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Lexical Semantic Relations
Lexical Semantic Relations
Published: 2014/11/24
Channel: Timothy Mills
What is LEXICAL SEMANTICS? What does LEXICAL SEMANTICS mean? LEXICAL SEMANTICS meaning
What is LEXICAL SEMANTICS? What does LEXICAL SEMANTICS mean? LEXICAL SEMANTICS meaning
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: The Audiopedia
Linguist 130a - Semantic composition 2: Lexicon
Linguist 130a - Semantic composition 2: Lexicon
Published: 2015/12/09
Channel: Chris Potts
Lexical Semantics 101
Lexical Semantics 101
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: Johnathon O'Neal
Computational Linguistics I: Lexical Semantics
Computational Linguistics I: Lexical Semantics
Published: 2013/10/21
Channel: Jordan Boyd-Graber
Lexical semantics Meaning
Lexical semantics Meaning
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: ADictionary
What is LEXICON? What does LEXICON mean? LEXICON meaning & definition - How to pronounce LEXICON?
What is LEXICON? What does LEXICON mean? LEXICON meaning & definition - How to pronounce LEXICON?
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: The Audiopedia
Lexical semantics
Lexical semantics
Published: 2016/01/22
Channel: WikiAudio
What is GENERATIVE LEXICON? What does GENERATIVE LEXICON mean? GENERATIVE LEXICON meaning
What is GENERATIVE LEXICON? What does GENERATIVE LEXICON mean? GENERATIVE LEXICON meaning
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: The Audiopedia
UW CSE AI Seminar
UW CSE AI Seminar '16: J. Krishnamurthy, Probabilistic Models for Learning a Semantic Parser Lexicon
Published: 2016/02/04
Channel: Paul G. Allen School
Why Are There So Many Meanings? Ambiguity
Why Are There So Many Meanings? Ambiguity
Published: 2016/06/30
Channel: The Ling Space
How Are Words Connected in our Minds? Priming
How Are Words Connected in our Minds? Priming
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: The Ling Space
What Are Conceptual Semantics?
What Are Conceptual Semantics?
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: Funny Question
Katrien Depuydt and Jesse de Does: The Diachronic Semantic Lexicon of Dutch as linked open data...
Katrien Depuydt and Jesse de Does: The Diachronic Semantic Lexicon of Dutch as linked open data...
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: eLex conference
Katrien Depuydt: DiaMaNT, a diachronic semantic lexicon of Dutch
Katrien Depuydt: DiaMaNT, a diachronic semantic lexicon of Dutch
Published: 2017/11/10
Channel: Metodologia IJP PAN
SEM131 - Ambiguity
SEM131 - Ambiguity
Published: 2013/06/04
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
The brain dictionary
The brain dictionary
Published: 2016/04/27
Channel: nature video
What is LEXICAL DECISION TASK? What does LEXICAL DECISION TASK mean? LEXICAL DECISION TASK meaning
What is LEXICAL DECISION TASK? What does LEXICAL DECISION TASK mean? LEXICAL DECISION TASK meaning
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: The Audiopedia
Sentiment Analysis in 4 Minutes
Sentiment Analysis in 4 Minutes
Published: 2016/04/18
Channel: Siraj Raval
What Is The Meaning Of Lexical Semantics?
What Is The Meaning Of Lexical Semantics?
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: Funny Question
Robust Shallow Semantic Parsing of Text
Robust Shallow Semantic Parsing of Text
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Microsoft Research
Lexical Relations in Semantics
Lexical Relations in Semantics
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: Houda Kaoukab
Fundamentals in Linguistic Anthropology : Lexicon  and  Semantics
Fundamentals in Linguistic Anthropology : Lexicon and Semantics
Published: 2014/09/16
Channel: NMEICT
Cognitive Psychology - Session 4
Cognitive Psychology - Session 4
Published: 2014/06/08
Channel: Mechanical Turker
SEM103 - Historical Semantics
SEM103 - Historical Semantics
Published: 2013/09/09
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Fundamentals in Linguistic Anthropology   Lexicon and Semantics
Fundamentals in Linguistic Anthropology Lexicon and Semantics
Published: 2014/09/19
Channel: Social Science
What Is The Lexical Morpheme?
What Is The Lexical Morpheme?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: Last Question
Semantic Parsing with CCGs (Section 3.2.3): Factored Lexicons
