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Maggie Gyllenhael the secretary
Maggie Gyllenhael the secretary
Published: 2012/09/23
Channel: vijftigtintengrijs
Secretary (2002) Official Trailer - Maggie Gyllenhaal, James Spader Movie HD
Secretary (2002) Official Trailer - Maggie Gyllenhaal, James Spader Movie HD
Published: 2014/02/28
Channel: Movieclips Trailer Vault
Secretary (1/9) Movie CLIP - There
Secretary (1/9) Movie CLIP - There's Something About You (2002) HD
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Movieclips
Secretary: He Hit Me ~ Grizzly Bear
Secretary: He Hit Me ~ Grizzly Bear
Published: 2014/03/26
Channel: Sweet Werewolf
Climate Change Debate | Secretary Ernest Moniz | Opposition (4/8)
Climate Change Debate | Secretary Ernest Moniz | Opposition (4/8)
Published: 2017/11/23
Channel: OxfordUnion
Secretary (2/9) Movie CLIP - Typos (2002) HD
Secretary (2/9) Movie CLIP - Typos (2002) HD
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Movieclips
Secretary (4/9) Movie CLIP - Bend Over (2002) HD
Secretary (4/9) Movie CLIP - Bend Over (2002) HD
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Movieclips
Special Secretary
Special Secretary
Published: 2017/11/19
Channel: ngm m
POWER OF A SECRETARY
POWER OF A SECRETARY
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: NollyKingdom Plus
After Sharif Family Now Its Secretary Establishment Turn
After Sharif Family Now Its Secretary Establishment Turn
Published: 2017/11/23
Channel: Azaad News Tv
The Secretary 1995 - full movie
The Secretary 1995 - full movie
Published: 2016/12/26
Channel: Tramika Alexia Gold movies
Full press briefing of Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre.
Full press briefing of Justice Secretary Vitaliano Aguirre.
Published: 2017/11/24
Channel: Dpatrol26
DC Comics
DC Comics' Press Secretary Defends Justice League
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: Funny Or Die
Secretary - Opening Sequence - Maggie Gyllenhaal
Secretary - Opening Sequence - Maggie Gyllenhaal
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: Allen Dobins
Secretary - The Original Mr. Grey
Secretary - The Original Mr. Grey
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: Monique Martin
Secretary – New Trailer
Secretary – New Trailer
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: Lionsgate Unlocked
Court to make decision on arrest warrant for ex-presidential secretary Jun Byung-hun
Court to make decision on arrest warrant for ex-presidential secretary Jun Byung-hun
Published: 2017/11/24
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
Court to make decision on arrest warrant for ex-presidential secretary Jun Byung-hun
Court to make decision on arrest warrant for ex-presidential secretary Jun Byung-hun
Published: 2017/11/24
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
Betty Wright Extended Version Medley "Secretary/Babysitter/Clean Up Woman"
Betty Wright Extended Version Medley "Secretary/Babysitter/Clean Up Woman"
Published: 2017/11/24
Channel: mosogotam
Court to make decision on arrest warrant for ex-presidential secretary Jun Byung-hun
Court to make decision on arrest warrant for ex-presidential secretary Jun Byung-hun
Published: 2017/11/24
Channel: ARIRANG NEWS
Former Intern Claims Charlie Rose Made Her Watch Graphic Scene From ‘Secretary’
Former Intern Claims Charlie Rose Made Her Watch Graphic Scene From ‘Secretary’
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: Inside Edition
US Navy Secretary: Full Search For Crash Missing
US Navy Secretary: Full Search For Crash Missing
Published: 2017/11/23
Channel: Associated Press
Trump Ignores Kennedy
Trump Ignores Kennedy's Vaccine Commission Appoints Pro-Vaccine Secretary
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: Israeli News Live
Secretary (2002) - James Spader - Maggie Gyllenhaal - I
Secretary (2002) - James Spader - Maggie Gyllenhaal - I'm Shy
Published: 2015/08/02
Channel: Vindobona Awstriae
US Navy Secretary comments on airplane crash
US Navy Secretary comments on airplane crash
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: RT America
Secretary (2002) - James Spader - Maggie Gyllenhaal - Grammar Lessons
Secretary (2002) - James Spader - Maggie Gyllenhaal - Grammar Lessons
