green algae. Seaweed can also be classified by use (as food, medicine,[2] fertilizer, filtration, industrial, etc.).

Taxonomy[edit]

"Seaweed" is a colloquial term and lacks a formal definition. A seaweed may belong to one of several groups of multicellular algae: the red algae, green algae, and brown algae. As these three groups do not have a common multicellular ancestor, the seaweed are in a polyphyletic group. In addition, some tuft-forming bluegreen algae (Cyanobacteria) are sometimes considered to be seaweed.

Structure[edit]

Seaweed's appearance somewhat resembles non-arboreal terrestrial plants.

  • thallus: the algal body
    • lamina or blade: a flattened structure that is somewhat leaf-like
      • sorus: a spore cluster
      • on Fucus, air bladder: a flotation-assisting organ on the blade
      • on kelp, float: a flotation-assisting organ between the lamina and stipe
    • stipe: a stem-like structure, may be absent
    • holdfast: a specialized basal structure providing attachment to a surface, often a rock or another alga
    • haptera: a finger-like extension of the holdfast anchoring to a benthic substrate

The stipe and blade are collectively known as the frond.

Ecology[edit]

Seaweed cover this rocky seabed on the east coast of Australia

Two specific environmental requirements dominate seaweed ecology. These are the presence of seawater (or at least brackish water) and the presence of light sufficient to drive photosynthesis. Another common requirement is a firm attachment point, although some genera such as Sargassum and Gracilaria have species that float freely. As a result, seaweed most commonly inhabit the part of a sea that is close to the shore (the littoral zone) and within that zone more frequently on rocky shores than on sand or shingle. Seaweed occupy a wide range of ecological niches. The highest elevation is only wetted by the tops of sea spray, the lowest is several meters deep. In some areas, littoral seaweed can extend several miles out to sea. The limiting factor in such cases is sunlight availability. The deepest living seaweed are some species of red algae.

Others have adapted to live in tidal rock pools. In this habitat seaweed must withstand rapidly changing temperature and salinity and even occasional drying.[3]

Uses[edit]

Laver and toast
Photo of near-shore ocean, divided into rectangles, most containing a yards-long, narrow boat
Small plots being used to farm seaweed in Indonesia, with each rectangle belonging to a different family

Seaweed has a variety of purposes, for which it is farmed[4] or foraged from the wild.[5]

At the beginning of 2011, Indonesia produced 3 million tonnes of seaweed and surpassed the Philippines as the world's largest seaweed producer. By 2011, the production was estimated to have reached 10 million tonnes.[6]

Food[edit]

Seaweed is consumed by coastal people, particularly in East Asia, e.g. Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, and Southeast Asia, e.g. Brunei, Singapore, Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Philippines, and Malaysia, and also in South Africa, Belize, Peru, Chile, the Canadian Maritimes, Scandinavia, South West England,[7] Ireland, Wales, California, and Scotland.

In Asia, Gim (Korean food) (김, Korea), nori (海苔, Japan), zicai (紫菜, China) are sheets of dried Porphyra used in soups, sushi wrap or onigiri (rice balls). Chondrus crispus (commonly known as 'Irish moss' or carrageenan moss) is another red alga used in producing food additives, along with Kappaphycus and gigartinoid seaweed. Porphyra is a red alga used in Wales to make laver. Laverbread, made from oats and the laver, is a popular dish there. In northern Belize, edible seaweed are mixed with milk, nutmeg, cinnamon, and vanilla to make a common beverage affectionately called "dulce" (or "sweet").

Seaweed are also harvested or cultivated for the extraction of alginate, agar and carrageenan, gelatinous substances collectively known as hydrocolloids or phycocolloids. Hydrocolloids have attained commercial significance as food additives.[8] The food industry exploits their gelling, water-retention, emulsifying and other physical properties. Agar is used in foods such as confectionery, meat and poultry products, desserts and beverages and moulded foods. Carrageenan is used in salad dressings and sauces, dietetic foods, and as a preservative in meat and fish products, dairy items and baked goods.

Herbalism[edit]

Photo of rocks covered by dried plant matter
Seaweed-covered rocks in the United Kingdom
Photo of a rock jetty covered with seaweed
Seaweed on rocks in Long Island

Alginates are commonly used in wound dressings, and production of dental moulds. In microbiology research, agar — a plant-based goo similar to gelatin and made from seaweed — is extensively used as culture medium. Carrageenans, alginates and agaroses (the latter are prepared from agar by purification), with other lesser-known macroalgal polysaccharides, have several important biological activities or applications in biomedicine.

Seaweed extract is used in some diet pills.[9][10] Other seaweed pills exploit the same effect as gastric banding, expanding in the stomach to make the body feel more full.[11][12]

Filtration[edit]

The strong photosynthesis of algae creates a large affinity for nutrients; this allows the seaweed to be used purposely to remove undesired nutrients from water. Nutrients such as ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, iron, copper, as well as CO2 are rapidly consumed by growing seaweed. Reefs and lakes are naturally filtered this way (the seaweed being consumed by fish and invertebrates), and this filtering process is duplicated in man-made seaweed filters such as algae scrubbers.

Modern floating algae scrubber/cultivator on a reef pond

Seaweed (macroalgae), as opposed to phytoplankton (microalgae), is used almost universally for filtration purposes because of the need to be able to easily remove (harvest) the algae from the water, which then removes the nutrients. Microalgae require more processing to separate it from the water than macroalgae does; macroalgae is simply pulled out.