Semantic Parsing with CCGs (Section 3.2.3): Factored Lexicons
Published: 2014/06/06
Channel: Yoav Artzi
Logic & Reasoning Terms Semantic vs Lexical Ambiguity
Logic & Reasoning Terms Semantic vs Lexical Ambiguity
Published: 2013/04/18
Channel: Autif Kamal
What is COGNITIVE SEMANTICS? What does COGNITIVE SEMANTICS mean? COGNITIVE SEMANTICS definition
What is COGNITIVE SEMANTICS? What does COGNITIVE SEMANTICS mean? COGNITIVE SEMANTICS definition
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: The Audiopedia
CASL - Lexical/Semantic portion example
CASL - Lexical/Semantic portion example
Published: 2015/02/18
Channel: Kristin Grace
Concept Lexicon Construction and Affective Analysis: From Photos to MTV
Concept Lexicon Construction and Affective Analysis: From Photos to MTV
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Microsoft Research
Phases of Compiler Unit 1 Video 3:- Lexical Syntax and Semantic
Phases of Compiler Unit 1 Video 3:- Lexical Syntax and Semantic
Published: 2015/02/12
Channel: GATE Lectures Computer Forum NCR
Tutorial - Natural Language Processing for Music Information Retrieval. Lexical Semantics
Tutorial - Natural Language Processing for Music Information Retrieval. Lexical Semantics
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Universitat Pompeu Fabra - Barcelona
2017 01 deep NLP 2a lexical semantics
2017 01 deep NLP 2a lexical semantics
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Guan Wang
Akkadian Lexicon Companion for Biblical Hebrew Etymological, Semantic and Idiomatic Equivalence
Akkadian Lexicon Companion for Biblical Hebrew Etymological, Semantic and Idiomatic Equivalence
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: Elizabeth Houser
What does lexical semantics mean?
What does lexical semantics mean?
Published: 2015/05/22
Channel: What Does That Mean?
CS224u - Learning compositional semantics: concepts
CS224u - Learning compositional semantics: concepts
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: Chris Potts
Jarrar: Lexical Semantics and Multilingualism (Part 3/5)
Jarrar: Lexical Semantics and Multilingualism (Part 3/5)
Published: 2014/03/25
Channel: Jarrar Courses
Enhancing Learning through Semantic Knowledge Management
Enhancing Learning through Semantic Knowledge Management
Published: 2015/03/20
Channel: termlogica
Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Texts Part 1
Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Texts Part 1
Published: 2014/11/20
Channel: emnlp acl
Derry Wijaya: Building Lexical Resources for NLP
Derry Wijaya: Building Lexical Resources for NLP
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence (AI2)
lexical, syntactic, semantic and logical errors
lexical, syntactic, semantic and logical errors
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: Shri Ram Programming Academy
Books of Syntax Lexical Semantics and Event Structure Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics
Books of Syntax Lexical Semantics and Event Structure Oxford Studies in Theoretical Linguistics
Published: 2015/10/21
Channel: Debra Elliott
Semantics - Lexical Relationships (Linguistics / Dilbilim 85)
Semantics - Lexical Relationships (Linguistics / Dilbilim 85)
Published: 2016/04/01
Channel: Eyüp Dilber
Download Morphology and Lexical Semantics Cambridge Studies in Linguistics Book
Download Morphology and Lexical Semantics Cambridge Studies in Linguistics Book
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: G. Meinwen
Can We Define "Must"? The Semantics of Modality
Can We Define "Must"? The Semantics of Modality
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: The Ling Space
SEM101 - Word Semantics
SEM101 - Word Semantics
Published: 2012/09/14
Channel: The Virtual Linguistics Campus
Compiler Design Lecture2 -- Introduction to lexical analyser and Grammars
Compiler Design Lecture2 -- Introduction to lexical analyser and Grammars
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: Gate Lectures by Ravindrababu Ravula
Jarrar: Lexical Semantics and Multilingualism (Part 5/5)
Jarrar: Lexical Semantics and Multilingualism (Part 5/5)
Published: 2014/03/25
Channel: Jarrar Courses
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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A visual representation of a Semantic Lexicon

