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Secretary (2002) Official Trailer - Maggie Gyllenhaal, James Spader Movie HD
Secretary (2002) Official Trailer - Maggie Gyllenhaal, James Spader Movie HD
Published: 2014/02/28
Channel: Movieclips Trailer Vault
Maggie Gyllenhael the secretary
Maggie Gyllenhael the secretary
Published: 2012/09/23
Channel: vijftigtintengrijs
Secretary: He Hit Me ~ Grizzly Bear
Secretary: He Hit Me ~ Grizzly Bear
Published: 2014/03/26
Channel: Sweet Werewolf
Secretary Azar on low-cost health alternatives to ObamaCare
Secretary Azar on low-cost health alternatives to ObamaCare
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: Fox News
Delhi Chief Secretary Assault Case: AAP Lawmaker Amanatullah Khan Surrenders
Delhi Chief Secretary Assault Case: AAP Lawmaker Amanatullah Khan Surrenders
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: NDTV India
Secretary (1/9) Movie CLIP - There
Secretary (1/9) Movie CLIP - There's Something About You (2002) HD
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Movieclips
Secretary (2/9) Movie CLIP - Typos (2002) HD
Secretary (2/9) Movie CLIP - Typos (2002) HD
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Movieclips
Secretary (4/9) Movie CLIP - Bend Over (2002) HD
Secretary (4/9) Movie CLIP - Bend Over (2002) HD
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Movieclips
NI secretary: Progress has been made in N.Ireland but limbo can
NI secretary: Progress has been made in N.Ireland but limbo can't continue
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: RT UK
Secretary (2002) - James Spader - Maggie Gyllenhaal - I
Secretary (2002) - James Spader - Maggie Gyllenhaal - I'm Shy
Published: 2015/08/02
Channel: Vindobona Awstriae
Secretary - Movie Trailer (2002)
Secretary - Movie Trailer (2002)
Published: 2017/12/18
Channel: VIV Movies
Special Report: Delhi
Special Report: Delhi's Chief Kejriwal Vs Delhi Chief Secretary Anshu Prakash | What Really Happened
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: Aaj Tak
Chaos In Delhi Secretariat Following Delhi Chief Secretary
Chaos In Delhi Secretariat Following Delhi Chief Secretary's Assault Allegation On AAP MLAs
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: Aaj Tak
NEWS NIGHT: NRM Secretary General Kasule Lumumba talking about the firing of party staff
NEWS NIGHT: NRM Secretary General Kasule Lumumba talking about the firing of party staff
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: NTVUganda
Secretary
Secretary
Published: 2009/10/28
Channel: rainhaisabelle
Ban Ki-moon (Former UN Secretary-General)  - Security Council Media Stakeout (21 February 2018)
Ban Ki-moon (Former UN Secretary-General) - Security Council Media Stakeout (21 February 2018)
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: United Nations
We are not sure of our future -  NUM branch secretary
We are not sure of our future - NUM branch secretary
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: News24
Secretary (3/9) Movie CLIP - Never Cut Yourself Again (2002) HD
Secretary (3/9) Movie CLIP - Never Cut Yourself Again (2002) HD
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Movieclips
Online anschauen Secretary 2002
Online anschauen Secretary 2002
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Normand Florez
Secretary - Opening Sequence - Maggie Gyllenhaal
Secretary - Opening Sequence - Maggie Gyllenhaal
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: Allen Dobins
Dan Odongo (UNEB Executive Secretary) with Details of Checking for UACE Results 2017
Dan Odongo (UNEB Executive Secretary) with Details of Checking for UACE Results 2017
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: NBS TV Uganda
Secretary
Secretary
Published: 2011/11/05
Channel: Suresh Productions
Dan Odongo (UNEB Executive Secretary) on UACE 2017
Dan Odongo (UNEB Executive Secretary) on UACE 2017
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: NBS TV Uganda
AAP की प्रेस कांफ्रेंस LIVE | Delhi Chief Secretary Assault Case | News18 India
AAP की प्रेस कांफ्रेंस LIVE | Delhi Chief Secretary Assault Case | News18 India
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: News18 India
Purposes and Principles of the UN Charter - António Guterres (Secretary-General)
Purposes and Principles of the UN Charter - António Guterres (Secretary-General)
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: United Nations
OPEC Secretary General predicts increase in global oil demand
OPEC Secretary General predicts increase in global oil demand
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: TV360NIGERIA
Delhi Chief Secretary Alleges Assault By AAP MLAs At Arvind Kejriwal