Published: 2015/06/04
Channel: Vindobona Awstriae
प्राइवेट  Secretary | Personal secretary | Baar Baar Dekho Entertainment
प्राइवेट Secretary | Personal secretary | Baar Baar Dekho Entertainment
Published: 2017/11/03
Channel: Baar Baar Dekho
Secretary
Secretary
Published: 2011/11/05
Channel: Suresh Productions
BREAKING: Secretary of State Rex Tillerson gives UPDATE on New Classification of DPRK and ROCKETMAN
BREAKING: Secretary of State Rex Tillerson gives UPDATE on New Classification of DPRK and ROCKETMAN
Published: 2017/11/20
Channel: Golden State Times
Secretary
Secretary
Published: 2007/11/26
Channel: Zaychatina
जानिए क्या होंगे GST के फ़ायदे with Revenue Secretary Hasmukh adhia। Benefits of GST
जानिए क्या होंगे GST के फ़ायदे with Revenue Secretary Hasmukh adhia। Benefits of GST
Published: 2017/11/23
Channel: Vande Mataram India
Secretary Tillerson meets with Peruvian Foreign Minister Mendoza
Secretary Tillerson meets with Peruvian Foreign Minister Mendoza
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: U.S. Department of State
Ex-Homeland Security Secretary Ridge:
Ex-Homeland Security Secretary Ridge: 'Great To Be Alive'
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: CBS Pittsburgh
More Than a Secretary 1936
More Than a Secretary 1936
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: Leona Sutton
The Secretary
The Secretary
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: Ethan Collins
Secret Tricks of Effect
Secret Tricks of Effect
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Sam Cek
Secretary
Secretary
Published: 2013/04/09
Channel: LionsgateVOD
Secretary  - What To Watch Before You Die
Secretary - What To Watch Before You Die
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: CineFix
Secretary (3/9) Movie CLIP - Never Cut Yourself Again (2002) HD
Secretary (3/9) Movie CLIP - Never Cut Yourself Again (2002) HD
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Movieclips
Secretary (2002) -  Trailer ITALIANO
Secretary (2002) - Trailer ITALIANO
Published: 2012/07/01
Channel: DrugO Lebowski
Latest Nollywood Movies - Romantic Secretary
Latest Nollywood Movies - Romantic Secretary
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: realnollywoodclips
ASMR Flirty Secretary RP
ASMR Flirty Secretary RP
Published: 2017/04/17
Channel: EmiPerksASMR
TRS MP Sitaram Naik Meets Ministry Of Steel Secretary Over Bayyaram Steel Plant | V6 News
TRS MP Sitaram Naik Meets Ministry Of Steel Secretary Over Bayyaram Steel Plant | V6 News
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: V6 News Telugu
Secretary: James Spader Exclusive Interview
Secretary: James Spader Exclusive Interview
Published: 2015/02/06
Channel: ScreenSlam
Job Roles For COMPANY SECRETARY – CS,Stock Market,Shareholder,Legal affairs
Job Roles For COMPANY SECRETARY – CS,Stock Market,Shareholder,Legal affairs
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: Freshersworld
Contempt of court application submit against Transport Secretary Naseem Nawaz
Contempt of court application submit against Transport Secretary Naseem Nawaz
Published: 2017/11/24
Channel: City 42
Angelo Badalamenti - Main title
Angelo Badalamenti - Main title
Published: 2011/01/01
Channel: AdrienneMiele
IAS Officer Pallavi Akurati Admits Sexual Harassment By Vidhana Soudha Secretary Murthy
IAS Officer Pallavi Akurati Admits Sexual Harassment By Vidhana Soudha Secretary Murthy
Published: 2017/11/23
Channel: Public TV | ಪಬ್ಲಿಕ್ ಟಿವಿ
WATCH: Press Secretary Sarah Sanders URGENT White House Press Briefing on DPRK
WATCH: Press Secretary Sarah Sanders URGENT White House Press Briefing on DPRK
Published: 2017/11/20
Channel: Golden State Times
Secretary "The Chariots Rise" by Lizzie West
Secretary "The Chariots Rise" by Lizzie West
Published: 2008/01/03
Channel: Rocio Linares
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A secretary or personal assistant is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills. These functions may be entirely carried out to assist one other employee or may be for the benefit of more than one. In other situations a secretary is an officer of a society or organization who deals with correspondence, admits new members, and organizes official meetings and events.[1][2][3]