A semantic lexicon is a digital dictionary of words labeled with semantic classes so associations can be drawn between words that have not previously been encountered.[1] Semantic lexicons are built upon semantic networks, which represent the semantic relations between words. The difference between a semantic lexicon and a semantic network is that a semantic lexicon has definitions for each word, or a "gloss".[2]

Structure[edit]

Semantic lexicons are made up of lexical entries. These entries are not orthographic, but semantic, eliminating issues of homonymy and polysemy. These lexical entries are interconnected with semantic relations, such as hyperonymy, hyponymy, meronymy, or troponymy. Synonymous entries are grouped together in what the Princeton WordNet calls "synsets"[2] Most semantic lexicons are made up of four different "sub-nets":[2] nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, though some researchers have taken steps to add an "artificial node" interconnecting the sub-nets.[3]

Nouns[edit]

Nouns are ordered into a taxonomy, structured into a hierarchy where the broadest and most encompassing noun is located at the top, such as "thing", with the nouns becoming more and more specific the further they are form the top. The very top noun in a semantic lexicon is called a unique beginner.[4] The most specific nouns (those that do not have any subordinates), are terminal nodes.[3]

Semantic lexicons also distinguish between types, where a type of something has characteristics of a thing such as a Rhodesian Ridgeback being a type of dog, and instances, where something is an example of said thing, such as Dave Grohl is an instance of a musician. Instances are always terminal nodes because they are solitary and don’t have other words or ontological categories belonging to them.[2]

Semantic lexicons also address meronymy,[5] which is a “part-to-whole” relationship, such as keys are part of a laptop. The necessary attributes that define a specific entry are also necessarily present in that entry’s hyponym. So, if a computer has keys, and a laptop is a type of computer, then a laptop must have keys. However, there are many instances where this distinction can become vague. A good example of this is the item chair. Most would define a chair as having legs and a seat (as in the part one sits on). However, there are some very “artistic” and “modern” chairs in overpriced boutiques that do not have legs at all. Beanbags also do not have legs, but few would argue that they aren't chairs. Questions like this are the core questions that drive research and work in the fields of taxonomy and ontology.

Verbs[edit]

Verb synsets are arranged much like their noun counterparts: the more general and encompassing verbs are near the top of the hierarchy while troponyms (verbs that describe a more specific way of doing something) are grouped beneath. Verb specificity moves along a vector, with the verbs becoming more and more specific in reference to a certain quality.[2] For example. The set "walk / run / sprint" becomes more specific in terms of the speed, and "dislike / hate / abhor" becomes more specific in terms of the intensity of the emotion.

The ontological groupings and separations of verbs is far more arguable than their noun counterparts. It is widely accepted that a dog is a type of animal and that a stool is a type of chair, but it can be argued that abhor is on the same emotional plane as hate (that they are synonyms and not super/subordinates). It can also be argued that love and adore are synonyms, or that one is more specific than the other. Thus, the relations between verbs are not as agreed-upon as that of nouns.

Another attribute of verb synset relations is that there are also ordered into verb pairs. In these pairs, one verb necessarily entails the other in the way that massacre entails kill, and know entails believe.[2] These verb pairs can be troponyms and their superordinates, as is the case in the first example, or they can be in completely different ontological categories, as in the case in the second example.