Delhi Chief Secretary Alleges Assault By AAP MLAs At Arvind Kejriwal's House
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: NDTV India
Secretary Tillerson Delivers Remarks with Egyptian Foreign Minister Shoukry
Secretary Tillerson Delivers Remarks with Egyptian Foreign Minister Shoukry
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: U.S. Department of State
East African Community Secretary General probed in million dollar corruption scandal
East African Community Secretary General probed in million dollar corruption scandal
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: NTVUganda
YCP Leaders Complaint to Assembly secretary Against Chintamaneni Prabhakar || NTV
YCP Leaders Complaint to Assembly secretary Against Chintamaneni Prabhakar || NTV
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: NTV Telugu
POWER OF A SECRETARY
POWER OF A SECRETARY
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: NollyKingdom Plus
Meghan Markle Given A Royal Secretary As She Comes One Step Closer To Royalty
Meghan Markle Given A Royal Secretary As She Comes One Step Closer To Royalty
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: Hot news 24h Today
Meghan Markle receives royal secretary ahead of wedding to Prince Harry
Meghan Markle receives royal secretary ahead of wedding to Prince Harry
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: THE HIGH BROW
The Secretary
The Secretary
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: Ethan Collins
Questions for new Sports & Heritage Cabinet Secretary Rashid Echesa
Questions for new Sports & Heritage Cabinet Secretary Rashid Echesa
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: NTV Kenya
Secretary - The Original Mr. Grey
Secretary - The Original Mr. Grey
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: Monique Martin
Secret Tricks of Effect
Secret Tricks of Effect
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Sam Cek
BQ Exclusive: Coal Secretary On India
BQ Exclusive: Coal Secretary On India's Move To Open Coal Mining To Private Firms
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: BloombergQuint
UN Secretary-General on the situation in the Middle East (including the Palestinian question)
UN Secretary-General on the situation in the Middle East (including the Palestinian question)
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: United Nations
Secretary,Trailer,deutsch
Secretary,Trailer,deutsch
Published: 2010/01/28
Channel: hellmark1977
BREAKING: AAP MLA अमानतुल्लाह गिरफ्तार, पार्टी की बढ़ी मुश्किलें | Delhi Chief Secretary Assault Row
BREAKING: AAP MLA अमानतुल्लाह गिरफ्तार, पार्टी की बढ़ी मुश्किलें | Delhi Chief Secretary Assault Row
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: SPN9NEWS सामाजिक आईना
100 Shehar 100 Khabar: IAS Association
100 Shehar 100 Khabar: IAS Association's Candle March In Support Of Delhi Chief Secretary
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: Aaj Tak
US Foreign Secretary response to the Pakistani foreign minister tweet
US Foreign Secretary response to the Pakistani foreign minister tweet
Published: 2018/02/21
Channel: NewsOne Breaking
Secretary (8/9) Movie CLIP - I Love You (2002) HD
Secretary (8/9) Movie CLIP - I Love You (2002) HD
Published: 2012/05/25
Channel: Movieclips
The Secretary 1995
The Secretary 1995
Published: 2016/09/20
Channel: Jeffrey Smith
Secretary  - What To Watch Before You Die
Secretary - What To Watch Before You Die
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: CineFix
BREAKING: Secretary Mattis Gives URGENT Speech at NATO Headquarters
BREAKING: Secretary Mattis Gives URGENT Speech at NATO Headquarters
Published: 2018/02/15
Channel: Golden State Times
Sailor:
Sailor: 'The Secretary'
Published: 2009/04/04
Channel: Georg Kajanus
Former Secretary of State Rice Interviews Secretary Tillerson
Former Secretary of State Rice Interviews Secretary Tillerson
Published: 2018/01/17
Channel: U.S. Department of State
John Munyes has officially assumed office as the Cabinet Secretary of Mining and Petroleum
John Munyes has officially assumed office as the Cabinet Secretary of Mining and Petroleum
Published: 2018/02/20
Channel: Kenya CitizenTV
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A secretary or personal assistant is a person whose work consists of supporting management, including executives, using a variety of project management, communication, or organizational skills. These functions may be entirely carried out to assist one other employee or may be for the benefit of more than one. In other situations a secretary is an officer of a society or organization who deals with correspondence, admits new members, and organizes official meetings and events.[1][2][3]