Duties and functions[edit]

Before looking at the duties and Responsibilities of Secretary, It should be noted that Secretary is also regarded as "Office manager" who must have acquired skills in office management.

A secretary, typically known as personal assistant (PA) or an administrative assistant, has many administrative duties. The title secretary is not used as often as in decades past, and responsibilities have evolved to much more advance skill set such as mastering Microsoft Office applications; Word, PowerPoint, and Excel to name a few. The duties may vary according to the nature and size of the company or organization, and might include managing budgets, bookkeeping, attending telephone calls, handling visitors, maintaining websites, travel arrangements, and preparing expense reports. Secretaries might also manage all the administrative details of running a high-level conference or meeting and be responsible for arranging the catering for a lunch meeting. Often executives will ask their assistant to take the minutes at meetings and prepare meeting documents for review.[4] In addition to the minutes, the secretary may be responsible for keeping all of the official records of a company or organization.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The term is derived from the Latin word secernere, "to distinguish" or "to set apart", the passive participle (secretum) meaning "having been set apart", with the eventual connotation of something private or confidential, as with the English word secret. A secretarius was a person, therefore, overseeing business confidentially, usually for a powerful individual (a king, pope, etc.). As the duties of a modern secretary often still include the handling of confidential information, the literal meaning of their title still holds true.[5]

Origin[edit]

Since the Renaissance until the late 19th century, men involved in the daily correspondence and the activities of the powerful had assumed the title of secretary.

With time, like many titles, the term was applied to more and varied functions, leading to compound titles to specify various secretarial work better, like general secretary or financial secretary. Just "secretary" remained in use either as an abbreviation when clear in the context or for relatively modest positions such as administrative assistant of the officer(s) in charge, either individually or as member of a secretariat. As such less influential posts became more feminine and common with the multiplication of bureaucracies in the public and private sectors, new words were also coined to describe them, such as personal assistant.

Modern developments[edit]

In 1870, Sir Isaac Pitman founded a school where students could qualify as shorthand writers to "professional and commercial men". Originally, this school was only for male students.

In the 1880s, with the invention of the typewriter, more women began to enter the field and during the upcoming years, especially since World War I, the role of secretary has been primarily associated with women. By the 1930s, fewer men were entering the field of secretaries.

In an effort to promote professionalism among United States secretaries, the National Secretaries Association was created in 1942. Today, this organization is known as the International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP). The organization developed the first standardized test for office workers called the Certified Professional Secretaries Examination (CPS). It was first administered in 1951.

By the mid-20th century, the need for secretaries was great and offices and organizations featured large secretarial pools. In some cases the demand was great enough to spur secretaries being recruited from overseas; in particular, there was often a steady demand for young British women to come to the U.S. and fill temporary or permanent secretarial positions.[6] Several organizations were created to assist secretaries from foreign lands, including the Society of International Secretaries and the Association of British Secretaries in America.[7]

In 1952, Mary Barrett, president of the National Secretaries Association, C. King Woodbridge, president of Dictaphone Corporation, and American businessman Harry F. Klemfuss created a special Secretary's Day holiday, to recognize the hard work of the staff in the office. The holiday caught on, and during the fourth week of April is now celebrated in offices all over the world. It has been renamed "Administrative Professional's Week" to highlight the increased responsibility of today's secretary and other administrative workers, and to avoid embarrassment to those who believe that "secretary" refers only to women or to unskilled workers.

Contemporary employment[edit]

In a business, many job descriptions overlap. However, while administrative assistant is a generic term, not necessarily implying directly working for a superior, a secretary is usually the key person for all administrative tasks, and often referred to as the "gate keeper". Other titles describing jobs similar to or overlapping those of the traditional secretary are Office Coordinator, Executive Assistant, Office Manager and Administrative Professional.