Adjectives[edit]

Adjective synset relations are very similar to verb synset relations. They are not quite as neatly hierarchical as the noun synset relations, and they have fewer tiers and more terminal nodes. However, there are generally less terminal nodes per ontological category in adjective synset relations than that of verbs. Adjectives in semantic lexicons are organized in word pairs as well, with the difference being that their word pairs are antonyms instead of entailments. More generic polar adjectives such as hot and cold, or happy and sad are paired. Then other adjectives that are semantically similar are linked to each of these words. Hot is linked to warm, heated, sizzling, and sweltering, while cold is linked to cool, chilly, freezing, and nippy. These semantically similar adjectives are considered indirect antonyms[2] to the opposite polar adjective (i.e. nippy is an indirect antonym to hot). Adjectives that are derived from a verb or a noun are also directly linked to said verb or noun across sub-nets. For example, enjoyable is linked to the semantically similar adjectives agreeable, and pleasant, as well as to its origin verb, enjoy.

Adverbs[edit]

There are very few adverbs accounted for in semantic lexicons. This is because most adverbs are taken directly from their adjective counterparts, in both meaning and form, and changed only morphologically (i.e. happily is derived from happy, and luckily is derived from lucky, which is derived from luck). The only adverbs that are accounted for specifically are ones without these connections, such as really, mostly, and hardly.[2]

Challenges facing semantic lexicons[edit]

The effects of the Princeton WordNet project extend far past English, though most research in the field revolves around the English language. Creating a semantic lexicon for other languages has proved to be very useful for Natural Language Processing applications. One of the main focuses of research in semantic lexicons is linking lexicons of different languages to aid in machine translation. The most common approach is to attempt to create a shared ontology that serves as a “middleman” of sorts between semantic lexicons of two different languages.[6] This is an extremely challenging and as-of-yet unsolved issue in the Machine Translation field. One issue arises from the fact that no two languages are word-for-word translations of each other. That is, every language has some sort of structural or syntactic difference from every other. In addition, languages often have words that don’t translate easily into other languages, and certainly not with an exact word-to-word match. Proposals have been made to create a set framework for wordnets. Research has shown that every known human language has some sort of concept resembling synonymy, hyponymy, meronymy, and antonymy. However, every idea so far proposed has been met with criticism for using a pattern that works best for English and less for other languages.[6]

Another obstacle in the field is that no solid guidelines exist for semantic lexicon framework and contents. Each lexicon project in each different language has had a slightly (or not so slightly) different approach to their wordnet. There is not even an agreed-upon definition of what a “word” is. Orthographically, they are defined as a string of letters with spaces on either side, but semantically it becomes a very debated upon subject. For example, though it is not difficult to define dog or rod as words, but what about guard dog or lightning rod? The latter two examples would be considered orthographically separate words, though semantically they make up one concept: one is a type of dog and one is a type of rod. In addition to these confusions, wordnets are also idiosyncratic, in that they do not consistently label items. They are redundant, in that they often have several words assigned to each meaning (synsets). They are also open-ended, in that they often focus on and extend into terminology and domain-specific vocabulary.[6]

Other names[edit]

  • wordnet
  • computational lexicon

List of semantic lexicons[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Theng, Yin-Leng (2009). Handbook of Research on Digital Libraries: Design, Development, and Impact. University of Michigan: Information Science Reference. ISBN 9781599048796. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "About WordNet". 
  3. ^ a b Lemnitzer, L. "Enriching GermaNet: a case study of lexical acquisition". Seminar fur Sprachwissenschaft, Universitat Tubingen. 
  4. ^ Boyd-Graber, J. (2006). "Adding Dense, Weighted Connections to WordNet". Proceeding of the Third International Wordnet Conference. 
  5. ^ Hinrichs, E. (December 2012). "Using part-whole relations for automatic deduction of compound-international relations in GermaNet". International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems. 3. 
  6. ^ a b c Fellbaum, C. (May 2012). "Challenges for a Multilingual Wordnet". Language Resources and Evaluation. 46: 313–326. 

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