Duties and functions[edit]

A secretary, also known as a personal assistant (PA) or administrative assistant, has many administrative duties. The title "secretary" is not used as often as in decades past, and responsibilities have evolved to much more advance skill set such as mastering Microsoft Office applications; Word, PowerPoint, and Excel to name a few. The duties may vary according to the nature and size of the company or organization, and might include managing budgets, bookkeeping, attending telephone calls, handling visitors, maintaining websites, travel arrangements, and preparing expense reports. Secretaries might also manage all the administrative details of running a high-level conference or meeting and be responsible for arranging the catering for a lunch meeting. Often executives will ask their assistant to take the minutes at meetings and prepare meeting documents for review.[4] In addition to the minutes, the secretary may be responsible for keeping all of the official records of a company or organization.[2] A secretary is also regarded as an "office manager".

Etymology[edit]

The term is derived from the Latin word secernere, "to distinguish" or "to set apart", the passive participle (secretum) meaning "having been set apart", with the eventual connotation of something private or confidential, as with the English word secret. A secretarius was a person, therefore, overseeing business confidentially, usually for a powerful individual (a king, pope, etc.). As the duties of a modern secretary often still include the handling of confidential information, the literal meaning of their title still holds true.[5]

Origin[edit]

From the Renaissance until the late 19th century, men involved in the daily correspondence and the activities of the powerful had assumed the title of secretary.

With time, like many titles, the term was applied to more and varied functions, leading to compound titles to specify various secretarial work better, like general secretary or financial secretary. Just "secretary" remained in use either as an abbreviation when clear in the context or for relatively modest positions such as administrative assistant of the officer(s) in charge, either individually or as member of a secretariat. As such less influential posts became more feminine and common with the multiplication of bureaucracies in the public and private sectors, new words were also coined to describe them, such as personal assistant.

Modern developments[edit]

In 1870, Sir Isaac Pitman founded a school where students could qualify as shorthand writers to "professional and commercial men". Originally, this school was only for male students.

In the 1880s, with the invention of the typewriter, more women began to enter the field and during the upcoming years, especially since World War I, the role of secretary has been primarily associated with women. By the 1930s, fewer men were entering the field of secretaries.

In an effort to promote professionalism among United States secretaries, the National Secretaries Association was created in 1942. Today, this organization is known as the International Association of Administrative Professionals (IAAP). The organization developed the first standardized test for office workers called the Certified Professional Secretaries Examination (CPS). It was first administered in 1951.

By the mid-20th century, the need for secretaries was great and offices and organizations featured large secretarial pools. In some cases the demand was great enough to spur secretaries being recruited from overseas; in particular, there was often a steady demand for young British women to come to the U.S. and fill temporary or permanent secretarial positions.[6] Several organizations were created to assist secretaries from foreign lands, including the Society of International Secretaries and the Association of British Secretaries in America.[7]

In 1952, Mary Barrett, president of the National Secretaries Association, C. King Woodbridge, president of Dictaphone Corporation, and American businessman Harry F. Klemfuss created a special Secretary's Day holiday, to recognize the hard work of the staff in the office. The holiday caught on, and during the fourth week of April is now celebrated in offices all over the world. It has been renamed "Administrative Professional's Week" to highlight the increased responsibility of today's secretary and other administrative workers, and to avoid embarrassment to those who believe that "secretary" refers only to women or to unskilled workers.

Contemporary employment[edit]

In a business, many job descriptions overlap. However, while administrative assistant is a generic term, not necessarily implying directly working for a superior, a secretary is usually the key person for all administrative tasks, and often referred to as the "gate keeper". Other titles describing jobs similar to or overlapping those of the traditional secretary are Office Coordinator, Executive Assistant, Office Manager and Administrative Professional.