  • At the most basic level (Grade / Band 1 or 2) a secretary is usually an audio typist with a small number of administrative roles. A good command of the prevailing office language and the ability to type is essential. At higher grades and with more experience they begin to take on additional roles and spend more of their time maintaining physical and electronic files, dealing with the post, photocopying, emailing clients, ordering stationery and answering telephones.[8]
  • A more skilled executive assistant (Grade / Band 4 to 6) may be required to type at high speeds using technical or foreign languages, organize diaries, itineraries and meetings and carry out administrative duties which may include accountancy. A secretary / executive assistant may also control access to a manager, thus becoming an influential and trusted aide. Executive assistants are available for contact during off hours by new electronic communication methods for consultations. Specialized secretaries at higher level also include Medical and Legal Secretaries/Personal Assistants.
  • The largest difference between a generalized secretary and skilled executive assistants is that the executive assistant is required to be able to interact extensively with the general public, vendors, customers, and any other person or group that the executive is responsible to interact with. As the level that the executive interacts with increases so does the level of skill required in the executive assistant that works with the executive. Those executive assistants that work with corporate officers must be capable of emulating the style, corporate philosophy, and corporate persona of the executive for which they work. In the modern workplace the advancement of the executive assistants is codependent on the success of the executive and the ability of both to make the job performance of the team seamless whereas the job place evaluation is reflective of each other's performance executive secretary for now.

Training by country[edit]

Belgium[edit]

In Belgium, a Bachelor's degree in Office Management is ideal for the position. University courses economics, modern languages, and office administration offer great preparation for the position.[citation needed]

United States[edit]

In the United States, a variety of skills and adaptability to new situations is necessary. As such, a four-year degree is often preferred and a two-year degree is usually a requirement. Another option is to get a professional certification from a national association.[citation needed]

Executive assistant[edit]

Civilian[edit]

The work of an executive assistant differs a great deal from that of an administrative assistant. In many organizations, an executive assistant is a high-ranking position in the administrative hierarchy. Executive assistants work for a company officer or executive (at both private and public institutions), and possess the authority to make crucial decisions affecting the direction of such organizations. As such, executive assistants play a role in decision-making and policy setting. The executive assistant performs the usual roles of managing correspondence, preparing research, and communication, often with one or more administrative assistants or scheduling assistants who report to him or her. The executive assistant also acts as the "gatekeeper", understanding in varying degree the requirements of the executive, and with an ability through this understanding to decide which scheduled events, meetings, teleconferences, or e-mails are most appropriate for allocation of the executive's time.

An executive assistant may from time to time act as proxy for the executives, representing him/her/them in meetings or communications and project managing the production of reports or other deliverables in the absence of the executive. An executive assistant differs from an administrative assistant (a job which is often part of the career path of an executive assistant) in that they are expected to possess a higher degree of business acumen, be able to manage projects, as well as have the ability to influence others on behalf of the executive. In the past, executive assistants were required to have a high school diploma, but increasingly jobs are requiring a bachelor's degree.[9]

Military[edit]

In the U.S. Department of Defense, the title of military assistant (MA) or executive assistant (EA) is typically held by Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps colonels, lieutenant colonels, and senior majors and Navy captains, commanders and senior lieutenant commanders who are in direct support of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense and other civilian defense officials down to the level of a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, as well as general officers or flag officers.

The Secretary of Defense also has a lieutenant general or vice admiral as his/her senior military assistant.

Like their civilian counterparts, EAs are also a resource in decision-making, policy setting, and will have leadership oversight of the entire military and civilian staff supporting the civilian official, general officer, or flag officer. EAs are often interchangeable with other senior military officers of equivalent rank holding the title of chief of staff in other service organizations headed by a flag officer or general officer. In the case of unified combatant commands and service major commands, the Chief of Staff is often a general officer or flag officer himself/herself, typically at the 1-star or 2-star level, but he or she should not be confused with the 4-star officers holding the title of Chief of Staff of the Army or Chief of Staff of the Air Force.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Secretary Job Information | National Careers Service". Nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk. 27 January 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Robert, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. pp. 458–460. ISBN 978-0-306-82020-5. 
  3. ^ Robert III, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. pp. 142–151. ISBN 978-0-306-82019-9. 
  4. ^ "Secretaries and Administrative Assistants : Occupational Outlook Handbook : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". Bls.gov. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  5. ^ "Secretary - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Scot, Barbara (September 29, 1967). "Secretaries wanted across the Atlantic". The Glasgow Herald. p. 9. 
  7. ^ Seebohm, Caroline (July 19, 1971). "English Girls in New York: They Don't Go Home Again". New York. pp. 34–38. 
  8. ^ "Secretaries/typists". NHS Careers. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  9. ^ Rampell, Catherine (2014-09-09). "The college degree has become the new high school degree". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-07-06. 
  10. ^ Military Assistant/Executive Officer Handbook. Retrieved on 11 June 2013.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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