When used for filtration, saltwater algae commonly grows species of Cladophora, Ulva (sea lettuce), and Chaetomorpha. Freshwater filtration applications are useful, too, and will commonly grow species such as Spirogyra.

Other uses[edit]

Other seaweed may be used as fertilizer, compost for landscaping, or a means of combating beach erosion through burial in beach dunes.[13] Seaweed is under consideration as a potential source of bioethanol.[14][15]

Seaweed is lifted out of top of algae scrubber/cultivator, to be discarded or used as food, fertilizer, or skin care

Seaweed is an ingredient in toothpaste, cosmetics and paints.[4] Alginates enjoy many of the same uses as carrageenan and are used in industrial products such as paper coatings, adhesives, dyes, gels, explosives and in processes such as paper sizing, textile printing, hydro-mulching and drilling. Research suggests that the Australian seaweed Delisea pulchra may interfere with bacterial colonization.[16] Sulfated saccharides from both red and green algae have been known to inhibit some DNA and RNA enveloped viruses.[2]

Seaweed collecting is the process of collecting, drying and pressing seaweed. It was a popular pastime in the Victorian era and remains a hobby today.

Seaweed is sometimes used to build roofs on houses on Læsø in Denmark [17]

Seaweeds are also used as animal feeds. They have long been grazed by sheep, horses and cattle in Northern Europe. They are currently particularly valuable for fish production.[18]

Health risks[edit]

Rotting seaweed is a potent source of hydrogen sulfide, a highly toxic gas, and has been implicated in some incidents of apparent hydrogen-sulphide poisoning.[19] It can cause vomiting and diarrhea.

Genera[edit]

The following table lists a very few example genera of seaweed.

Genus Algae Phylum Remarks
Caulerpa Caulerpa prolifera.JPG Green Submerged
Fucus Fucus serratus2.jpg Brown In intertidal zones on rocky shores.
Gracilaria Gracilaria2.JPG Red Cultivated for food
Laminaria Laminaria hyperborea - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-214.jpg Brown Also known as kelp, 8–30 m under water, cultivated for food.
Macrocystis Giantkelp2 300.jpg Brown Giant kelp, forming floating canopies.
Monostroma Seaweed-farmer.JPG Green
Porphyra Porphyra yezoensis.jpg Red Intertidal zones in temperate climate. Cultivated for food.

See also[edit]

Claudea elegans tetrasporangia

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smith, G.M. 1944. Marine Algae of the Monterey Peninsula, California. Stanford Univ., 2nd Edition.
  2. ^ a b Kazłowski B; Chiu YH; Kazłowska K; Pan CL; Wu CJ (August 2012). "Prevention of Japanese encephalitis virus infections by low-degree-polymerisation sulfated saccharides from Gracilaria sp. and Monostroma nitidum". Food Chem. 133 (3): 866–74. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.106. 
  3. ^ Lewis, J.R. 1964. The Ecology of Rocky Shores. The English Universities Press Ltd.
  4. ^ a b "Seaweed farmers get better prices if united". Sun.Star. 2008-06-19. Retrieved 2008-07-16. 
  5. ^ "Springtime's foraging treats". Life and Health. The Guardian. 2007-01-06. Retrieved 2008-07-16. 
  6. ^ "RI aims to become world`s largest seaweed producer". Waspada.co.id. 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  7. ^ "Devon Family Friendly - Tasty Seaweed Recipe - Honest!". BBC. 2005-05-25. Retrieved 2012-06-28. 
  8. ^ Round F.E. 1962 The Biology of the Algae. Edward Arnold Ltd.
  9. ^ Hayato Maeda, Masashi Hosokawa, Tokutake Sashima, Katsura Funayama & Kazuo Miyashita (2005). "Fucoxanthin from edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 332 (2): 392–397. PMID 15896707. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.05.002. 
  10. ^ "So which diet pills CAN trim your tum? Our expert put top brands to the test". Mail Online. 
  11. ^ "New Seaweed Pill Works Like Gastric Banding". Fox News. 
  12. ^ Elena Gorgan (6 January 2009). "Appesat, the Seaweed Diet Pill that Expands in the Stomach". softpedia. 
  13. ^ Rodriguez, Ihosvani (April 11, 2012). "Seaweed invading South Florida beaches in large numbers". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved 2012-04-11. 
  14. ^ http://alotofyada.blogspot.co.uk/2008/06/seaweed-power-ireland-taps-new-energy.html
  15. ^ Seaweed Biofuels: Production of Biogas and Bioethanol from Brown Macroalgae
  16. ^ Francesca Cappitelli & Claudia Sorlini (2008). "Microorganisms attack synthetic polymers in items representing our cultural heritage". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (3): 564–569. PMC 2227722Freely accessible. PMID 18065627. doi:10.1128/AEM.01768-07. 
  17. ^ [1]
  18. ^ Heuzé V., Tran G., Giger-Reverdin S., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2017. Seaweeds (marine macroalgae). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/78 Last updated on May 29, 2017, 16:46
  19. ^ "Algues vertes: la famille du chauffeur décédé porte plainte contre X" AFP, retrieved 2010-04-22 (in French)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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