  • At the most basic level (Grade / Band 1 or 2) a secretary is usually an audio typist with a small number of administrative roles. A good command of the prevailing office language and the ability to type is essential. At higher grades and with more experience they begin to take on additional roles and spend more of their time maintaining physical and electronic files, dealing with the post, photocopying, emailing clients, ordering stationery and answering telephones.[8]
  • A more skilled executive assistant (Grade / Band 4 to 6) may be required to type at high speeds using technical or foreign languages, organize diaries, itineraries and meetings and carry out administrative duties which may include accountancy. A secretary / executive assistant may also control access to a manager, thus becoming an influential and trusted aide. Executive assistants are available for contact during off hours by new electronic communication methods for consultations. Specialized secretaries at higher level also include Medical and Legal Secretaries/Personal Assistants.
  • The largest difference between a generalized secretary and skilled executive assistants is that the executive assistant is required to be able to interact extensively with the general public, vendors, customers, and any other person or group that the executive is responsible to interact with. As the level that the executive interacts with increases so does the level of skill required in the executive assistant that works with the executive. Those executive assistants that work with corporate officers must be capable of emulating the style, corporate philosophy, and corporate persona of the executive for which they work. In the modern workplace the advancement of the executive assistants is codependent on the success of the executive and the ability of both to make the job performance of the team seamless whereas the job place evaluation is reflective of each other's performance executive secretary for now.

Training by country[edit]

Belgium[edit]

In Belgium, a Bachelor's degree in Office Management is ideal for the position. University courses economics, modern languages, and office administration offer great preparation for the position.[citation needed]

United States[edit]

In the United States, a variety of skills and adaptability to new situations is necessary. As such, a four-year degree is often preferred and a two-year degree is usually a requirement. Another option is to get a professional certification from a national association.[citation needed]

Executive assistant[edit]

Civilian[edit]

The work of an executive assistant differs a great deal from that of an administrative assistant. In many organizations, an executive assistant is a high-ranking position in the administrative hierarchy. Executive assistants work for a company officer or executive (at both private and public institutions), and possess the authority to make crucial decisions affecting the direction of such organizations. As such, executive assistants play a role in decision-making and policy setting. The executive assistant performs the usual roles of managing correspondence, preparing research, and communication, often with one or more administrative assistants or scheduling assistants who report to him or her. The executive assistant also acts as the "gatekeeper", understanding in varying degree the requirements of the executive, and with an ability through this understanding to decide which scheduled events, meetings, teleconferences, or e-mails are most appropriate for allocation of the executive's time.

An executive assistant may from time to time act as proxy for the executives, representing him/her/them in meetings or communications and project managing the production of reports or other deliverables in the absence of the executive. An executive assistant differs from an administrative assistant (a job which is often part of the career path of an executive assistant) in that they are expected to possess a higher degree of business acumen, be able to manage projects, as well as have the ability to influence others on behalf of the executive. In the past, executive assistants were required to have a high school diploma, but increasingly jobs are requiring a bachelor's degree.[9]

Military[edit]

In the U.S. Department of Defense, the title of military assistant (MA) or executive assistant (EA) is typically held by Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps colonels, lieutenant colonels, and senior majors and Navy captains, commanders and senior lieutenant commanders who are in direct support of the Secretary of Defense, Deputy Secretary of Defense and other civilian defense officials down to the level of a Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, as well as general officers or flag officers.

The Secretary of Defense also has a lieutenant general or vice admiral as his/her senior military assistant.

Like their civilian counterparts, EAs are also a resource in decision-making, policy setting, and will have leadership oversight of the entire military and civilian staff supporting the civilian official, general officer, or flag officer. EAs are often interchangeable with other senior military officers of equivalent rank holding the title of chief of staff in other service organizations headed by a flag officer or general officer. In the case of unified combatant commands and service major commands, the Chief of Staff is often a general officer or flag officer himself/herself, typically at the 1-star or 2-star level, but he or she should not be confused with the 4-star officers holding the title of Chief of Staff of the Army or Chief of Staff of the Air Force.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Secretary Job Information | National Careers Service". Nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk. 27 January 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Robert, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (11th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. pp. 458–460. ISBN 978-0-306-82020-5. 
  3. ^ Robert III, Henry M.; et al. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised In Brief (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press. pp. 142–151. ISBN 978-0-306-82019-9. 
  4. ^ "Secretaries and Administrative Assistants : Occupational Outlook Handbook : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". Bls.gov. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  5. ^ "Secretary - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  6. ^ Scot, Barbara (September 29, 1967). "Secretaries wanted across the Atlantic". The Glasgow Herald. p. 9. 
  7. ^ Seebohm, Caroline (July 19, 1971). "English Girls in New York: They Don't Go Home Again". New York. pp. 34–38. 
  8. ^ "Secretaries/typists". NHS Careers. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  9. ^ Rampell, Catherine (2014-09-09). "The college degree has become the new high school degree". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-07-06. 
  10. ^ Military Assistant/Executive Officer Handbook. Retrieved on 11 June 2013.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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